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All the world UHDtinf, anA canllmiallr tcpalSap uid nvcrbmiiDg, that 
toon com«s thai linKulu' phenomeDOD, whlcb rhc Gctm&Di call Swarmery, or ili« 
"Gjtherine of Uer in Swuims," uid wluE iinHlteEcs ihry arc En fhc habic of doing 
and bcllcyinf, when (hrovD inlD thai mlraculoca caDdliion. . ^ ^ 

SiDEuUr^ in lh« cah of human iwarou, wirh ifhaE pcrirciian or imanimiEyand 
qunH-rtligloiu CDDvictton (he slui^dm abauziUEifi c^a be rcfrived as axionu of 
Eaclidt nay IK anicleaorOuEh, whicli >vu are noc only to bclievt, un1e» nulignanily 
jnune, bm are (jr you have itny boiiDur or ntoraliiy) id path into pracltcf, and 
wiihout (Jetay lee n^^fw, if your lodl would live !— Thomas CarLvlE. 







■ •■ III! • ** ■"• 


Pr«l4tary, >. 

T»rioE»tJoii, p.. -., . . 

Tbfl Pftvarvor ot Vaocanittioa , > 

liBUiedUlo Triampli «I VRookwtiODB ... 
Jconor'fl l'riw<«dDtV. ... ... -» 

LoncgnMo Gnrpcn 

of Jvaatr^s PntoripUoDt... h> 

pJwDw'^ TrMiComutioDi 

B wwgroMft Cowpgy kfptoatof Stgbt. . 
Spunoui Oan^v, 

Donw Viiua nudicatvd, ... . . 


ODDJbEnaAtlLkD of 3inU1|iiA Coftpcw. 
Cow}rT/i. Gerivsd, ... ,.. . . 

A Covr|4ox ChvUtACi, 
A DwLiroiH LnMiimity, 
Jfluaor'i SuouomIvo DiMUimurt. ... 
iBnutllpox iD*d« milder, 
Fiuvctun*^ one or levvnl, . . 
yMx. Kigb;'*PrataAt,.,, 

Ur (MBrk^MmoD,. 

Ut. Aluabdcr Whoclcr^ Ec««w1]««. 
Mr. Cnwih ItobidKu V OiiibioQ, 

rvMCiiiulioii IntruiJiiod, 



... ittt 

... nlU 



... »m- 


.... ttti 






Abnrdity of Rfivacciu&tion, 
^e EUdaotion of Smallpor, 
H» VftociiimtioD saved Life * 
WhoAr« tfae UnvjKdn*todT.„ 
UnvftcdDatod Dutb-mto, .,. 
Knns uompt from Smallpoit 
Pock-nvrked Fac«<i ... 
Yuaotoi* a real XHs««a», 

VuoiiuJ FAUlitiei, 

Vudaia ModiBed ia its Becipients, 

Taoomia ptm oihvt DiseMe, 

Steti'tical Evidence of extra "D'ltoMte, 
Vagcuua ftggraT&tefl Dueasa, 
Origin of Compnlw>ry Vacciutioa,.,. 
Boautance^ Inflexible Reaistuice, ... 
CompulAory Education and Vaccination, . 
Condition! of the Conflict, ..- 

A Word for the Anther, 


Dr. Oaiih Wi1kiD»Q'aCat«hiHni, ... 

... xKxii 
... xixii 
... xxxiii 
... xxxiii 
,.. jcxxiv 

. . . XXIV 
... JLKXTi 

... kkxvkI 

... xxxix 




... xUli 



-„ xivi 

.-, xlvii 

... xlviii 

.,- xKx 

... xlU 


I. — Variolation. 

Chattea I.— Cotton Mather and Zabdiel BoyTaton, 
IL — Lady Harj Wortley Montagu, 
III. — Maitland's EiperimeotA, 
IV.— The Firtt Opponeot* of Inoculation, 
V. — Collapse of TnocnlatioD, 
Vi. — Eflvival of Inoculation, 

VH. — Triarapb of Inoculation, 

Vlll.— loocttUtion Abroad, 

IX. — [noculation auperaeded and aupprenaed, 
X. — Aa to the Prevalence of Smallpox m the ISth 





CttATTCB l^«niwr*BK&rU<T V»rv, ^ 1H 

nT-^JwinBTin llWi, UT 

IV.— P^Bnoii'u ^Hqairji, ... 130 

V,— Woodiill4, INnrHn, and Jcuuer, .,. )U 

VI Jmaw'w S^Hh'r Oht^tfrati^jit, ,.. IW 

Vtl-— OptnatOTin in t^niLid, ISOO,. , . . iSfl 

VIIL— TfiauipU of tticNow iDDVulation, ,. ^ ITl 

IX- — A DLbouourahlcTrftmfurUMttioii, ... .-, »- 177 

X JoDCrtr boTiTfl ^WlLiiiuut. Ib03^ 1S3 

XI.*-Po*rtOi*'i irraw**u*Ofl, .,. ... l«7 

Xtt— Obifirvfttbniion tbcromtojilnlac^ ... ... 2DS 

XUL-Tbg EtoyalJciiiicrbu Sc^icty. filtt 

SIV^—AppBoatlflfltftPflrliftirioiit for JtEBcr'* Relief jlaOfl, A3CI 

X V .— E«(>art of iJic Itoyal L'ollvgo ot I'hyaicuu, 2S9 

XT1, -Joniur kclLvwl. I«U7. UZ 

XVtL— VMduAtloQ Kit«UUIiod »Dd Bu^vwl. .,. SOO 

XVm.— HoFHif;r«iwiDU 4aoar««i>f Vi«iu«, . , 290 

XIX.— John Bitth, 374 

XX^— CcrlitMn Will Bttiwti, . ^43 

XXI-— Mg»U<y. TUiwlvyAndSciuirtrl, £»> 

XXJl-\r»IlidmC«bbttt, 303 

XXm.^Th« u™vftoor Uu*, , 317 

XXIV,-Dr. Joto W*lkrr. ... 322 

XXVL^Bwoa** Uf« of J^natr, ^0 

XXVtL^Tht Uwlitut Pwitiiu iq 16V3; 3(11 

XXVJI1.— IiitrorliLLitJnit of VvdBition 1c th« rntt^ii ^^lAtw. 173 

XXIX.— luUintui^^vo vi Vudn&Uoa Id InduMKJ thv £ut, ASS 

XXX. — DiAuio D of Vkrciiutioa ti^rnuftbaLie Kmoprv 3^ 

XXXL<-^vB<1ttQ, Dtfitmarlc uid IcaIulI, „, „ 40$ 

XXXII,— Xcwob^tk SioUlpat- « HiiniBinrT ^Uvy^ „. .,. 4^ 

XXXIIl, — Hid Nurwidi KpKluuic— Ifilfi, 431 



Chap, XXXlV.—3iiiUlpoiDup]*ced Hid B«pUc«d: Dr. Wat 
DUooverf — Q]*»g0Vf,18I3i ... 

XXXT.— Tha Natioiua Vacciiie EttUbLubmeDt— 1S08-40, 
XXXVL-^The N*tioiua Vftocine Ertablishm«ot— 1S41-W, 

XXXVLL— Vwcination Enforoed— 1853 

XSXVm, — UnivfliW CompuUion Bemaaded — 1S65 .- 

XXXIX.— John Gibbs'i Lettar— -1855, 

XL. — SimoTi'B Defence and HBjnflmLk'a Judgment, 
XLI.— CompDlnonlntonnfied— iBai »d 1867, — 
XLIT.— The QAthering Mavement, 1867-70, 
XLIIL — House of ComiarmB Committee, 1371, 
XLTV.— The Struggle for FreedoiD 

NOTis — Origin of the Term VucinatioD, 

VaccmaHoit a StatutkcU QiuMion, ... 






Bdmrd JeDoer from Statue by Moutererde, 
John Gibbfl, 

, Boe 




!beb£ uri^ fi^w umtu-rs &moQp; uducated poopli? upoii 
hJch opinion is ao ab^oluto and so ill-inFormcd 04 vacci- 
Diition. Tht'_v will UjU yon it W** nCcijipi-J Hindl|}U!C and 
dom no lianu, and it you vcntiin^ to i^iK^tiork either 
■HxHrtinu ytMi »ip *i>tj fifjwn ft> hii ftl«»tiriv nf '* lhf»«* igtior- 
unt and tanaticjal auti- vaccinator?;. ' 11 uiidt^tvTnM yuu 
imjuu'L' wtiL-ii biuAllpijx WHS Hiu|jjN-d, ftinl whli^ii 14 Iho 
httTTuIosft Vftiioty of vaccickation, you will prolmbiy bo 
told Ibat these ^rc medical questions, whiUb the fiiclA 
luro indi^uuble i thu tmwct running In tL© line of Old 
K&qpu'» to Little* l^ctcikin. iuquiAitive tia to tlie good of 

Why that I cdnnol toll, oud Iw, 

B»t Ihu « iunaaii victory. 

I am not compUining of thi^) ftttttud^ of inind. W« 
all uo^pt ini>n:< or \cia on hurt* ntittioritv- In ihe inultl> 
plicity and unsearobablenoH of knowloilj^ it U nnavoid- 
x\'\\:- Sotno yeari ago a venieralib friend urgvd um to 
wril4j a^in<l vaccination , which, he aaid, wan workJriQ 
«QdIu83 uiiachlef to the pLihlic health. II': urnuld hkvc 
tliff book published, and provWc wl-altvcr w** T«qnUit« 
for my vati«facUon. 1 pleavi^ piioc ci4j^^ttjeiil*. and 
mrne^l ihe nm venation, thinkin:: how ^aii it wa* that 
one 00 jpood, and, in otJicr rcapccls. so cnlighteaol nb^xil-l 
U) ^nl^RCt to *o slrang« an illu«ion-<-I, then, takiog 
vacciiutijn on tru^it as OE>e of the numerous blflflBJBgt 
<w<irt!iTt?d u|Ara mankind in ih« covirw of ^hm pro ant 

1 ato t)i«r?fore diaponnl to mak^i larga atkavanrft Cor 
- erwInloiK aitkmU o< the p^Mic toward irmocinattoa 



whikt 4t tli« eame tine tn^btiiiff on itn eorrectioa ; &Dd 
for ih'vk r<»v<in «i!ip«rially. that vaticination b no Loag«r 
a matter ol |>rivato conoom. Wo urc froo to wtci^n 
vrhat DotioiM w« pluoe, tut if wc prooTcd to enforce 
tbern on unbfU<^V4>r«, wq ciuinot coniplftin if w? an- ro* 
quired to aimwtx for our a^Efronon or rftcnunt«r rough 
uv^ Enforct^ by Xh^ law of En^-laiid, vaccination i* 
related to th« life anrj intclli^ncc of every cltiJu^n, and 
it u conaequeoUy vnm tu clatui fur it exeiTi|>t4iHi fii>iu 
wJgar dudunon. XpMi front tt^ compnUorv mHicUoo, 
^ftoctiMCion migliL bn aad rumain an r-^otttnc rite, ibe 
vwy voytUiTy of myat«n««; but wich compakicn the 
privilcfre of Moctiiy ia impomblc 


It bii4 liien fiaid that beliefs arid olnervancM tn them- 
■«]tiui imwL itratiniial n-i^ra<iifTi'rnntHnj(j>PCl.whc^L vi^tu'rd 
ID the I'iKhi of tb«ir origin arid hUtory. lb ia PO witb 
vaccination. Hud il cumr upon i]iv world wt we know 
it, vr'iili fftibjre aitil dinfMiter, etjiiivocaUon and Apology, 
ri^^ection would have Lcpn inevit*dj!e; hut whtn wd turn 
to th<i pftkt we discover tbat our ^innvnos'i hwreditfia bus 
a tra-lition that gCK^ far to account for, if not to cxcufw, 
ibe folly wbicb rvuiaitm. 

Vaccination wafi tl^^; HuccoBsor o£ Inoculation (or, moro 
precisely, Variolatian). *■ nUiriug inbo a ixw^nfviJon alrraJy 
acquired lo tbe hunaan mind. 

It hiul been observed from of old tbat »omc formn of 
dia^a^o rar«ly n>cur in the aame person In n Ufeiitne ; and 
thu?L when ]?ca^^^t fever, or iii«aale«, or smallpox broke 
oul ill a fHEjiily, it wai roti^jilrnid pnidr^iiL to 1ft tlii; di*- 
ooAD hav« itA coiirat^, And thereby obtain iniinunity from 
fisar of future infcctioa. 

It wa« Uiiii contidc-itce, tbat tinallpox oneo under^ono 
wa« iiiially diapoeed of. that waa thi^ juHtlficaiioD of tbo 
practice of inoCTilatin^ the dWai&t^ wh*"n introduced from 
dhc Eaat in the fii^l liuartijr af la^t ctiitnry. liia^iiiuchi 
it wsui ari^t<^l,HM nimi^ ran biivc 'trnallpox morr lliaii mtic-li, 
why nob indtico Jt artificially, and pa» tbrouf^h the iU' 


pliaot, «!o«d not always aocepb the cottn^^ we m^eDion!4l^ 
proficribo for hor, SmAl]|)i>x tut nntiiTiilly d<ivolop<^cl (ho 
tu npenkl bi 4^ ntlf^iH i}f urtpiiritv in tti<^ Mouil. zuid if the 
requifeite con<ltiions arL» nli^>.<nt, it oannot be ail?iqtiaUlr 
i^3(cito(i^ Hence Vftriokrii-in \va* nn sMCdtain hthI hnrjircl- 
Dus operation, It touk. with ^omt' and was imli^tin^^iiUh- 
able £rom an attack of ordinary »inalipox; it took 
jiarttiilly, at nuL at all wUh ritlierA ; aiul t}ia tipi^ritlUm 
Wfta frcqnoDtly folloipod by malMAe, dieordors of tbe 
Kkiii, and ^ravo con^liuitimml drnLDgutn^to. Nor w«c 
the variolated aecurcf from Kmatloox, ITiey occaaionallv 
had ainallpox with t^hoir ncighlxjura, and then it wa» 
«Ud, "ThiTfo niiLht havi! hiwn Komu tpKlakii iibciut thi* 
•' inoculataon; for it is impcoaible tLat anyone can bt* sue- 
"fi«i*fnlly iiTiwiitat-Md and httvv sinnllpox," FuHTut, thi* 
variclatcd, white labouring tindur the induced malady, 
Cunveyvd tlic dboaJia ti> tlieir atti-nOants and vi>*iU>r3i 
and thus amallpox waa propagated i>y the inoariK intended 
to ar«rt it. 

At tLe cli>ie of hat century, variolation hail brcoiue 
tho ctiNtfitn of thtr upp<>r and niiddlt^ olasHi^K of i'lnglaml. 
The troubli? and tbc peril vr^sro dialikod, but were acctiptvd 
in the njimft of duty. The vnHnbti.ion of their rhilHr<in 
viut an anxiety that w«]^diud bkc lead on tho hcnartn of 
atTrt^tlunaiH parrnlA ; and u^*^ '^"^ f;iat(.-ful thi-y were 
vh«n the optirntii^n wa^ accomplinhod without x^riouii 
niiahap. I^ticntA di^signvd for variolation wcrn ditrti^d, 
(Mifged, and Med ; and f^niaHpor from fiUlf>rers of aonnd 
coiutttution wa3 dili^cntLv inquired for. Mild -imnllpox 
WM In jir^^aL demand antf waa propatfated from arm to 
ann. When Dr. Dimidalo operated on the JCmprofid 
Cathnrini- hit did nut v*?ntnt« to Konrry Hniallpox ilirect 
to tho imperial person. He looked out a case of " beni^ 
smallpox ' with which he inocidatvi a^trong young man. 
and from the youn^ man tht^ Etiipr«ft^ Unlc^^a we realise 
the iaconvciiicaccs. the UDCcrtaintica, tho disasters and 



I km mdlpoz twice, wid tiic 

nn tl»aa: No 

Mtb«itv«aiL Hu^J D n h m tb^ in ino<ttk t i<m witfc 
«Bttflpox «• Sad t arity . Fkrt inoeoUtioB wkfa bdhIL 
pox is ui MBfittttiB <peratioo Tilh ^kagefOoB wmm 
&■ cuvptt b ^icorend a mild nvirif 
te JaocBJatod with pccfeet ««M^ 

of RDAllpOS, 

4ikd vriii DD poMtUfiftr'^ km. And ini>gm<ch m Um 
mildaaf fmaJ^es U «■ ptifiatiw of fntore NSHllpQai m 
the acvcrc«t, H foiWw tfaal lU* fpentk eowpox mi 
serre u a full cqaftvlcBt for BBanpox iVi»ir 


nmiMATv Twi^vm or rtcnxATios. 

IT WW ottule Binight for i1 
by tb» rxioiag pnciic* d 

immcdklc iMafik 
and vvcrr <UlMfcr 

varioUtion. Dt W. B. Oifp^iur mjb dMi^wcuMtka 
waa Diore rtmnoiMljr mmm afc tbe bepudng of Ibc 
century than ft m iC iU> 4«j. H* ■• oonpl^Mly mb- 
iak«n. Yifcodnitioti tame upoa a nwnr a i iott pninved 
for tt^wbkdk mm n it a jnasMon bi full aooocdwIUl 
eoiiiaio&*Mcm. tW «Mta« oMocai pcoCamoiw with i 
f«ir «xc«pciottft, the fiir ^>Mti and oonrt^ wvav 
eoovertcd ttaigbi 0i( mJ pa rtiaa i M it aikd Aodetf fol- 
low«d nuiL li nm I tiMfrai, a naUinl derelopinoat oi 
opcDion ; and «-« Md Isva fittb doubt that had w« Uirod 
in tliovc days wo AoaU hare fomd vnnelrtfl ehoDtiog 
tvjib the f*«iitccl mA IW liiiiiml r««ktanctt oArrvd ta 
vaccioaiioci waa mW biMd oo phjaiolo^cal or aaoitarj 
adMXvt Mjch idfttee dtd ooi iWo trxML It vm Uh 
riwHanw of ranolsioci wbo woa a tirfcd wtUi the 
tttabH«li«d piaeln umJ riMnrid k« dirtml ttop? ; prufean- 
inir at tie «aia« tune iMMaKiibla borror at tbo pro- 


fanafiin ta humADiiy by Inflection witK bovme ilitea^e^ 
WhiUt wo bftvt! no rawon to identify ourtclvcfi with th4t 
riwiNtancc, vre have to recognise the «rvice tciidorptl by 
the vftmlSitorfl in ob'iprv/ing tb« rntnlu of ^^ftcci^lfttioIl — 
the pcr*isU:ncy with which they tracud aiui expow^:i jte 
failure to prevent »imallpox arirl t,hn irtjorl*^? Ani -Jealh* 
itcausod So iiit tjj^ the mambunanoc of variolouK inocu- 
lutioii WAS cuiLcenmd, tllciy fcuj^bt a losiu^ l^wttln; but 
tboy drove the vaccinfltor* from post to post (oureed 
whllt^ thf^y ilid NO OrH iiiAEitfiiaiit f&Kr nittit^vti^ |>iM^rM«ed 
of t\m di>vil) and at Iau ci:>inpell04l the &dmi«Hioii that 
their infftlliblo prcvcntivo cculd not ho Kuarantctd to 
prftVflTit. but (Jiily to make Auia11|>ox mSbIi?r— jl *<aU^ jus^r- 
tion b<^caiiiW unveritifiblo, as disputiiblo as iudi^puluble 
in pfirtirii!)i,r inHtunm^ 

HkAboiit tbcT nmttvr at tUi-s propbylitiitio ibfrvt woa from 

PQiBwvt a cuTioue confuaion wbicli ooutituoa to tliin day. 

Jenner viw a coimtry doctor at Berkoloy in GIoiii^h- 

torahtro, n dairy country, nher*^ tbi^ tnm'U buliovod that 

if they cau^hlcowpox in mUkin;: thoy could nevctr aftcr- 

tvardH catch fimallpox. Jimn^r whon n young man WM 

inclinird to accept tho dedryinatde' fititli ; but nbc-n he 

dfc*eu*»wwJ It with hi* mrdirAl nri|OAinlAnnp, thwy ridiculed 

hinv Thoy rtaid, " Wc knovr Ut^Ltaucb ij^ the i^nirymaida' 

" faltli, but we ^.Iao know that it IA untrue; fur wi' know 

" dairvmaicU who hav^ had covt^x, and aitorwArda had 

"amalZpox notwitlntandinj;: thcor covrpox.'* Jcnncr waa 

^^onTinced and said no mare about cowpo3C 

^K To tikis point let mc draw ?ipecial attention. No uiau 

^^nair bfttt^r tiian Jenner that cowpox aA cowpox wiw no 

pireventivo of smallpox. 

Towarit rniikJk^lifu h«; had wliat be conceived to be a 
happy ihoucElit. Cowpox pj* cowpox he had dUmifiaod ae 
iui|>ractt cable ; but there wai a variety of cowpox which 
ha roMolvcd to reooinmi^nd. 

Cowa in 0]ouce:4t<'rihirc wcro milked by men aa wcU 
by wnmnn ; Jind men would nontcttmi-Ji milk cnv 

mi Mt-WOL" ■•''' "^ 


htods foul from drcamng the bocU of Itonca afflicted with 
wkh vbat was called ffimiM^. With thin ffretutt th«y in* 
fect^ the C0W8, &nd tho pox which follour^d waa pro- 
nounced b>- Ji^nncr to tiAvc atl ihtr virtue ti^ainslAiiiaUpox\ 
vrhlob iho dafrymalda cUlmod for covrpox. ' 

Acootdinj* to J^UDcr, tliun, the dt^iryni&iJs «-«ro rif^ht, 
&Mii Llioy were wroQt^'. They wt-re ti^'ht wliL<ti tltr ^z 
thory cnilgHc wn.t JcriiX'J from ih^* hnviG throi];:h Ihf cow ; 
tlicj' weci* wrou^ when the pox thi^y caught orlgtaalcii oii 
the cow without the homo- H« tHhtii dUeriminAlorl a 
double pox^cowpos of nc eSieacy tigainal smallpox, uiU 
horM*j^m«e «o«pox of sure efllcacy. 

KurUior, in thii conn<Krtion, it iit to be obK^rved. th&t 
fitrnprs btlitiVtjd that wlniii lUey ^t jmifionBd in hand- 
lii)^ hort^a with grvuy he«ls, thdy too, like thd dsiry- 
r 11 aids, wlto xafc from smallpox. 

Il U Dot lher»*for« for cowpox, but fcr horsL'^rrtaw 
cowpox that JeriDCT is &iL)vr«r^lc- Xik cowpox hi^ bad 
Tiot» aiiJ could hax'L* ixd faith. 

In 17tt8 Jcfuior published hi* Famoua /ngitiT'y, a 
tr«atim miMb morn xpokrn of tlian n^a'). whi-r^iu hL-i dU- 
Lmctly xt fortb tlie ori^ii of bin chc^Jnun propbylnetic. It 
wfts noi, I repeat* cowpox: it uvu ftui»fyi-rQA'e coicpox. 
UecarvfrjUy duieriiRlnatvd it froiij KpcintAno»LiM c^iwpox, 
which, he said, had no pruttctivi* virtuon bi^in^' Attendee] 
with no itiflBtnmntion nnrl t-rjKtpol&M. tbf» e^^ential nP* 
4U«nccii of iDoeulation with i-^ftcclivc viru4. 

ftciDL-rioK or JKKxca'fi wtEKtBirnoK. 

I have Mid that the vtorld gnve a cnrdlal and unbivti' 
tatin^ welcome to JtmnLTH rcvclatioin, but thi^ olervrvA^ 
tJwi to([uir«eaAtArUinj;i)u&liticatioii. Jfiuni^'n revelation 
M c^fivcytvl in hin In^nirjf wan iiiimmnrily and ij^nomi- 
oiuu^ly T^j«ct<Hl — woA abnolutcly rrJM:tcd. 1 wbb to 
cniphaal« lUU ftAnt. Jrnnrr p^iblinhed hU ivifuh'y tn 
'»r^r«r to rccoi pq wpd hormmiLv? cowpox, and what 1 
have toaajKttat Iha im]>Rc dud tmrd in hiivr aiiyilany 



to do with horacgrease cowpox. The oti^in of cowjkix 
in liartei^reiwe wa.*! sec»ilt?d n^rt «ti IntoleraWe orIyin_ It 
WA« disu:iiatiii^. Why a disooaod oocrotioit from horaM' 
hvcls «hi:>jiM h<i rnori3 rnpuJ^ivr tUi.n aniimUr .MHirRLifm 
ffocn cowb' tci^itti wQji not oxplftiueil: but^ita we a.11 koov, 
there ia lio acctmatiiig for UJi(v^. Vorit>i»B attempts were 
ina<l(? to verify JunnerM prcf!4t;rij>tio[i by Inooulfttlng coww 
with hora^irrea^e, but they tnJod in ffiil iiro^fortunatoJy, 
U wrw KAu\, in fiutiirpi ; frr »; Dr. Piwrsain (r.hiof tunnng 
primitive vftcciuitton] observed, "TIio very namo of 
" 1iJjf>*t.'i:^rt«M) w*H like In have "lamn^'d the wholo thing." 
\V1)M did J^nacr do untW th««u circumstaiiciaaf Diri 
ho coDfront the pMic &iid aaficrl thn etllc^y oF boras- 
ffTWuw cownox t Sat he. He mnnpy. He «aw 
now the wind wai Wowing. He said not another word 
about hr>r4higreiwe cowpoy ; and JW thv public wt^r© *yigor 
•it any priud tc oacapo from the nuisiinco cf sinnllpox 
inoculaltfju. ami i)H}>u.^d to nuKstlLule eowpcix wt a hann* 
]cttflsuU(iUue, why then he resoK'od to ^o inforcowpo2, 
itnd pain &■« its LlMcovcnsr and prcmotRr. 

T am not making wlmt is callc^rl ft cjiiatructivc cbarfe 
a^init Jcnnor^ butNimply )4ottin|'ff>rth pljlin, iind^mnbls 
matter of' fact, i luk any onu in doiibt aa to what I 
«ay to rend Jennpi-K liy/jniiy;^ published in I7d8, the 
prescription of which 19 homc^rrcaAO eowpox. and the 
emidcrrutiatiuai ihf ujwpox. Tfirn ihuii to Wm putititni tor 
lar^'«*, iiddrt?A9ed to t!n> Housq of Commoui in ISOj.aod 
wh^l do wti find 1 Not one word aboi:t hornrj^^'ftw cow- 
pox, but thtH audacious assortton : — 

**That your Petitioner ha-* diACOverod that a diaeoao 
''which oecA^iuTtAlly exlnt^ in a particular form among 
" catlln, known by nnrac of Cowpox, adaiit^i of bcio^ in- 
" oculat*.'U en tlip human fram«with thn most pnrfeet enw 
"and«if*?ty,and IB attended with thoaiajcularly bL'ncGcial 
" efloct of reiuirrini; through life the parsoa so inoc^iUted 
■' pt2tU'C%\y fltvure frtiii ihe infection of Smallpox." 

Why, that wili Dot Jcnncr'a discovery! It was thtb 



aoUon of tho Hnirymftids. And. sn f^r &n conccmcil spon* 
tlLii^oti-H cowpDX, wjLA kn'iwn tiy J^nn^rr to bt untrue. 
Yot, I'lnkii;*^ to 6&V, tli6 claim w&s in a me&aurc allowod 
by tlin Ifu»«e of Common*, unl £10,000 nwartlw! to Uw 

impoHtvr, nod subscqueHtly £20,000 to 1W7. 


Am ovidonce of how eomptotclj Jennor'a ptedCtlpUoa 
of bomef^eaa*^ cowpijx w4h put out of ni^ht, 1 laay refer 
to Urn trcmtiji^ of l>r, Willftn On Vaccins /nt*o«laf*oii, 
paHinHcd in 1 800. wlLvrein itll thai vrjut tlkvugbt Inipc»rlADt 

rCcnoerDing tbe nevr prentice was 6«t forth ; and bIUiodj^ 
jcnocr WAS frociy cited, yet neither horsc^ciwo nor 
iorKVgreartr* cowpoY wa-H ref«T-rtiil Ui front llit? ^r^t p)^^ 
to the loAt, InstcikU. cowpox, nftcr tho frmcy of tho 
dftifvinttidi, wns i*>;ulljii lu t)ii; trup p^llphvWli^^ tippn- 
reiitly without aMuapiciori oi iu cuA^tmnabld charocU-r. 
Ab I havtf haUh Jt*iiii(?r nut only ollorod no i^eai^lanc^ 
to thifl AtnuLint^ trnit«formatlcm. but confofintx) t^ it, nnd 
A.<r.<iuiui;d tliD iiMiiti as )im uwu. Since tlic public preferred 
oowpor to liorssgrpupp cowptix, hp Raw nn rnriAcn why 1j& 
flbould obje[;t, c^ipccirtlly a^ tbc nomt; f^inh public lii«t«d 
fiflcr Hi^KMEf oni4 ti> wi>r4Til[> for tbMr delivi-ranL\f rront the 
pla^u^ *>f va,ri<*!fttion. The world rMOUoHed with praiae« 
iif Uifl iuiniortiLl Jetuji-t, lU»i saviour ft mankinfl fnitn 
emallp9x. Enveloped m tbe aoioke of auch inc'>av.\ it 
ia scarcdy Mirpri^infj that the idol aimr to believe that 
hiM wor<tilppers knew hioi better than he Jli3 hlnuwlf. 

ftPirRfQtrs cowpox. 

The proinl^ of va<i<?inaticrrk, Mb &bAolute i«county and 
bftniile'wne'vi, wa& speedily belied. The vacdnated o^iught 
BmnbpoK ; tlipy fr!l mpW after the op<*rutirin ; they wiini 
afflti:trd with vruptioiiH and HWcllin;fH ; Lliey died, The^e 
inUhnpa wi?rf> at- fitnt. dpniwd — stoutly di^nJfi? ; and when 
denial wiu no ton^j^or poiuible, it wan attempted to 
esLptaiit tbeiu «way. The cowpox used couhl nut have 
been t^^niiino cowpox, but spiirioun ; itnd for awhile 
^unoui cowpox cTid yeoman a ^rvice ia the way of 



npologj; but br-anfS-by th« oxcum btrgan to wori: more 
KanD bban tfooJ. MuliupH word ko nuiuecjus Uml i^eoplo 
b«ouae ofrtid of thu oDonipr^setit lipiiriotu cowmx, uid 
to qaIc whAt it wivs. Aiiil how it coula be avoiJcu. How 
cat) tberc bb MpurtL'Ui |x>x f Who^vvr hotiu} of Bpui-loufl 
ciiftOUQ 7 Milkirkcn vend spuriouft milk, gtocor^ spurious 
wugnT, 0iiiia!ft)iRni Apuriijurt cirnii ; but Hun?)/ cuwa mv not 
to be numb^T«J with euch malofootnr^ 08 proiliioer? of 

XrirMi^ pox; Tho thing wu abnurd on lU fACc^ and 
urd ii pmvcd W)i«n Jdnn^r -vRi unJ^r oxamirk&tlon 
by n coniriiittw! of this Colici^c of l^hv^iciivn'^ in IfSOO, ho 
iw»» {irfw«<^ Imnl for n di-finitkin oi Hjnintiot (njwnux, 
M^hon hd "owDod np.*' Hi> know cotliiag of apiinous 
ocjifpox. Thri xfat\])i hiul bt^ri ftniplftjr^I, not to ilc^cribo 
any irr^ularity oa the part of Uie €ow, bui ctrtnia 
irrcgul&ritic?! in iho action of covpox on tfio part of tiie 
vaecinatvtl r whioh wa* to aay that when the vjuwi untied 
recovL>rc(i oruditably &iid did not catch Hmailpux^ tho 
c*>w|Kix w»jt grnnim;; but when the swiucniMs weru 
olhcrwUi.\ why IIk'q It vttLt ^udout! Ingicniou* &ad 
ooiivciiit'iit, woA it not ^ 


Itcvcvtiog to Jcnncr'.n gupprcaniou of tinj ongtn of cok- 
pox in ]:on«gTCA4«, it uiay be tiiggiAlcd timt he hid 
cbarigi^d hla uiind: but he had nob cbanjfed liis mind. 
A;t ijl^*-rvi'd, vnriouA att'inipu wiTi-- uindfi Ui JnLK-iilnt« 
eow5 Mjtb hotdtTirtcftfle. a»d tbal thcw atL^iikpUt wure 
ffti] I.] I 1m it Mih(iti|iimt AttempU wi-rv auccefttful. 

TuiLri' [ L VL-turinariftii. ot' RockLftuipton, QEouocMtonhirc, 
MUiX't'cdcd to Jcnncr'f» complete aati^tnction. Dr Loy of 
Whitby JtHperiHod witti tho wyt altug^thtr, artd inocu- 
lated with nonejtreoae, or bor^po:^, prodiicanf: veaidGtt 
tdcnticnl with thmo of cowpox. Thi^ ^futi huccu^ how- 
QvtiT, in ibiA Line wm ri^i?rve<l foi Sacco of Milan, 
tVom tho hand of a coach iiiau-poiaoiicd with hi^nttf^^resuK? 
he inoculihli;d ninv cbiUn^i, an«l fruin th^ Tiru^ thua 
engondttred op^ratud on «vt>ry mde. Writing to Jcnncr 
in lfiO:f, Socco mid — " It is tiow adinicc^d and settl&d 




" dmb greoae in ihe caune of vftccmo, kdiJ wi? ottiiu 
"Aoon &1UT the des^fttlon to eifuiDO.'* Do C&rr 
Vienna received thi? equine fr>ni Sacco, and uned 

own wctUk, it b«CAinc imfKwublo to a&y which of 
ciLiyf ri.^ wen^ r^^uLTiAUvl uid wh^rh vajsoinjiUrci 

Wh&t diJ Jenaer mate o£ th66>e coDtlnnHion* 7 
wtu Ib4judgcii nki4t«kcQ Uk «wortin<^ ihftt tho cov 

food ^^init Atuallpox wu derived from honotfP 
tid he appeal -mih tnucaph to tho cvjdcnco of 1$ 
and luiy, '"You thuii^ht rnn wmiig, Jujt *ct^, I w»< rij 
Not he. Kti kept »ih»ce. Uo cun^uutcd t:> be trc 
B« in 11*' *U}0<\ Ijjand ailuweil wjwjxa to he 
in which ha had no Gontidancft whalov^r. Nav h 
ile Gona«QCed to be rew&rdod and honoured ea the 
oovcrer of h pox (which hd dtd not iJi4cov«i) in whic 
waa without faith, and had at ihti outlet of hia a 
exprsuly rejected and coni.iemnnd- I!^ wcoRniwd 
it wu cxpc<Jirtit that the connection between hor^c^ 
ftud ociwjKJX ^h"idd he (htnii'd. Hw had his U!l U* n 
with the Kni^iifih poi^rlo, And it was not for him to t 
iii^cuhica. When, hcivruvc-r, he had (jbUuji<^<l al 
could export from public favour^ and had j^ot cl& 
London ftn^l the opprcvaion of its sftvanU, why th< 
reauui^d t\u^ it^.yjT^.'.MOii of hi^ orijfinal npimun; nml 
further hki; ^acco vf Milan, he di-^pen^vd witPi the 
luid iiiuculaL4?d JtLmi^ht frcitii thr horsf?. H<^ Mip 
tho National VacdTie KitabU^hTnl^nt witiv hornv v 
be sent It to I'^ijinbuTgh ; ho dislribiktcd it amon^ 
medic&l acqitA^Dtanc^ft ; ho de!*crib<;d it m " th« tru^i 
" (zcnuino Ufc-prcaorvine tluid/' What mote need 1 
Sudi wfuH Jimrior; inch wcr<? hU t*ctic* ; antl wht 
uauuiCL^ hta dofcnce will aaauni'j a lo^k in which 
not to ho envicd- 

wiitcii suALL rr de! 

J^ntier died lu lS£ft, and al that daS* thrrr kin 
Wraa w^re in usej firot, cowpiix from horM';;r«at 
hovifCfiox- itccond, cowpcx; ihiid, hor^cpox. The 



eouTMc woro «ubj«.-^<<t to inwcrutaliU mocliliCiftttaa Id tmu- 
niiAaion from jtrru Ui ami; it t9 the dtsUaob eaiirees ve 
harft to r^oo^h? A nftlient intent on vmccinHtion 
mt^lib hare Mud ia himHoff* Which nhali it bo ? Shall I 
be GOWpox^i] V or. tbAll I V boTH^poK^J ' or, ^hntl I hv 
honwDOXc^rl c^wpoxivi ? Elow Boch lui inquirer wouW 
1iav« Imwii Aiin^*i*rtil Im*! he nyt, bis {tt?ri>h-3i]l> Leforu hi'> 
medical adviger, I <*fiii only t^onjflctar^ rrobubly h^- 
wouM have l*Cfln rebuke*^ for bin mtrii?non into mattcTH 
OuUtdo Ms province. The Utile girJ who qiieochod thp 
swcptimm of her comraHc with the dictum, " It t^ *o. £or 
* ma swyn HO ; and ir it Wnt -itt, it Ik ho, if rna A&ya ao," 
illu^tratd^ the manner of rebiifi' adminiBterod to tbow* 
wIlo [-vy into pniFk^Mionjil lEi^ntcrien. It is for you to 
pay aiid for us to think U a formula by no means limite'^ 
to cccTc0UU5bic»^ 

siiAUJPox cowrox. 

Jcnnpr vta plojuicd to dencribc cowpox at a mild form 
of antallpoK ; tut for whac Tca^^tn, oiitiMe h]a pleaniti^, 
h^ did not explain. Ncvertfadftu the v^uggcabion ha4 
borno fnitt Wh*n I'irun ha* rallt^n Khort, il ha^ be*^n 
asked, Why, if eowpo:^ be iiiild ^tuallpo^, ehoctid not 
COW» lie innciLlflterl witJi rt^iiAllpox.nrid a, crop of viniH 1^^ 
mb^ ^ Various audi lat^iupi* hav« be-on made, iu which 
Mr^ Oadcuck of BL'i;;htoa had been enp^ally diatin- 
ffubibed. Mr. John S'nuon, writing in lkS7, «aid, " Hr. 
"^Badcock. from 18^ t^ tbe pre:tent ^me, baft a^^ain an4 
"agmin fb-rivf'd frrsh ^jtckclc* nf raivjnA lymph FroTn ("nvr* 
"artitifiailv infveUdby him ; havinizvamnatod with audi 
"lymph riior>? than 14.000 prrvnis, a4ifl havint? forwarded 
" H^ppltcH of it to morn than 100 medical nractitionvn.' 
When it 1h n^uembtired that viraa for half a doaen or 
man* vacoinfttionK \h Cakpn fmm a single arm, and that 
this prtJC/wi of rcproduclion ia repeated every weok. Honii< 
idea may he forniM of the BVt^nt to whfeb this smatlpoN 
cbvpox Hm been diffuwd over the cmintryn 

Tli** uri^|hial AH'<f['ti(iJi ihat vHn.'inAt|riiL nnifi?rn*d lifp- 
lor^ imainnity fromsiuiiJlpoi: wa^unwiltio^ly abandoned 


tind«t atfOio of experience, until no napecUbld prneti- 
tionrr prBtonde'l thai Uie rits ftlTord«d mor*^ thnn n pnrtLal 
OT tompOTATy Kvcurity. In promotion of aiDjxllpo:c ooir<- 
pox, howev«r, Jenner's mci?it catravaginb d&ims wore 
nvivod. In Mr, Simons worils, for t^f viH^i[>ii*rLt of 
mnAUpox covfpi>x. " Neit-her ren-wci Taccinatujn, nor 
"in'it-iilat-ion with nmftltnftic, ncir tho diww^t Pi>ntjirt niii) 
"CO hiibiULton with smallpox pftti^nt^-i, wilt occi^ioa him 
" to butra^' any iteintiaut, of husctT{rtibiIiLy to inftfcCtoD." 
TJrtrQo «von of vanoUtion, it H unnocmvuiry to coutro- 
vert audi a li;cmtj!iit : iL siuHtcv^ Ut pl&ce it oa recorxL 

Th^ hypoth&sU was. that smallpox in^icitlatflrl on ih« 
oow !tifit ^omcvrhat of it-* virulence ; but if .■»'>, why j<b*jui<l 
□ot8uc1i cowpox inocul&t^i on iii&fi Tt'siium tu vtrLilt^nci^f 
Wtf ar4 opt to for;p3t that th*^ nnlun; of thini-* in not 
OODtron<!it by iJLjr wbilir^. nriO tlittl aur iiiU?rF»l la tbe 
conversion of nmallpox into Govpox,and )t4 niaintenance 
&9 co^rpox, w na wnnaDt for fulfilment. T mny aIao 
remark tliCLt U^out^h iimall|iox eowpox hiu 4-nti>r>.vl ^a 
largely into ctirroocy. there la no evideuco to what extent 
it hiu clisplftcvd the priW!/3m^ imiir* of hor»i^ar<i»ttG Oi>w- 
pox. eonpox auJ homcpox. Sij far na we know, they 
are aJl «xistsDt in tie <^o1nlnl>n blood, indiAtingUL«hi%hlo, 
the itionger nurviving, thia wodker dyin^ out i nobody 
knows, nor c&n know. 


Tbat stn&llpox cowpoK is in any sonsff cowpox is, 
bowflvor, wiiie»Iy disputed, much coimJene^ beln;? placed 
in Uio rcJicnrchca of th^j Lyon* C-ommissiofi in lH55, 
pt«>iiiJeil over by M- Oljnvi'im, Thi^ OHTiniiBisitm, rtuv* 
Dr. Chorlcg O&mcron, " prov«il i noon tee tAbly that bmclU 
"prjx can ijoiuoTrln'oo[ivtrt(^d int^j cowpox hy paMiug it 
" throanh a cow Iban by ttt;iTitinj^ an oak it can bi? con- 
'* vortcdintoA gooseberry busb.'* Cowpoi. it is lield, is a 
dliea»e of tlif> cow, with rto relation to Kuinllpox, Tbo 
vondoe of wich may bo appartiuly idtntical aa are tic 
vniclu exmtfld by thp uppli<7itl-iii of tnTlnr f^mrtic; but 
that H no proof of Ofim^niiai identity. According to l>r. 


G«orj^ Wyld, ''Smallpox inoculation of ihft h^fpT pro- 
" duccA ti>>t vACcintfr. but a mgrHH'^'] nmrkllpf^x, cnpublo of 
*'H|irr-iidin^ «Eikal1[ioxfit]Lon)|^lmiiiAn1>L'th^'Hby ]nfi.'<'tU)n /' 
And J>r (Jwnuron boldly attributed the recent incmaaKf of 
NmHll|]ox ti> tlm nsK i»f [iinH.ll|)cix o>win»x fnr vmriiiation. 
Not ia Dr, Carneron i^injfular in this opinion, Soroo 
tiinc ago. tJic Giilvay QuAPJians mn abort of virud for 
vacdnatlOD, when It wm proposod to Jnoculate a calf 
with siTiallpox. A^soon &b tlic Local Govornmcrt boajd 
in Dul>I]n f>L*(am<? aware of Ui* projoct. It. wiu* forhiddun. 
Why? Her© ia the deliverance of the f^ecwtaty — 
" B^AU^r MnnlWx viiUH Lnkrn fiom; fA^t noiild 
" cooDmunicate timt diBease tf* th« human tullw^t- and bo 
" thereby a fertile source of propA^atinji; the disease ; and 
"would, moreover, rendi*r Iho opunitor liable to prosecu- 
"tion und«r the Act pr<Aibithii: inoculation witli ^Tnall- 
■poi/" Thns thi^ vitH* ciirrwnt in England, nnd *:rMdiUjd 
^nth miraouloi.m vtrtuo by Sinion^i^ denounced aAdnngcr- 
OUd and ltd u^is unlawful in Irtknd ! 


Tbe constant disasters of va^^iniiUoo, the certain and 
tUBpMtad communication of human divoajioa wllh tbo 
virua propajt^ted from arm to ariu» have induced a wide 
report lo eowpc^x under tho dcKignaUon of "nniTuiit 
"vaccJiiation," in contempt of thu fact that diaeaae in 
cattle in TiH riff^ aa nmong mrn, and inncniAble. Still 
tho dread vf the invaccinatf^m of oypbiliit ia so intense. 
aukl ao ju«tiljahl^, tti&t other riakb are encounti^red if that 
nAv be nvoidcd- 

'niis cuwpox ia commended aa *' part^ Ivtnph from ibe 
caH," A pwpnt poTiphfAKo with A KftvoiiT of Daphne and 
Cliloe, of Flora and the country green — a pcriphrAdc 
med in craft or iterance, " pun? lyiiipb'* being aa in- 
capnble of producing vAccinia o/i puro miik or pure 
aaliva- Thb prcHcrifJlion Udtts us baak Uy tlvixiwtit time 
and Joun«r'R procedure. As has been aaid, the OoucM- 
ttrtiliire dAirym&idA belicvird that After cowpnx they wec« 
aafo from sfnallpox^and that Jennet "wtia \^M^\^^\itvwe*<^ 

wHt* tWr bflG«f until ha discovered flut it vbh oni 
H^l ttit lottiul it true, be ailghl ht\,\''. ailvertini^ 
fm/fkfUittit thirty 5«>Ars in &(ivafic« of the pub!icati< 
«d hU In/fu4ty; but if anything wm cci-Uud, tha 
«rt«in, Uiftt cuw[>ux <iid imI avltc hnmllpox. 
tJ*at tic/W[^x per w waa of no avail agaiDDl eiuallpox, 
fliA0«il A vftririy of oriwpnx vp-TinnLlrfl by tbo k|i|ilic»- 
lliw of liorwjfrMM, to t^Lich li« wafi pl<«iM>d t« 
*0r«rtj«i efficacy. Wikj^. I ft«k. did he discnmicii 
prtwribe tb&t vAiioty of co^jjox if cjiu'f>cx jter sa 
■Hbctivc? Th« ijuebtioQ gnawers it»(^lf- I will not Aft] 
thn covpoxori ttvat Jenner's ovidnnco with diitrRtpfcL 
for Auch b their ignorance, that I question if Uivy 
itirftrfjof itefixiiitenr^; moreovi?r. thsC uihichisundv^ 
to know, is instinctively AvoiduO trnd knpt out of 
'fljiry r«jiimimtnil ihw "lyuijih" h-h wundt^ifully mild, 
>«ttiltf-ftttejidod wllb no 9r)'«ipfi1^, tbepostof Arm-to-ftrmi 
fACcmatioa — a d^cription tltAl tAllit^ exactly with] 
Joonor'n of iropotcni eowpox. "Tb* pustules" ttysj 
Jonner, "are of a luucb laildor n&ture" tban thow 
bom^^Blwe cowp*ix, *' No nytijtfittM aittnds tit^m. fl 
''thoyiut incapabluof prodiKiDj; aoy Bpooifie offset 
*" tU'i buui&n coiiMtitution," 



Yet, incn^diblo a> it may appc«ir, it is vriib tbo 
praitie at llibi iiupolent cowpox, attended with iio 
<rry«i|)»lA», tbnt tlm public have bocn deafctied. ttiid for 
which the moat oxtrav&j^Dt OAscrtioiw ar« made. Dt, 
MATtifi, on« of tbft chi^f produwir* and v«»(1ots of the 
article, afp<3an-d at tbi; Briti^li Mtxlicai A^ociatlon in 
18?4l, aayinigf, "I aiik called nynxn at tinx^, at ihi? ^ery 
"fthortovt notices, to vaccinate wbolu cities ; &ud vc)wsi I 
" Mt AmericnH I baU juet coinplctiK! the vatt^iiiiiliun wf 
'* tho dtyof Now llAVoa Tbo cuKtom ia to ivnd for me, 
"or my ion> wherever nmallpax bieaka out. with order* 
" lo raodnate at onoo the (fntin* papulation of the city, 
"torn, or ncigbbourfaDod, It \a dono iramediotciy, tho 


" riwult h^ng Ihab ah epkl^mic U coinpl«t«]j^ jtUtppv-i^ tn 
"'a wi?L't " 

Thim apokeLhdcharlatoo. ^th tb« aequieaceace fd the 

ciaii: jF Ihfi Ajren aoU th* iJeciiy of f&illi, il i.i k» bu o Wtv^J 
UiAt the hnbit cf mmd U iimif'f^ti to ci^rlAin ino'W of 
r>piDi<>i). ftod tbut in i^uncral wn arc cl^ crciciulonn oa c^ver 
lliiiiiaii uatiiiu In Itn irtnicluro is ciiriuuBly imuiutabl^ 
Wl^^t^in w thu A'h-Anbt^fi to dubD^i^ve m witchcrAft Aiid 
to itfUuvo that cjudcuiica of amallpux cjiu be ^tupptftl 
with cowpox ? 

ji DECOROUS uif Axisnrr. 

Such are the Iciulinff variirdi^x of virus iihi?J for VM- 
cina-tion — ^t&itinjf with Jenuer's bcra^re&M cowrpox. 
Uioii cowpoK, thtn horwpox, thm »mfl)1nox cowpcjx, aiul 
fifiiahifi^ with cowpox revived; o&cb of th«rn tn- 
sortiULly iikojliliH) jii tra-imll fruiu child Ui <:1ilIU aiu) 
frotD b«ii»t tt> beaat. We aro contimmlly h^^anng of 
miraclc-<i wrought hy vaccination in tlm pant and prcnc^^t 
— eepeoifilly Ine pnat, at homo ftnd abroad — Mpeciallj 
abroad, tho iLMumption bciu^ that vnrcinatlnn U. and 
hau but'Tl. E<veryw)it*ra the Maine. Oii tht* t^oulrHiy. tJi« 
oondition pTccedont to «onou8 conoid cmtioD of any x'ac- 
dnc? niirnt'-U^ Li a dr^Rniticn of thi^ vnrirty of viu-t^inntian 
practiai^d. It I9. wo adiiiit, convenient for thi> admiius- 
lrator» of tho rite that it Mwuld pajs» for nuifonp, how* 
tvtr muUUonii ; for the practice hju bi^coMn- a ^L-at tad 
lucrativt: business — a rrorld-wido poll-tax; and whatever 
tb«^ iutj?-niAl <KUVreni"i.'« fS thu prirsUvnjii, it U thiTir 
obriouA ifktcrcAt to «:£Uibit a accoroua unaniuuty m 
pre«i;nc0 of their cimtoiiiEin. Hunce t\w iinevilneM 
recently excited by indiicreot advocates of " pure lymph 
"fToiu the calf* haA hwii judiciously allajkvd. not l>j 
TCJcUtaJtct!, b'lt by conc-^^ton and rinmniitlon vitb faint 
prai^i- ; the comiD«Tclal infitiuct ilictatiii;: rni.TU'Jti, for if 
tbA public did get bebind ihf* prof^'iioiml ttriv^[»n. and 
diaeovoruiJ Ulc myfttf^nca of pox, what ui^ht not hcftAL 
the craft uf vaccitiatioin \ 





Thn fftoiy of VHeclnAllon tit a rttory of ftilrirwa. And •* 
U rjhihii^ lias bocome Tnanifeflttit htat bocn ninrt or 
artfully &pologtfli«J tiff. 

Hach Im ^v«n to iHtimncfl. P«opTr> Hk«} inFAllible 
prweripUonH. Tboy prefer an lit^ Uj an 
Mcrivooft] answer. TdU ulventunTit nncIcr^tancS. &q<1 
flMounw accordingly. Ilcncc when Jenn^r lolidtod 
ParliAm^nt for Wgt-m, Iik tlul «> in no (lonhtfnl u^rm*. 
Hn boUily <kGlftr«i] tliBi cowpox wo^ " inoctJlntcd on the 
"bonruLti frame with ihv nunt perfect ^am- auiJ sufehr," 
ftsd wofl "ntt^ndod with the Bmgulnrlj bt^noticial etreot 
"of ronclcriiit: through life the so inoi-uUtn^! pcr- 
" ietily secnrti fitim th** iiiftrLjon at ^mullpox/ AjipUii be 
Kzutl. ''TtiG Iktiman frame, wli<TD ono« it hu fcJt the io- 
" flwtoc^ Df gcniiiiic^ iHiw-pnx, ix nffwr afterwards, at ukjr 
" period of itn cx]«t«noe, aasailable by Am&llpox." 

It in nn«3Itte to point out that JrnniT wjw without 
WftTTttnt for hifl enwrrLionn. Hii oxpcnenci> did not cover 
mure thflr A fl^Vf jtam; and ho could rot, therefore, 
know that hU HprHfic woiiM wcure itti subjf^cu fnno 
KEn&llpos for life- He Micrcd, or nffcctcd to helievc, 
hie own iLKsurunce. and A4>iir-ancv Wng infpf(irii», it 
widely spread. Tho inoculation of cjwpux hf:canio 
taahlonnhb among huKyhodiefl, male and ft^male. Lai.11e9 
eitpecially ver& numbered arnon^f Jenner'a favduriten and 
experts, operating, fts he diTscrlbi^tl. " with a It^^hL hAn*h" 
CoVbott nktefl. *' CtenLlemen ftTir! Udb* njadtr tin> li^astly 
"oommnJityapockf.'t companion ;anr.i if acotU-tn^rS child 
" wefVMreti b^v iheTntiuBO'mmian (m Hmnpfchire at leaai), 
" and did not ciuickly lAkc to ita hetd-i, it -vkiui ccriAin b^ 
"carry off more or h'-si of th^ di^enAe of the cow." 

It «e h*ppcDed thftt prior ia tho introHiiction of vac- 
einationn a marked decline in the pn-valf^ncE? i>f smrillpojc 
hati K«t i)],aiut for tbu euriiintinnciy of this declirii' the 
vocdnatfira took credit. ''See" Ihey cticd. "aee what 
" wy are dnirig'" But thny fnilfld to observe that the 
decline prevailed among nsilJiona who did not poriicipate 


in the cowj>ox a&lvaUoa Soon, howovdr, ca;%^» of*tn%\]' 

Sox Amon^ the vnccinfttcd began to he rcrorted. ^ Ai 
rat ihej wcra <lciilei1, I1i*?y were lm|Kj*AiVile. Whi?M 
tho evidence locaTTc too etmcg for coclrnHiction, it wan 
said, "Tlir-rc must hjtvf* hwn sonir iin^bike abuut ihr 
" vAccinAtion i for it is incrclible that any one can ho pro- 
*'pcrly vocdnafcd and hare siiiikllfo:^ : the human frame, 
''when once it haa felt the inflin>ac*> of genuine cowpox, 
"i« never ftfUrwnrds, at any period of itfloxintcncc wirtai) 
ahir* Uy smallpor" KJtheTHom^^ciirt'U'M^n^XH on the part 
the va*?cinftt'>r, or aoiQC defect in Ibi^ c<>wpr>3c served 
r a whiirt to roa^urr tho faithful ; huL ulliinntcly thcae 
itMBuraiifri-i Tjtivrly brok« dawn. ^»ona vaccinated by 
JtnncT hiDQAcIf caught amallpox and died cf Mnallpox- 
Tbcn taid Jvnner, "I novor pretended that vaccination 
"waa more thaji equivalt^nt to an attack of smallpox, 
"and ^nmllpfix afttr j*nm]lpox is far frr>m i'^-ing a mv 
" pJKinoincTion ; indeed, thoro era luindredti of caeoe on 
"record, and imjuiry U I'lJutiaualK Winging itv»ti one* 
**ta light" True; very true; but what then of the 
Msurajicfi and prudicliijn tiiidcr wliicl: iSOOOO of the 
|>aople'« money riad been pocketed — "The human frnme, 
" wnen once it Km felt the influence of ^ruino cowpox, in 
*■ ne^er aftt^rwardn, at any [it.-rlod of Uw exlutence, a^otaJl' 
•■able by smallpox"/ Nay. more: Jenncr dcncotid<-d 
even hiwrr. Hi' nnt fudy hknu'd vacvirmtjnn la sjiiftll- 
po3c, but 1o variolation, that ie to th* furroer praclice of 
inociilhttorv with smallpox, and as, he «iid, vntiolation 
wa» well known to bo no aure defence aj^alnst smallpox, 
irhy should people be offended when emaJlpox in Jiko 
manneroeeanlonalTyfollowi'dvaednatioQf WbyJndeadI 
but then the proiuiae ran-^^Tbo homon fratpo vbeti 
"oncvit liiu« feUthrMiitluenceof gentiiii4:cowpi>x, tanarvi 
"tfteiwatdM, at any period of Itc oxUtonce, aa&ailable by 
"smallpox." In a letter to hta fiiend Uooro in 18tC. 
Jenner said, "Cnjica of Hmallpoac aft<ir InoeiiTation arv 
** innumerable*" And azain. "Ttouaanda mi^fhb be col- 
"Iwtiiilj '"<■ '^vi-ry parinb in the kingdmii can givn it* 
"case," And ho a«ked anotticr ^OTt^-^xvA.vfc^v.'^^'tisi^'^^ 



ia IMS, *" b U pawiUc thfti aaj one cut be &o ftbnnd 
'toMSMOotMiaipoMbilityoCsniallpox %SUTT%maM* 
'tioor And Uufl rroB Jcnaer. wbo had doacivod the 
notiaa in tW2 villi Uw Mmnott tlut, " imicubte^ cow- 
^pas vru «U<od«i with the tfagoUrlj beDo1>ci«l ^ftoGt 
*" <jl n-n/Uring thiXN>gli )if« tbe pomfln aq ini]Ciil4U«d p<t>- 
** toctl r -«c cof c £nm the *■*■**"■* oC ttD&Ui>ox*' : 

Such «i» JoDMcr^ ndi his loeoiisbleQcj \ mnd oudk 
tb« AdnkiBODi he WH diiTCti to mak* under stl^e«s of 
Ultm* nanjr ftod iDftiiifeaL 

skju-lpok maxic jiilder. 
Aji racdiMtJon failed to aflbrd th» protection im^nall y 
jpaEnote«d, rtrioutt expUafttioe^ ver« dftvUcd to «iiabl« 
those wIk> hAd talked too loftily to cat bumble pio with- 
not fdunfnl obvervfttien. One of the commoiH-^t excuses 
W4A that if vftccio&t40& did noi prcTcni itcudlpox ii ii«de 
it mililur ; uid inuoiodi «• «o oft« knew, or miilil kiiovr, 
hov eevcfo any attack of natllpax would have U-cn itiM- 
<rt>f vaccipattoii, it wm an aiitii timi a* indl-^jniLiMe &> the 
iw«Tik« — oamaly, that Ticeyiatioo not onW njAdo Einalt- 
pox *evervr, but frngotrctlv induced Ltu? dLir^K. There 
are oiany n^uiertkirw witli which there b no re^onin^, 
for it would r«4|uire ogiaad en cc to check them. JM ua 
beware of «iich aaertioaL Let oe ndtbor make tliem, 
nor niSer oaraolvee to ba inpea»d opoo by thefn. 

vv»cTVMMB, ten oa setzeai* 

AAotber eacoae waa advaiieed in ibe report of tTie 
N«ii»na] Vaccna BiteUkfamiit la 1»14. It wa^ saii 
lie failtJr«ft in va«daa:ion appcartd to reatilt from the 
|ifftci^o^ tA niakifk^ only one puticttire for Uw iikwrtiim 
of vhuv, Omi paiKtvre »e0«et(Te ! Why. if one punc- 
ture were ineflvctave, how were the mrly ininicIeM of 
vaecinUi<Mi to 1» aoooanted for, aJl of which hud been 
ofiseted by meana of un^le puaciurea } 


There wa« in thoec daysa iurgeonof eniinunrre in Nfir- 
wlcb, Edward Klgby. awl ho at ono« «nl«T«<l his protect 



Jvw^al ol Ausnai, 181*, Ec said, "Jiophyfiio- 
reason is asJugDed for ti)\it, soul 1 beli«vn it 
Id bo difficult to provu tSat n nlnfjclo porfcfit veaicle, 
"which gcoftlhiouf^li tliu mh^usI atagca ajid «xbibiU the 
" ehusctorUtic tLpponmiiCOs of thU singular cIimcmiu, cftn 
" bd Je6» Uie cticct of n conatitutioDiLl affection th«i any 
"ffivnn niamher would be. , . Itcannct surely i»»<ioiibtfnl 
" thi^ a .tinc;Io perfect vcjiidc nHbrtJa ibs cotnpli;to security' 
"ftgairiT'l Vjtriulu tui ttuy Inilr.'finiCt! numljtii ; and. if so, 
"tliuiv would fioom to bo an obvioue objection to un- 
"nooe*Hari]y imiltiplying Uii: vtaiclcs, ivhifk in idl cimc* 
"ffo th'ou^k a high dtfft^es of in^ammation, art ofl^n 
" atUit'ird mth pninjiU iv^mrfit-ction cinrf cwn suppura- 
"Ifon in ifit nxiUa. and, if 4?x|»u!itfiJ lu Uj« laUir *itai^ 
"to any act of violence, ar* apt to a&eujiic a vcrif Jw- 
'^Ojn'sctt^ u/nirrti/ii'r^ mom <^h|)i^cijdJy hh ycjuii^ oJilMren, 
'*BOW tbo principal MibjocU ol voccinatioTj, are rnost 
"liable Ic auffvi in iKxA way." Kigly bad the bctKr 
fnL Ad ho obii^rvied, no phyi^iolt^L'ioal 
;ned fur l}ia lecommend&tioQ of plural 
pQnetuTtMi: nnrwiLv any Ktiob roonon over oMignvd^ It 
u the rati[>iii^k t>i vticcittntiLin that a vinii in iiyuclod 
into Ut«^ Hysierii vbblcli be^vi?i a fever equivalent to ao 
oUock of «(iiatIpox ; and ru KmaJipox rafcly rocurs in a 
Ufvtjiae, it in b(3i)ed that Natiira ma> j;rttcloual^ Itcog- 
nti^ tho substitute for tb* r^fthty. Organic poi^oru; fitich 
oa vaccine operate? likt< tire oT t'crnicnt. QuAtitity la of 
no nj^^innnt. ^o that thi* feror be kindled, oxcsas ift 
wa^lc. A flcratcb at a <lJs4ccU<]n ia u deadly an n f^b. 
Ou«* bite [>f a \usu\ dii^ 1« OH likely Ui \iv^l Ik^driipbubia 
as a do'^on. Tho gtiot; of a i>>brQ may bi? alnao^^t 
iovjJtiblv. but tliif puiiriurc i* cnouub for death. Sir 
Jamts Fai:vt *ay3 of v&ccino vinu 3iat" ' UiM?rtwi onco, 
"in nboost infinitely sii»ftll quauiit>\yet by aiultiplyinif 
'itAt-lf, or oib«rw1»i> olTcctiiig all tliu blood, it altera it 
"onco for ail." 

S(i('h if* Hip mtioiinl* nf VHrrmalion, and iT I wrrn a 
voi^cumtoT. I iihoDld bold tJvD |)u«iticia astiuuicd by Ri^by, 


and cialntalD that ono panctni^' ?q n* ^ff^-*^*'*^ *<< -i Ia-s^ii^ 
inaflnaocb Ad with coc it is ]> • '^■'■- t vL*r 

Khicb i* llio i^^'w^ritinl of Vftprinfinnn ; i-jdiri;;, ui hij^'OyS 
wor<la, that ua one punctun in in all avtc^ atVndc^f ^th 
« high degree of mflamiiLutititi, mi^ i>rL«it with piiiifaE 
Uun<»f«etion, and Qv<in BUppuration in the arm-pila, ^hieh 
in ca»e of violence ure apt U: ]iik^% iiLto very iliKa^trttblv 
nlcomtion, «Apc<cUIIy in yot]D;;r diiltJren, it m moit aD> 
dcHtrable to incrciL«c Ihc numbcT of such dangvrooa 

I do rot know thnt th« ixindemiL&tion of singl** j>iiiir- 
luras at tbat time, ««v only yuLrfi &^, h»d nvn^h ittoct. 
Two puDcturtA became common. cMi5f!j' to j^^uttrd &^aUint 
the poduiibk' raUure of on«. It iu of lata yean that tb« 
reaort tc many punctures ban become fi^icDab1«. Mr 
Robert Ja^wv., nuw Lord Sheibrooke, in the Koine of 
Comment in IS6I Hpolc**of "the beautiful discovery which 
"had Uai^ti iunf]v, ihal ihi? MfCJirity of vanrination may Ixi 
"altaoat md«6mt«ly inoresAed by mnlttplyiDt- the? ntinn- 
" b^ of piincturoi t Thn chi^F authr>r of thi^ rrmark* 
ablfi diftcov^vy v/aA Mr. Manou, lot lu&iiy yeafaturfMii 
of the Smallpox lioApita] at lii^hgate. He estimated 
the eIRoacy of vficcinatifm by Tnarlcs, and nude mi ntudt 
of Vkflrk^ that I usually thjuk of him a^ Marka llar&OD. 
He ui^l — *' A goml vaccination h when persons havo Hcpn 
'vaodnatttd la four or more* places teaving good ctaa^ 
'trio&». I define a ijood cicatrix in tbiaw&y: a food 
" vaccine ciefi.tnx may be d«Mcribed tm distinct, fnvoat^d, 
" dotted, or indented, ia some irutancM radiated, and hav* 
"in^'n wpfll, or tiih^mhly wpll. de*inf*il».*dgn. An inditTorpnt 
"cicatrix ia iiidiAtinc I, smooth, without indentation, ajid 
'* with an irregular or UUdt^^Iiied edge. Wht^n 1 iind tluil 
**& pvwon has W-n vAcciiin.tfd in at Uait foiir place»4« 
" leaviiijf jjood inarkri cf the kind which 1 [mw dMcribed, 
" that person invfiriihly, ov almost ■inW'^Wi/Wy, ha* small- 
* pox in a very nnid form/* 

ftfiadinj^ & statement llk^ thb. we revert to the ration- 



nle of vnodnmtiiin. And iL-«1i wlint can mark?* Imvt; to fl[> 
itfilb iU efilcocy ? B^miiinbcf, Mfrreon olT^red no c^spl&n- 
ation cf liia ata,Ument Ho woa natiJtticd to noiy thu^i and 
thti« h&vc I obKt^rvod, and yati mz.}' Uiki? my vrord far it. 
But in s^fiDo wo tako no luan'd word. Wo muftt 3e^ cr, 
iikw TmlnwTij^yK Citrtiiahni^n, w« mriHt know tJ^f! vniuton 
why. M&rton afipo&rud bdure lh« HouttO uf Ccmmons' 
VacdoatiLai CifiuEiiiltee in 1871, aii<) «cl forth Iiis marks 
doctrJno with rtll ihu quftlilicatiunn uiid incoTLriiKt^^iicioJt 
whicli charactetiHe the victuii of a i&d In contfLct vrith 
fftCtfl whicb hU fad faibt ti) includo or account for. 

F&tfbl cAficfi of aOkiiLfpox aro coDAufrnt caaoa, and m oon- 
fliK-riL rn.«<?4 VAC^inAbitin niArks mmly fthnw up no ns to 
Aoavr^rr to Maraon'o description of mArkd diatinct, fovc- 
fttcd, doHed. or indented, wilh a well, or tolerably wi>ll» 
da6n«d cd^. And in thi>i inivltor our ncuUr itnd indua- 
triouH friend. Mr. Alc-xojidi^r Wlietler. hiu explored the 
T«tford4 of thQ the SmAllpox HcwpitftU, ftnd rn:oVtfd th&t 
vaccination mark.i n^&ny or vnccuiaiion ma.rKe« few hj^ve 
no lEitluenoK wliatfvt^r i^n the chflrat-tuT ar iftn\iv of sinaU- 
pox. Ajq Ml'. U'hocrl^^r fthrjWA, the dajifliltcfttion of emaU- 
pox Into dbcri^tc njiU i^oiillui^tiL m Ulr^ <jn]y clac to the 
nght«>timnttoD of the fatality of the dU«&«e. Smalipox 
ID the discf^tc form, that j\ whcD the pustidw arL' din- 
tinct and »e^«ftrate^ Is cot dangeioua when uccoiuplicAtod 
with other ^ibeo^sc, the overwhelming maiorityof pati<<nbi 
recuveriti^. va^rdnitU-d or ujiyh'^uiiiiUhI. Tlir contest 
betwocA life and dt^atli is waj^ imon^ ihi^ cooUluciit 
4MW»^ whii^ri- the [iiistulf-A jin^ ho alu»c timt they riiti 
tocher ; and it U -jn thys* coiiflit6iit cases, and tho coo- 
diiiOTU Find antecedents ri thv fsitficrers. that attention 
ahould hi* coTio^ntml^td, ThnriT in a t^tird form of smaU- 
%, the tiiaiif-CLant, chk^fly contined to ppr^ooft of irn^u W 
ifiT, whicJi I* ahnnAr. inviinnhly fatAl. and, ju* VACriiiators 
th«m«elvc6 ailow, vac[<Lnation in luikU^ant axnaJlpox 
affords oo odda to lU victiius. 




NovcarUieJewH as Mr Euoch Kobiruou hejt poinWl out, 
ther* is AomotHing to )vi trdtl Tor whnt Miirwin milled 
good wccinfttioii nrnrkr;. Tho bit of rtultty llmt oon«tJ- 
U}im tbe hthlh ut the u>juk> iIIumou is Ulh. tba'. a vrcll- 
formod vftcdno cicntrix rtiprosontii a Htrfm^ vic^Htv U'ith 
Yigoroiifi bt-^lm;; piJtVRr^ whiUt ftii ill-fi>r[[icil a&itrix 
r^preMnU n o>iiir»ry hubit of body: and, jwjW /j^uvu, 
tho9e vh9 hcftl vrcll unilcr vAccinntion nbaiid likaly to 
m&kd Uie best reeoverieft in ibe 4>verjt tif Hmailpox, Good 
nuulu aro simpLjr notcn cf goijd coiiHtttution-t, and the 
TOii follcwv. Auglit beyond ia men? mcdicvil lubiiali.on 
ft par with fnith in omen? and dtvii^&tion m U'A-ciipci. 


Vaccicaticn. In whatever form, la bad» but this FQiih in 
marks Aggrftvitl^R iu mielty. Mr. C1nrt>niont. vnrciimtor 
for St Fahctaa, i>ixjrfttiM on Infanta by the tbounarKl, itad 
iuliirbi un i*itcb Uiiir innrk^ At Ji re(Tr?nt irLi]un»i ejii au 
iofoELt, thd victim of bin handiwork, 1 he^ni hjm nay, 
''Tb* motlicaT* ncfttly Alway* proti?at" Of cour^ they 
do. What kind of 'ifli«-h<it8 would Ibey be if iJieydiU 
not |»TOle«t I Apart irom the venom, the ^bock to au 
infant'ii life from Biicli wouiijU U very Herious, Mr- 
Vouiif; wAA cfitlcd ibo other day to '^qq c dyiofif infftnb 
VftcciniitiTil ijy thin ( 'Inrfinuint,, t^rvviiniA to vacriiintion 
it wiu porfoctly healtliy, but never afti>rvFard». From 
the time of lb« operation it fell un'Jor a bJi^^dil. '' In itn 
"coffin," miid Mr Youuj^, " it Jay like a chi)d'* doU— th» 
" poor bobc bad wa:4ti.^d away/ 

1 WAH j^lcul ifjxiM^ in tho TimrM K}vttit n ypttrn^nn Intt^r 
from Vi, Allnatt of Cbcltonbdm protcntin^ af^innl the 
cruelty of vaccination an pracliMtd upon tlie cbibiii^n of 
tho poor. Ho focaUckI Uio day« wh«n b« wan a pupil of 
Dr. Waliccr. in I825-S^» and bia inAtractiond wen; t^ dip 
the puint of tha )ni\CDtmin lbi> frnsh lymph, itnd infl«»rt 
it tenderly without drftwinjE Wood, luidur the cutis of tho 
foreann. and protect tlic wound with a nligbl compreua. 



" But the GMO U albf^riKl ti^w/ bu May.s. " Some of the 
" vaccm&tor« use tts^i m^tcumcata of torturt. Ivory 
" pointitftrarlriviin mtvtlic; flo-ih. ami wouTii^I^^n^iip which 
"bocomGcrydipolatotL?, an'l 111 (Jio ddEicftUr coiietit(iLii>iiH 
** of ^Trakly cbiMn^n fjilnl " 

Ttjjj ciu*j \» jiltoroJ Tww, [uiy^s Dr, Atlnutt; but why if* 
the i^ii^m itltvitd now ^ WlkV, bu<^d,Liat<. uii'le<r thtt uld 
tvrmM vftcciiLHtUin wom mun? oixii i£ior« ii^on lo b^ no ilo- 
fefi« a^oAt amalJpox; and to prcvTcrvo the ritu. anJ the 
gtiftft from thp riL*, th** miirk^ doctnu^ wiw inv^nt&i, or, 
TAtlicr, revived, and hailed cw*< & flr>rl of ruvclntion ircm 


Wliffti Tac^ciiinttioii Wfw spi'n tnf) hn iio jmtvi'ntivn of 
ttUiAtlpox* it wau ooDJuctuf«d that it might roquirc re 
jiewai. A sug«<^lLon which dititfisaaod JeoDer exceedin^Lv. 
ll VM cfllcuhitud, ha Htid, " to do mup»Lkabld mischtQi." 
<Iicprivlrii: hi4 dUcovcry *' of mora than ha]£ itn virtiic»." 
Bat lui I'.xp^riencin continiii?il to belie the claim roade for 
vaccinatioiv Ori a pcrmzxni^iit dofcitioc, it wan tuLtuml that 
thone inti.ri\*itt'iJ in IIh i}^rV(^rni&iiC43 ahLtuld enditavoiir tu 
rotriovc itw waning credit. Thiiw rcvaccinatjon b.:ii^n to 
bu pructidcd. Butwevu ltj:30nnd 1.S33 ihi^ii; vfctv IS.HGI 
r^vftccinalionH fifoctod in thuarniyof WurteinUir^. Dr. 
HT^Iland (nuWtjuontly Sir Henry) after recording tbt 
acciiniutalinjf proofs of the futility of vaccination in 
lbd9. rcccTninciidcd rcv-accinntion a^ a probable rc^ouiw, 
ajiit Uut »cuaitm^ndntjui) grajlimlly iidjuin^d aathunt.y. 
The London MfMcfil Oazetft in Iy44- boldly proclaimed, 
*■ Rrvaccinati?, ri-vat^duntc?!" But ?*i> InU^ aj* lf*^I thr 
NalJOTial Vaccine Eslabltethment protcntt^d a^in^t the 
innoruion* Mying» "Tho rc-^tnction of tho proicctiYo 
"pow«r uf viiidniiliuTi to ajiy a*zc, or tfl any terra of 
" JOOTB, li an hypot^osia cctntratlictcd by «xponcnco and 
■■ wWly misaii(j(irL<!d by annbigy,'* WbalitvRr thi- <tx* 
peiicoce, however, and whal«vi>r thi> anaZo;;y, tht^rt^ was 
the indliputabic facin that vaccination in mobi iminipcoch- 
able form did not aiirt btuaUpux, lud that if thv* public 



tAiih &nd titn public tnniKry vrcro tu htt rot^ned 
iv^h ardrice waa dsttantial. It was Imrd to burrondor 
urif«inibl clniriL of tho cqui valence of vaccuiAlion to nuiul 
pox : but it rii-oiN must wbi'-n tht* drvil driven; and so U 
hoA onio to bci ailmiticd tliat Joru:«r wfta mUUkkcA^ ood 
iho vrv^uiit; riiri^ to lje t^irocLuat uitJ4t be TdD^wod, 


Dr. CT>Iin nxpifMil what in now tho common m^iiical 
opinEoii in sajin^, "We muttt noL Btopab ft^da^'le vutc!n«- 
" tioTi, Wo iniiHt oPtnbH^h tho lirm conviction In the publio 
*' mini, that vticcmo propbytaxy ia only real a,nK\ complctt: 
" when pi>rio(.iicaUy renywed ; " and Dr. Waj-loruunt, chit-f 
of Bcl^iLn vnccinators, t;o^A yot ftarthOT in fitivii^ing aqJ 

cv«nir subject of th^ titd b« vactnnfttod a^in and af^&ta 
until vesicle cca-vr to nspoDi] to the insertion of viiaa. 
Then, and llien only, Cin llie victlru b& ^^naranteed from 
amsLflpox ' a^ch are the ahift^^ to vbicb vaccinators bfivia 
b<«n i«ducE.-r)- If thoir innunu^OR vrt^ru vilid , thij prcrmiuin 
would exceed the principal, tvhilal tbcrc is no feaaoo to 
h("!i**vi5 tln5 new w!ri:nty in jl whit Iwttcr thnn tht? cld> 
In thoa« frantic pniftcnpticn^ we ^ac tbu quAckt^ty in it^ 
death 'throw. 


As for rovaocinatioD keeping ofT smallpox, it 18 ab^uril^ 
ftod ou^ht to he known for abnurd. The cbitf inciJcncti 
of Am&lipox U anioD^ the younj;, In wlioiu It cannot hit 
protcndoil that the infliioncc of primary VACcination is 
exhaii^tr^d- Tha Bitbject* of rEVaL'ciiiaLiu:! TXrv jjrvisirig, or 
havo pa^i^d out of tbo smallpox ago ; and as thi>gtali^tics 
of tbii army nrid iLnvy prijvr^. ^Jiir tKohHifr^ and sulorft 
ato no uioru oxtiupt from smallpox tbflji tho unrovac- 
cmau*il civil population of corrcsponilio'' yearn. In 
thiM matior, tho oUl wonbi at&tid U^c, r'oj/u/u* vult 
decipi; d(cipi<Uv/r. 




IVom wh&lcv^r «i<l« n><>ardod, tho origioaJ and bucgo»* 
ivc clnini\ luitiU? fi^r vacL'tnutii>ii nre sii^en to faav« trokea 
down : but a pracU^sdeod^WLvl And^nfircodiis a pf>1l-uuc 
for the bcnefll of the mwiJical prjfp^^ion u not iighUy 
iUTtondercd- tnnt&ad a variety of defencea. more or lew 
in^moua, aro thrown ont. 

!.-<— Onr fif thn^tt U tliit ri^nrtiiin <iF KmaUpox. U itt 
sftid, " SttioIlpoK woa once ft common diFi^se, and U now 
"ft comp^nitivi*!/ vM*i oiifl — How are w<t to Account for 
" tUU IronTOvomont otb«Twi>to ttmn by the mtroduetiori 
"of TAccmation?" 

Thw iniKw*r U, that *mftllpox wwi di^eliiimg Imfort* 
VAcdnution wan iEitroJuc«d< and that, too, in Bi>itc of the 
«xton^%'«i eiilmrti of tho diKRiMft hy vnrifjUtirni; and th* 
(lediDC contmuL>d during tbu tirnt part of the prcnont 
century wlilLit aa yet nloe-turit)tH oi i]iv ^ibuptc WCTe un- 
vAcoinat^d, Several ditefi^o^ ono^ common 1iav>^ abated 
or dinappciaTifd ; and why should vrc attriliuto tro an in- 
6011111 ensumte <Aua^ a aftnltar abatemi^nt In sinaU|>oxf 
L«proi*y, onco cxten»ivfrly prevalent in lingland, hai dia- 
App««n.<d- Why 7 It JimJ uut gradually; but aupjione 
sonio rito. analo^ua to vaccination, had bcua brought 
into vogiK' contra mprtrnn<f4>\ IN ly with itri d^dinr, wiKJid 
not thiS ritu have had tlie (?rt!ilit, and waM not ila prac- 
tiUoner» liavo calli^d the world to witnvA^ the auoccu of 
their pri^cnplion 1 


JJ. — la th<! ^amc Jino of dofoncc, w« havo the claim 
made for an uxlra^jrUinnry Fuilvttticm tit htiman }\ta. 
Thus Sir SpoQct^r Wt^lls in a recent speech observed, 
"Jonncr n iinmorbal ns n ht^mfiu^tDr of mankind, lb 
" may not bo generally known, but it ia true, that Joiuior 
''hasttvcd.idaowaavlujj;, and ^ill conlmuti tu Hav« iuall 
"coming a^>i, rnonj llvuia in ona gon«ration than wore 
" dcairoyud in all the wani of N^xdeon." 

Tli« answer to mich n Mtftt>*m«nt is to call for proof of 
the Jivca nAvcd. ThErro in no proof, At lh<» cioao of last 



century, 29 por oont of ttio morlAlity of Oloagow 
due Ut nmnllpoiL Stoallpox nUit^ri], but (lit! mortAlitj'' 
nbat«? Not in the I«&4t. Dr. RoUrt WaU in 1813 
reoordcd the fACt vith BmAxcTconb over k. And wb&t 
wa^ true of OlMguw waa true of otli«r eUi<» and otb«r 
popiilatiooa. Thcro oiay be a cessation of smalfpox* boi 
(iitilfwt thr rmult of -innit/irir' iiiipnivninouL) thn ivork of 
dofbth ia ui<jr«ly tpAiiBfi>fru<l to eo;^mto ttjrt^ncirWL. 'I'kcrt 
la no s&VHig tjt llf<i. What na,^ & fu^'^teijr to W&U Ulow 
of a myatury «iiiea thi^ difvclupnunt of tumtAry fi 
Zymotic iJia^a^e In iL^ v&rioun foTuis ia a JdIuLt«<tTi 
tion from dfilinitn ini^nnitAry c<iiiclitlon4^ It la not 
aJfcctcti hy ii}(!iticul rvur^ddion, nor by tho aponUnoonSi 
substitution cif one variety of fever for aQother. Id thfl 
th« worHa of Dr. Karr, " To navcj |woplo from smallpox U 
"not emm^U whiNt exposed ti> <jtlior forms of i)i,<tKa«& 
"Tbuii in a ^'ardon wlwrc the Dowt^i^ ato ne;;lootdd, to 
"keep ofT thistle-dt>wii mc^rely Icavi?.? the ^ound open 1« 
" t!i« worM of ifttirrDundiug wimkI*-*" To lower th« xymu- 
tic d^vath-rate it h nt^cesuhrv to teduci; ttic conditiciu in 
which ^rymotic <lixi>afi4^ in gftnt^ratAd, Citing Dr, FtkW 
onci; more, " To operate on mortality, protection a::fviiut 
" evi*ry one of the fatal zymolic dlueA^w im rvijiEimd; 
" othftrwii^o tho HiipprrwHion of ono <:liwaso-olrirn:nt opotia 
"the way for oLUl'!^/' ])r. Watt and Dr. Farr atik« 
belicve'l that vaccination stopped emallpox^ and abke 
realised that th*? di^ippcarAncc of smallpox waa aix:oiii- 
panieO with no Having of life. Sir Spencer WelU 1% of a 
contrary opinion, which he aharf-^ with a number of 
npf>|ihi who pr^fn.r thi' fmi? p!ny of thn prejudiced 
iino^'inatioiL to the aobricly of exact information. 


in.— Th>:*a wo arc a^lc*xl to holi«vo that though vac- 
cination iii:iy not Icnrp ihtF Amnllpox, it innkrA it rnilclAF, 

and in proof we a^^ eiiturtained witli low ral^^H of mot- 
talily amoiig tbe vacdnated and hi<{h ratca among tlia 

Wc reply, to ujftko a comparison between tho vao- 

mni bh« unv&cdnoib^di it would bo nccouiaiy ^ 
poinpare da»i wiiU cIelha, pfiy.sique with pliysique^ ft^ 
vrilh a^. In oth*;r wt^rdfi, t^n aiibjocts of Rmall^ox 
!thou]cI hi-i ciinntiLutJnnnHy rt[U:il. thmr JilTcrcnct; boing 
limiteii to vi^cin&tioa present or v&ocuifrtioii ikbaent So 
roach is olwioiiK. 

But wh«n or where haa 4uch corapaHaon ba^ «ven 
I Attempts! ^ Nor woaM it tio CfiiMly practicatlo : for the 

JL nVV^^'^f'^*^ ''■^^'"P''''"' ''^"' ^""^^ pnrtikm ijf thc^ o^iiniiijnily, 
P^JMiofllly; but who ar« thu iknvaccniat«<l I They ate 
the wrUs and utraj'M of civiliftaUon. th*' utr^jjrini^ of the 
intoorabli: and this va;:iuat, vrho, nitliotit lixuU Uomicil^t, 
«Mapc the aHtleiiti'iii uf the vaccinatiuti olUcer, These, 
whiitov^r their tiilm^nt, whHhfir measles, pnnimonta^ 
clUrrhota, wcuhl c:(hibit a hi^^licr rate of tnortality than 
r.hfi vn<7riiift(j'r| ; hnt. wtiiiM U ther»*fori* h** flafe to argue 
that viurcination wjl^ not onlv good a^nmnt smallpox, 
but against itiPJL*<lf--*«, mn'iLrruuiia. aafl itiarrhn^ ? Vrl U 
ia thf>«^, Lho lowe>)t physically and tno^t nL^^looted of thv 
tx>puhition, who <lrift into Kmallpox hnvpital*, who arc ex- 
nibit&d aa f^rful uxainpliM of Ihe ncj^l^'Ct of vaccination. 
It might be added, they uro. uiibaptWd aa wuH aa un* 
Tacctnatf^d, aji<1 nrnhnbly th^ onct dafMt may hn A« pr«' 
jgdicial OS tlic otbcr> 


Our conUntion dot^s not ond here, Such is the preju- 
dici; E» favour of vjuvirmtinn thnt n had oa^ of araallpox 
t« aasttmed to b<> an tins*accinatud caao. Over and over 
H£iin ban it lK?rn proved that vacriaaled patli^utt di^atl 
m smallpox have bi>tn rn^torf^d an an vaccinated, their 
death bemg taken &« cvidonci^ <>f thu alncrictr uf tbi? mir- 
ing rile. A^in in st*vere smaSlpox, when viu^cina' 
lion tnarkH aro inriijibZc. the fluHcrcr i.^ frcqiicntlj 
m^ down ftji (inva^t^-inab^if. Dr. ItuMel), of the Glasgow 
HuHpiUil, rtlnl-it thftt patients entrirv^d afl un vaccinated, 
ahowed excidlHit [narkti vthi^ti di^tainnl fur riiiivjili!v<!«nc*» 
Had thi^r died, they wonld havu ^onQ to Awell the ranka 
of feaiful cxamplca. 



It is thiiif thflt the hij^b ()oath-nU<t of tha unv&ccitutdd 
ftro acc6iinC«d for. thi^ fmmcrH of h^pit&l rcport-i appcitr- 
ing fe) vie wihh each otlier In ^xtravn^ani^e Wo are 
oontizituiUy adjtircd in thn nowripa^H.'ri to confoi 01 
fully a.iid rtpanU Ii»t^3iij4[< 40 tir 'JO ut 80 p^r ci^aL, of ihft 
UDvaocinaWi] Hav« twri^he^ in thin or that h;:«pitft1 
bec^tiM unvitoainfttrd. To m vnch atntiatio^n ftavf^ fmud 
irritUn on their face, And the Ti]j>r? tW^y are Kworn to^ 
tb^tDorc uneven: pti Ions (Ir> thairvcndon reveal t1icm,iclv«M, 
When &II vvrv uiivM«^ii^fLt4*ft l&ai century* the h^inpita) 
'Joiith-rfttjt of Ani&llpox XAnised abcmt IK por eont Now 
ive Art; a»k<fd Uj Wlicvfi that il:;at1i-nttj? hiL^i <]oiib1ml. 
tr«>blei], quiulmplecl, and for no other reoaoD apparently 
than tL> tnakfT fot tbo glory of vo^Dation. 


IV, — It IK further noid that utinm in nmallpox hoMpitala 
tiaver contract luaallpox hecauae the^ are rev-acfinat^j). 

To a^tabiiah tbb osaortioQ, it wonid bo nec^^eary to 
|*ri»w that jitifjr Ui thr intnuiuctiim of ynt-vuniikm, or 
rather of rcvaecination. it w&b coiumon for niirsL^ to fall 
viHirns to thr diiMfOAci TItfT ntLfrmpt U nut nui/lr, nml 
wiBvly^ for ffulurc would he eijiitifiiruourt. Juiiiivr iievtit 
recomtf] ended vacciuulion oa a protective for niirau. 
Their gvnoral imrnnnitv, aVnig ^vith that of phyuiclana, 
la Doto3 throo^bout our older medical literature; tior i« 
the rpH8oii far lo seek. Smallpox ia predonititantly an. 
aflGGtioii fit tho youngs and it k no noro lurprivin;; that 
4 nunQ nhould l» pt^ agaitiAt it than tTi&t ^h^ ^^hcriM 
bo proof iL^iittt tnoosteiA, whooping cough* or i«cnrlot 
fever- Nnr^e^ occassional I3' incur theoe oialndieii 
thfrj" ocCTwionaUy incur sinallpoT. 

If tcvoccination prc^rTvcfl nur!(«fl from BTnallpoSj Ie 
which L^u^y nrv. e>puHt?d ui th« iuUnni'-HL foruj. it kIiohIc 
mnoh mor^ pr^^iM^e 9o1dii>r», ^ilotv. policertien and poot 
men, vboac nxpo^irc i^ incoinparaHy 1cm inton«c; v 
thSM •wvantd of the atatL' (a* already observ^) u> 
liable bo smallpox 09 thoir unrcvaccinatcd follow citil 
raspofidciit agi^. 



To apvAk plainly, tht; j^cloction of a vocation bo ar^luouB 
ftnd mpulatvt?, luatlat »^ a eiuall(njx nurae a^ unjuiprtm- 
lonftble, And little apt to cfttcti anything. SmAllpox, 
too, U like tol>Acco : cuatom forii^c."^ iha coitititt^tiou 
sg&tnst luiinru^iatetfff^ou. If tb^ntiitoyp^^reof nflnkiiU- 
pox hospital i»cndttr*^ci for q tV^rtai^'ht, it in likely to con 
tiiiuu Riidurnbli^ On Llii? otlii^r luiriil, if n w^tuiikbr 
Mlutis on prob&tion, abe la not ruckoac^d amon;; ntiivaB. 
I^otly, oaaoy nui^w hnvo ocitered Itc^spiuiU oa jvatiQiitfl, 
tod hftve MHM»pt«d ucrviae in default of ot^ier occupanoa. 
On thCM cTOunda, the uurae ar^'uoieiit br^ka down 
ImtiieTabiy^ At fintt sight, it mm^itih somethiug, but 
00 acnitiny it proves noUiiag. 

V,— Another fAvonrite aryu ui«nt for vtbccina-tioa ia the 
(liitiippitiiTMtca of puclc-rnnrkcd facs^ Ptwplit arj whf-n 
they w&ro yoiiDfi aocti facivi w«ro common, wbiiat now 
tbejr nm mro ^ and demand, What can liava wrougbt lUe 
ehiuig« if not vAccination 7 

A mcdicftl man at a public uteeting truxl to Jiapoae of 
Mmtft KtatiHtiot lulvond to vaccination by sayiDg that 
atiitiatWEt could be made to prove anylhtng; And pnaaently 
Wftnt on to ndni^ ihni %vhen hia motlivr was a girl every 
tliiid pcrtton slut mnt wjm pock-marked. Sho had told 
lilui so rtipuftteJly, aiid tl^t^rtT wa.<( tki duitbt hIhiuI b^r 
accuracy, Thu^ j^tntistic^ in ^neral vrem untroHt worthy, 
but Inn mutbcr'n .^tatlfltic wiw unqiK^ticnable, 

We nood not h^^^itaiu to ultow (hiLV irhen ttmallpox 
w«» common arui cuitavatcd pockuiarked faces were 
wore niimeron»: but wu niujii not forget ihtit whr^thi^r a 
pAtiont n marked or not nfarkt^J lit very much u Titiitccr 
vf lrAtiU(?riL Afnny nt thi» day pew throiigb tfinallpox, 
&nd eever« smallpox, imd oecnpo unmarkGcC dimply bo- 
cautt tbo^ who hare car« of th^m obxervo certain 
precautions. U wo^ diflcrcnt in fcrtnor timoA The 
troatoicnt of ^inallp^x woa atrocious Tbv aick room 
ma M»dd |H»tifrmuK br thn excluuion of air hikI tba 
PMi ntonanoo of hit^h tctnprraturc The patient dwdt^rod 



nn<fer bcilclothea. H« wa^ otither allowed la ^v&^1l bor 
(.*1)B.n^ bU Itneoi. Hu w&k dmnchcii with [ilij^-xic mud 
«timal&cte> la hospilalH, pati<?ntoi were Btuck two or 
or three in a bcJ^ and *l,rtw«-fi t.ngrtliflr Tf. iimJer mich 
circuiDfaULtice«,llie sick were rtstor^Tcl U} lifo p^kitinrkod, 
whftt WDDJerl PatitiuU nho vrcfrv furLun&te ciioLi^li to 
bo Kuffietciitly let alono, ntood tli« bent chiLnco of rocovory, 

Be»>i^pA bmallpox niLH not ec(uall_v ditTuntiiil. In ^ma 
p1jiOi>A it wfu ^nilomic ; in otbern it nppp^tvl »t mti^rv-fllv ; 
ftod in others it wl^ hnrrlly known, Tiic nm&llpox 
ileath-rate of Glrbt^nw WJLH iluiiNt* tttui of Loruiun; and 
wo may tlicrofon^ infer that pi^ck-mnrkcfi face* woro 
twice a^ uumt^\-*i\i^ m Gtju;;uw ju lu Lomloii. Hcnee 
whon rocolldctioni^ Ari^ Appealed to, they should bo locftl- 
iacd, What iui<;ht bo true of one popuUtioEL mighi bo 
groifilv unttuu of anothL^r. 

It IiQ'^ been obaorvod tbat atflallpox was ffilling off 
toward thn dwe of last century, nui\ ibp *lpi'lirio aeeekr- 
itted in tbo prvBcnt ccnturj\ irrv^^poclivo \ji %iLccirialion, 
An oxcollent illti'^trai'ion of ihU n^tUKthm of hiimlli>crx is 
fumubcd by th^ rnporU of tbti National Vaccino E^tab- 
liahmeDt (or 1822, 182.J, anc3 1837, wheic tb« iiiiappear- 
anco cf pock-iriark^H fxceu Uom London U tnumpbLmtly 
tfl&Jrded anrl claimcil a* a rtiult of vaccjimtion. In 1831 
Dr. Rpp**, direct^ir of Uk' Royal Jenm^Hiin Snrirty. mailfl 
the like otMc-rvi\tii;>ri nnd the like clniuj, navinir, " ScUotd 
"are purHonn now hi-vii Mini! from Pinatlpnx Sr)iTijin in 
"tho pittod and <*i^fij::«r*rd face nuw tmhold ;" addinjf, 
''but Midom do innnkind in(]uitc for tlii; cause. Ilia 
* vaccinationn It hi vaccination u'hioh pTOserveG tho «oft 
"and rounded check of innocence, and the Hlil! more 
"captivating form cf female lovdint^xs. " lnHJiinnL-h m 
not kn poT cent. <jf tbo population were vaccinated in 
IflSl, Uir rJaim miub* for vaiwiTiaUoii ww* ainurd, whilut 
the dieappiMranco of pock-marked faces wft* eufiiciently 

Whcro then i» lh« arRumuiii f*Jt vaccination trotn tho 
dmppearance; of pock-utark^d facfi'ft? When anyoD« 
uud^r seventy priw^'^'N t^i rL'£?itu th« K^geiid/'TliTrr* U 

'* no OH© in ar^iins against vncdimiMJii, for whni I waa 
' " younjE oVcry iKirJ or fuurtU plthjii waa ptx^k-uitttkod/' 
i*ic.. etc., tbi5 etTi-Tt is (Jroll, II shows haw prono wc urn 
to fancr ^o buvu aoun vrliut wo tliiuk wc oo^ht to havo 
ntjHii. DniUer hIjH H ia wliian alripUu^a ot Hv^^-and- 
twenty ah'I ihirty proF^PU t\in Aumn nx^atiancv — "Whun 
" I TTftA >i lad," and bo forUi and xi fortli, ' Thf^ro U matter 
for reflection as well a* for laiighter in the hftlltidnfttion. 
NfTcrthdeJM, U pock-mnrkoit Fnci;^'^ urc not -*uj orumon 
ftH ihvy iiiu-iL Itftve been a (^enlury a;^, thej' are hy no 
mcATiH tato; An<i if tho ai^uinenC for v&ocin^cicn were 
vatlid, i\\r. pDck-tnuTkcd wimld Iir uiivaccinatrd. Butftre 
they f Thofre who will Uke paina to inquiie will find 
thftt nlmoflt invftfialjlr thrry hav€ Won rnccicatcd, *ad 
^'^me cf them repeat^^'JIy, the v&cclnation having oa it 
were induced the fituaiipos. 


Thiia fox WC hiLvc chicdv dealt vpHh vaccinatioa m if 
{in fault wer« Hiiiited tufailurit la j>ri?v<^tt ri^niiLllpux; liUt 
vaocinaticn » moro than an iooffc^ctivo incantAtion. It 
ia th« irtducLioii of mi acute .<«n(-cili(7 diMTOs^^, Thif prime 
note of vAccination itt eryaipulkd, " The cowpo^c inflam- 
''mation/' jnhi J^nncr, " is always of the L^rytipclatoua 
"kind" He held that cowpox jjaiLitundiHl with ury*!- 
potaa WOK " incftpalic of ptxHlucLKi^' my &p<jCJfic cflVct on 
" t1i« huiriiUL ri^iuititutinn, ' If it lh >ii j pi^iK^^f i thnt JrnmTr 
is antiquated, we may rofci to n diatiii^i.-ihvU curium- 
pomr^. ^Ir John Simon replying; to tljv r^uestion, 
" WhfilL^r pru|3crly purfonnod vaccination i^ an ab»o- 
" Lutolvinofiemivepruct^odin^r'annwcm dociaivoly, 'Not 
'' at all ; ncr d<M!ft it prfru^nd to he ko. " 1'he lational^ of 
vaccination h that it oumuiunicAtcA a n^ild varioty of 
fcmallpox, luid thnt with a little of the de\il we buy off 
th« cntiro dkivil. Dr. bollard, Medical Uflicor to iho LocaJ 
Govemment BoanU in hin treatiap. yacmtftUffti : iti* 
Value mid AUttjKii fJangers, eaya. " Vaccinalioo in not a 
" thiDg to be trifled with, or to be mado light of ; It is 
" not to be nnderloken thou^tlessly, or vitbout duo 


" consi deration of the pfttlutit,Ui ]nod« i>f Ule, and tb« 
"circiim.stancefi of Mason and of place. SurgooLi uid 
'■ pALI<rril »!i()ul<l both aitry in Uicir mmd* thp n^^nltvling 
" thoDghtj tbat the one i& eDjfA^d in comiuunic^iLtxig, th« 
'* oLlirr in n-cciving inf-o bin Bysipm, n iwi/ ilifiUJi3^- — hh 
" truly a dtni^aao a^a HToallpox or naeaaloa; a dij^oofi^^ which, 
"miJa and ^utiUtf oa iU pragroM may uMiallv bt'. yet, 
" iie^tTthoIti**, now and tncn.itkt- every othflr exniithis* 
" mac^u^ itialadr. aaMrta ite cbaracter by an uiiuauat 
" tixbibition r>f vinikncai*' 


Here we bnve Vaccintn defined tw dwaata with j^ri^cau* 
lions for it* aafy receptiuD; yot withaJ it is allowed it 
may BAserl itsnlf with vtrnlfitice. Hut whrrn do wh tUul 
any f jrccaiitiuii:4 oxcrcJsc<l in Uie va<^jLJiti^ti of the poor f 
— that is tiJ sBiy, of the \a^L majority. Pri^^^utioLa are 
not only di3T«i^Tu:d^d, they Aie nnknowu, they aru im* 
pTikrluubli;, IiifiitiLt of atl fiorUi and couditiuuB &rfl 
operated on a^ reckJeaaly a8 eheep are marked. Wb(»thnr 
tnuy live or die U mattcrr of olinnal indiHcrcncc, whilst 
each i» wArrimt fur an oflicial fiie. Sir Jtwi-pli I'eaao, 
npe^vkin^in the* House of G(>minoiM,8aid.'*Th« I'ronidiint 
" of Uii^ Uind Onvummpnt Himrd cjintiot driiy Uml tbil- 
" drcji diu uiidc»r tUti operation ol Lho Vaccination Act* m 
'' ft n boleftak way.'* \ accination uoDveya an acjtc <^pcci- 
fie dinooM (having a detiiiitc coutko to run ViVc Hmallpox 
or other fever) Which, whethtr by carekaa ttL^ttncnt, or 
mndu<MHt, or latonr. diftease, U fr^qiimtly aLumdwl 

;h flOTiou^ and fatal tFUQea. Hencx; it in thai vaociud' 
tJon U drea'lt'il and det.eH[Hi?d by (lit* poor on whom it Is 
intlictO<l without pnrlcy gt mtti^tion ; in iLsolE u bbaror 
of i]1iit9n, it in iikcwiM? a cnjtil n^q^avatlun cjf weukneu 
and illnoss. Whon the poor complain that their children 
are injured or nlaia by vaccination, they are ofliciaJly in* 
formed they are mistaken, Dr^ Sievenu, a W4.'ll'krown 
familiot of the vaccination oHicc* »ay.^ he has neon more 
vaectnation lIiuii auy man, »nd htLs yvt tit wiUir»i thn 
iMgt Injury fiom tho practice. Variolatora u^iod to uay 




of tlMJr 

I aicinatwri aroae und 

oooriclcd tib«iB of fyuig. Cofoi>«r Iuk«M«r held tkut 
vaMAftttfm «u imA ft e^uA ol death * teeoAiavd bjr kv* 
■ad ma tli*t«fof« an iupomible caqmi. Such prewfcn- 
tioo \A ciiockerT. Tn>c it U thftt. if ft child 4i«o of vftC^ 
eanstioii, it <Uai of et7«ip«k«, or pjoemii^or diarrivM, 
ftcd U b eft^ «ooiiflt lo iciMiiv Uk priiuBfy oftosft ftod 
ft— irt Uw unconckry ; bcil I would aak^ How cW Cftb 
dciih oisoe frott vMcmftitoii thfto by tiyaptflift, pTM^. 
i-ltftrrlicpft. or stmiiftr morln ? U vftcciaftttoa uUa ft 
chiJd, bovr oitMrwift* could it kill } Ev«a ^mmUI ^IcaLh 
occur ilirc^y from Aiusicftl fthodk. it would be md, tko 
cbild did not dti* of vAmnation. btit-foom bckol v^ar 
to MBtain ft Iriviftl opcrmiioD. The Sftocndo oC tlw 
SCevftftA pfttt«m U ti«ri-r wiilioat a «hufB«; 

It lA HHiiftl ftt coroners' iiiqiM>«^ri9 en vjtcdnfttimi fftUli- 
ticft bo |>TodDCtf cbiiHren vftccioatcd ft( tbo sftUic tim« 
from tli« «ftai« va«ctnifvr. aad tu ft^^rt tbftt lAumudi «a 
tiwy hftvo »fe<bo ^ooii rocoverioA, it 18 iupottible thftt thft 
virm trftft at fault. &Dd that vomcibtpg rfM; than vftrana- 
tioft m«Bt havo bMn the c«nae of dtauh. Tbo ar;cuai^iit 
oft«n inQ|>r«9BW9 ft jury, 1)^t it i» f^rosat; fftUmdoua. Sup* 
fuee a mad doff bit «lx ruvu. anJ that hro wteftpod injury 
bovoikd their wounds anJ fti^^ta, and thfti uoo Uitxl of 
rabit^ wuuli] Uie ovnpi! uf tho dvc prove thftt the death 
of th« Hxth was tmoonn^ot^d with tbo dog f OrftftppoM 
an cqtiftl iiotkn ol ^n were adminul^red to aIk infantM, 
one of whooD dJod and five r»covoro(ij woold tb« r«covi^Ty 
of the fiw ^rov« that gm did not kiK tho vixth T Mr 
Stoker wnl4v to tht oftwcpAper^ tliat ho Tftottofttod 
iwekcr other p^r^oaa v.'\%h tfic virqs b9 iMod for &G«» 
Kllnn Trrrj, and thnt n^ no untoward symptom* app^arod 
in the twolve. therefont Alias Tcwy's whitlow had no 
cooiwction with her vftctinittiOD — uid tliU in xpit^* of the 
UDtovard Mvmptotn« falitnc d<if» at the v^ry tim^ that 
YftOoiftatiOQ ftccouotod for thcai I Any rcaMiiiA an vooti 
for tboeio dispo^ftd to bo eoQviaood. and who Savo 


It (r tbcir minilH tluU. vncciii&tloii U invnrlMy^ 

■ No doubt ihcie w vWan umh! for vAcdnation UiJit 
'virulent buyond other vinu, && thertt ift virua that is coed- 
pAntivel^ innocuoua ; butv aa Dr. Moibd obtwrTct] mot6 
thitt ■. contuij Ago, " It U mon EnAUrial into wlut kind 
"oT body nnaUpox b iniuaed than cul of whnt It U 
" tAk«in/ Tb<^ «Anii^ vini« tlijtt cmn enmititutii)n tniLV 
tbrow off with littlo t^^urt, may inducti diMOse and d«ufa 
In Another, Dr. Jontrph Jonc^, president of thi LouisuUM 
Hooni of Hiixltb, rcliiUs tUot "In many camoa OQearriog 
" in the Conf^demUi Army, thw delet*^riouH ctfccta of vac- 
''ciiuUort WiTTt! dcarlv rtffvrttblo to th« comliUon of tba 
" forces, and tho conatilutiou of the blood of the pati^ntA ; 
" for it wn« olumrvpil in n mimVirr f>i iniUmcfi* i.hnt Iho. 
"same lynipti from ti hualtby infAiit inoculftUd upon 
* diiyiinml' tiidividuaU jmnluctrd JilKTmit rt^ulu torres- 

»" pontiing to tho state of the syfeteui j in tho** u'lio were 
"woU fed and rohuAl. producing no ill-cTfTocI/*. u}iilni 
"in th« soldion who had be^n vubjaoted to ince^dant 
"fatigue, cxpowuio, and poor diet, tho gravest rwultfl' 
- foUowftd " 

SonM oonttitntion* ar« peculiarly liablo to injury from 
va/?nin« viniH. juftt a» aouir wni.ititutiunn cammt rndurn' 
drtLji^a that ethers r«o«iv« without inaonveni^nct*. Thua'l 

tit L» that fatalititd from vaccination arc frequent in c«r-- 
taUi faitiilie*. Of tbeae. noitherthc law nr^r medical tnoaL 
condcsccn>i t^ take account Parcnta oit^n plead in vain 
for txeinpLJtiu from ihtt rite i>n thej^roiind tluit tbf^y Imvo'j 
already 1^ cbildrtrn imunrd oralain by it^ performance;! 
th<? bniUil and amtcicRtiticarj^rDmrTtl luniiiiig. " lUiw can 
'' Vaccjnatir>n hurt your diildren whun it d<>vH nut hurti 
I'^otbrr people's cbifdrcn t" 

Nor U the caat against vaj:%inatioii yet completa Tin 
^*tru« in^^ t« not only Vaccinia, but moro than Vaccinia, 
IT it 14 ifnpoMihlt; bo propajj^at*? vJriiA from child t'>chi]d! 
rithwit;j op othor qcialitiGs. This was clvarj- 

Hill J I 



foTCMTcn b_v the variolatot^ when vncdnation wivt intro- 
duQoil' — tkfy tnHkiiijj H ji pomi t» tak& am&llpox for 
inooQUtion from huhen fttiLJ 9>uitd aabjceta Thay 
mtiUitiibiiMl IhnL ffowjicix Lrjiii?*frrn?f1 ififlHcriiDioaiely 
from ana t^ arm mu«f uquirt.* uid ccavoy constitutionnl 
tainto ; Attd (hevir prir^iioAlication was ^pcctlily and 
-"evomly fultiiJwd in l)ie itora of nypbilia. Nutwith- 
ding. ihu fa-^t waa furiously oaoUBttnl It ^ras xoid 
|)areDU DAtfd vaccinntijin ju a «ct^i>4m for tiinir own 
wickediKn; (uidftsMrtionalLurQatedAviUi denial «von to 
oitr own dny. Ac Ifwt the conflict u af> an rnd. The 
evideooc ha* jo^rown too multitudinon* and Ueadiy for 
vvuioa Urn iuv&ccu^tion «f nyyiliiUii » adiaktea* And 
any <{tt0!tLon in rvrntrttd for th-t do^rgo of frmju^^ucy^ 
SonM ar«T p]«a0«d bo doncnU^ the Hak a* infimtaiiaaftl, 
biit Ui«ir ptMAiire standH for i)i>thia^ but its«lf> DmhJh 
arc cxprcmivo boycnd worda The wido resort to aiiitnal 
vamiiaUui) mi iJi^f r^niUneiiL and In the Unitc^il States 
hJU hiii on4> inteq>ictAtioa Uoctora and pntiont^ do not 
abandon what i^ vK^y for whnt it t^llthll^H(]]llL^ nar incur 
tba risk of tlie commumcaUoa of bovine dUordQia unlcii^ 
under th« ititlacDCo of 0Tcr-uia«tcTin^' terror* 


RelatiooH of individual cxpciioncc may be dbrcgardec? 
as vnirviHtwonhy. but the broad evidence of n&tioiml 
Atati?itica convcysi authoritative IcsranA. \'Aocinatton in 
En^iaiiO Vfaa timdu t:i>iii|iu]Miry m T7<>S. airiii^iitly bu 
in 1^«J7, tind ^totnatically oxtonded v> iho miiro 
pO|>uIatiop. If thureforc it wimi: true lliAt vacciiuitiun 
^ti$n oommumcates more than Vaccinia, and that it 
10|ravatM cxint^nt nnd exciter bt«nt di«casc, the proof 
must he niAnlft-fd iii the aUtUtioG of the Hej^bitrar'GeiieraL 
Thu9 argo^il Mr. C- U. Hopwood, and ruMX^in*;]y ho 
TJiuved in lii« Holjuk uf OuniitiuiM nuccpsvivrly fur Uims 
Rotom*, puhliehed as followa^— Vaccination, iloKTALiTT, 
No, 433, 1S77 ; Mortality (Ol^NEiUl- a>i> IwfantJ. So, 
76, IMdO ; and D^xBs (Ej^uland amd Walks), No. 892, 



Th&«c It«Uinu, cbargod with curiou uid nui 
Lnformftt^u. aro tittle knou-ii, an<I hftve be«n ii 
with »gnifkeftiit eiJ^^noo bj the priMt, Ob#«urantJ«iii 
not <vitilin(H) in pcrlrMJbiUc*. Our nJiiuit joun 
wtio tDodc at th6 Iikdftjc Expursfttodua, &dJ Abhor 
Runka conaonfaip. are in iheir litllo vay i^ ready 
act tlie flAii]4f part in favour of eUablbh^J prtjuiiice. 
£aet« ttdv«rM to the pMic coDftdence in vacanatioa 
iwoaled, it in <x>tiHi<i9rod no moro than dvcunt to 
them out of M^bL 

What then la ih« evidence of Mr. Ilopwood s 
Briefly thia : Uiov cl#arlj illtutrat^ that wdoatioo 
prodico, ialenuijr. ezdie and inoculate diaeoae 
t»uc U df-Aih. Tbo rword of itifant mortaUty from 
dftccn Apbcificd iliirain related to vAccinatioii otauda 

Prior lo Vaccination Act— 1&47-53— 

Jttfants died, 18*7. - - - 02.610 
Out of a population of 17,^27,C09. 

VacdnatioD OWigatory — lfi5MJ7— 

Infants died, i«5i. - - - 7S.0OO 
Dft 18a7, - • ■ 02,827 

Ottt of a populfltion of 20,(Hi6,22*. 

Tnodnati^ Knfoixc<i— lS<i3-7fi — 

infauU Uird, KHfE». - - • !)fl,23S 

Do. 1S75, • ■ iCM5,173 

Out of a popiilation of 22.7l2,2M. 

Thtia. whilft the population of England and Walrn had 
ioeno^d frooi 18 to 2:( millionn. the d<;athB of iiifanb 
from tdU^u djHf^aaen bad riM^n Troui Gtl.OOO to lOO.OOO. 
Had tho mottahty k«pt paoo with tho population, th^ 
doatbK in 1875 would uuly have havu 80,000: that is u> 
aaj, in 1875 ther^r p^^ri^hod in England 2C,000 infanta 
who would have lived hwl raccination remained ti^ little 
in Yo^ucf iw in 1^47 1 Tlie rwull though titartHnp: in tho 
gnm u p»0JM>ly what might have been prcdictcil. Tho 






inftfiQjr of ft coimU^ eftnnot bo «3;9teiTintt(!At1y dUoBAMl, 
thab ia vocoin&tud, wibbout «xc3Un^ tmd n^^nLYniiiii; 
or.her m&ladi^, and thereby enTarg^ng the harvest of 
death > 

Xlw asMTted oonnoctlon of vn&cination with other 
fttlnMoata, jnich mst bronchtti*. Hixtivtiiikiw gtv<*>i (ifciuion 
to jj^aoroiil ridicule. *' Bronchitis," says 8ir Lyon 
VlmytaArt '* hiu nbaiit thii Tuum^ ri^lAlion bu viicfiiuitlon n« 
■■lh» Goodwin S^ndfl havtf to TenU-rden Su^^^ple^" The 
tamrw ia that the dobility Tira<iuccd by vocdnatioo pro- 
dUpoftc* to ftCTfCttom of tm r«^imtory orgiiiii. The 
human body doea Dot consist of iaolaCca comp^tmcnts* 
but. JHniicr^^nnUnd whoIo,synipnthiiti[;in)i1l il« pnrti^Hnd 
foDotioDX blry^ipclfin, art we Wv? neon, ia th» primary 
eiymploia of iiun^uktud Vaociiiia. aiul diaxrlnKit in tU 
commoiMSt MqtiQaco ; and given ory^pola* nnd diavrhma, 
wltftt vigour may rctnaLii bo &.vlit nnd bhrnw tAY oihisr 
lulmente r It is not said that certain maladies &r« oom- 
municfttcd by vaccinaUon, but thot vnccination con* 
tribnt«4 to bWr fatality. An infant that wcinld havo 
survived broncbitift <Uc0 of bronchitis atuf vaccioatioD; 
dtoH of tcieltiin^ and vaccinution; diiw of rouvitlrdnmn 
atu^ vocciDatioD; dm of vrhoopia^-ooii^h ^nd vaccina- 
tion; and so oo. Again di-nnsc kiD(Jlc« disease, and 
many a chiid might outgrow eongonltal iterofiila or 
pbthi«ia if the latent disorder wcro not roueed by vac- 
cination. For OuMtt^ roaHona no doubt notnl Iv nnt^rtaini^d 
that wore vaccination aboliahod, the ovtuit would he 
immediately uignftlivxl bjan cxtmonli nary fall in infant 


If vaccination were a volontftry superstition, its pre- 
valence would be suflicicntly dcplprable; bub vrht^o wo 
think of it ost intlieted on th^ nation, a nd pre yed on 
tbune whc knuw it for an injuriouA impMtfHta|pB^ 
ta apt to arise which it in <TXp&dienl to ll^^^^^^HHy 



be asked how it cAxne bo pnw thut iR^uUntion wh evir 
comprominod with a ni«diG4l |>Tvf^ptloD, And the atuwet 
U not & rct&AHuring ou«- Th« iQitiAl «TTor wii8 the eniJow- 
meDt ii> l-^OS of thv National Va^cioi^ E^uUUbmcnL, 
and ihe prtAb^ioa of vacclanlifin fvea m IH40 out of Ihu 
poor rate. For <»nforw'm<'nt nf vncciriHtion, thf»rv 
never wm nny popular (kmond — fwver the alijfIit««L 
Thi-- jnililk Ijod, Luwev«r. lBfl.rut fruiii danitanAus that ft 
jftiX3 piut of tho «iekD«M trom which thoy Huttorod did 
not c-Ainic^ of fal«, but wiu prev«ntikle; and under this 
nov*! poreuuion thevjwt oxpndlturo on nftnitary works 
diirini^ the piwt fifty ycnn haa been ch*:^rfully incurrod. 
AvuUiL^ the[!i>«e]v4«H of lIilh favottrnMe iliMpoMitiott in the 
public mird townni projectii in the natnc of hrjilib, 
CertAtn jiicdicui |il^^^>hunlcin upsmipiuj^ &h tlm Epidi^iiii* 
olopoal Society contrived to f-ftin Lh« ^r of <>ovi?irrxmont 
Kiurio pBAsn coiiipuUoiy Vncdnation Act in 185^^. Tbo 
poUtidui* who lent thr^miielvE^ft to thii^ iraii4&«tIon di«- 
owne<l nnjr knovrWfi:^ of vaccinatjon. l*hcy actud, thor 
waid. unH^r medical lulvice, and ran the bill thTougb 
PftTtiamont with liltlo rt^^tance. ThL' Act did not 
perNoimlly cjmcern M,P.'s. If th^y bappenud to believe 
in vaccination, their children T«o«ivi>d th« rit« with all 
rf^'ji^itiwd precautions. Iti enforced application by con* 
tract At U^ or If. Gd. pur head was rcfiorv«id for the 
unenfrAnchiFM-d and t)ncooBiilt«d multitude?; wbiNt bho 
admin I strati on of the Act pr^iviiipr) plarf Jind pay far IIa 
io^niouft promoters. 


Wlion an opprowivo law is *nact*d» by whatever 

stral'*gy or howevf-r corruptly, iU r<ipfial in no ^asy 

ir Th« oppres*(ori have won the nin<' j>ninle of 

iOD. The ontagoni^te of the VatcinalicHi Act»i 

(▼ert3i«lcai poaseta & certain advantage, ^ome bad lawrt 

only b« denoailiced aa it were from a di-itance; but 

vaerirmiion t'luehn rvrry hoTisr-hold, and ean V»o fought 

whcit-vvr a child in claimed as a vieUm for the rile. 

Wa abhor the rite. W« detest it wt an iEupailnre^ 





Wc drcoL<IibB#s4uigcr Wc refiiAeit on (fcnylcrmBiH Wc 
vncourngir, we j««tlfy, we hisiat on t!i<? duly <if r»?ieciion, 
Oor coDt^Eition oxtondA and pnwport. In vanL>u3 part^ 
of tliR cj>iintry mtttiAftrto hwi been rowirtlod wiLS nuLy^esiA, 
lli^ evil Iftw haa boeo brokdn down. Freedom has been 
recorcrorl *nd freedom » enjoyed. In other parU the 
iilnigglu t'cir liberty pror^LVvlt, ani-t ft^ It prooot^dri. ti^ht iv 
<£flbBed and coiiro}^ evoked for «nUr^^ rt^aiftianco. 
Rtwwhortr tbcm nro vbidtctive and crtj«i pnuiccuiionM. 
fiUitrfly of humblo folk. " Reapcdxyl mtepaycr-s," to whom 
the Uw U cibJectioriAble And iU pertattk^ trivial ttnnoy- 
AnoM, are dUcrootly pa^c?d ovor Hurd, howi^v^ir. i« i^ic 
lot of poor iD<ti. viio Tir love of thuir cbildrcn fttfronl 
tlio (3(i)l fttiimofiitT ftnd ignorjuiciT cf En^dUh PhiliKtinut 
whether w CDanliana cjr aa icta^'IfltrAl^^s <jii tho bench cf 
il^uiince. co^iperation inr defeuc^ und innnrimce 
~ ' is4 finf"* will cnivblc the forhic-it and most fearful to 
^Wn biN tnU^rity hnd i^neuunU'r lii^ |jiiniUE3rH wiUi 
i*«d frotil. I'ftrliftmdnt, a* our RtaUwrnon aDow, 
*i^ tififti to Lho a^^cvcd until they make ihi^uiwWcA in- 
tol«rabf«, and to raise ouTwlves to that pitch nitut be 
our end and tk\m. 

3i&ny {(ood people; t%r^ diattc^ncd over the nporntion of 
thU ertrft^rdinary Inw. and sometimes in tbelr perplexity 
odrcntciro for cxcuiio, " Surely ninfro wc compel parcntn 
" to fdui^attf thttir cKiliirmiH it cjiTuiot Kt wrung tu tMtnpr) 
" Ihi'in to liavo thpir n.hildrca vflceinalcd/' 

WV nmwer, tniuuKiion ia i^nnpuNory «a f^r a« it U 
outside conscience. C<inpul^on la dosicoed to overcon^« 
psTi^ntoI indiftVrtmcc luid •elfialuion : wh^n it confronts 
•erionn contdetloDA U is arrBstciL By ymieral corLwrit 
(ho meet important pari of education ia religion; and 
nsli^icjn U pn«iMi*-1y f-ltJit pitrt <if KiTucjUiim wlitidi jm 
aoDOioptcd from compuUiorw Tho law do<« not even 
eaforoe *»ac form of relipon, Jio that parciit?^ who rogvrd 
reU;rio" '^^ Hi]pL*rrIuoi.»i ruay nr>t be zifQjfrieveJ. 

Wliai tii^reforv tbo opponenbt of va4»in^ion domaod 


H tb^ tU rapeot tlm weonkd l9 
«0MeWi»l« finoMled to ifeMJMHiie 
1hov» wlio «M coortnoftd tte vtflMMioD do^ not pc^ 
Mil MBftllpox or ift ao injuriaoi ptsctM. £tvvi klLvvtan 
ttto be t hgnnlwn <«r— woy, raiJBmca woold bejaslifl*- 
*U& It would b« tn nia to coasoJe a Bttptist, forced to 
eofiirtj bii ehiU U> th« p^nah font, vUb tins Moonao* 
IfcftI ft lev drop* ^ water could do do btm. It b not 
bi bmoui natare to tolMint to thm mcBgnHy of i m poii UMf Oi 
oad to ihoaiiadi of K^tUuBkeo voeckHUoa b acml 
lad ilcigraKngr inpntvrv, and to pmnsk tbera for tbolr 
lofdtj to wtui tber Uunk r^[fat b every whit bi tymt- 
wad w it wu fo« CatbolicB to petaccuto Pratcstoaii^ 
aaA Pvotcvtntft Cktholka^aad CUfaolici ftod ProtMtali 
J«wi» Tbenbiiodi&raaeeb)tbt«nDBof u)tolenaio»; 
nd tbcfv U so diflbtiMe in tbo ipirit with which thii 
iMtor-day tymmy b co afc oa l iJ, oad tfcot epuit with 
wbidi rei^kiui Buwiy was vfanlavtril and woa. 

GoyumoxfL of the ooxtlict. 

To aoOM «y«> the oonflkt b not only arduooa; it b 
bopftbM ; bvt wo afi of a diffvront cnuM. Tho oooBbt 
may prorc even ^^m ardaooa than U appcan; ati<l for 
iHL The bw oa it ttaads la p«rfuEtct«a^ 
No p^ticbn M Mnreri for it without tekin- 
ICany allow that a wettam nbtako wu taado 
wboD legblatko w«a oiMCled for owdkal adnwlage at 
lowlinti 'Iti-taliofi. ThaOlacbtono gurrrntivTnt propoiod 
to aUibtty repeated ptnoltioa. llio oeotral aulhariurs ot 
tho I^ocaJ OowniDHftt Board make no Mcret of tii« En- 
*ap«rabb rfWcattii* whbh atlood the admmbtratiou of 
tbrbw. TWyadrbo ooooeaaiOD to ite reeolule a<lver- 
mtIol Th9f do ooi Toimtato th^^ bw where tt has 
brokoD drnm. L«gbhtion thoa dbcre<iit«il U 9wtvi to 
ooJbpM under broader pmBura The medical ^lupporfc 
b AlllJ wraker; aad b chieHy c^mhood to lhoi« who 
wyr*ei'nt th'? tnute elcmeot uf the jirofno^ion — mirn who 
woakd def«ttd viy at>iim bowover OftfrraQt if <utAb]]8hed 
_BDd Jomtjra. U b the cwtoo to liLod Uie immortal 





J«ancT and tht Nalvuilun h*i wrou;:hi, Lut thDiio ate wonla 
of an ot<l «oii£. Tlioa© who havj [^B^lrat^d tu th« in- 
ception of thn Jnnn^nnn nU ; whrj know tliQ absolute 
promKw Liy whlcli il prevtuleJ and ila ah?io1uto failurei 
who hiiv*» fr>l]owe'i iU wncrcwivfi uanHformfttiuns and 
varietitft witli their ro3pr:cr(iv« injiirirM nxtfi faUlittti 
who are Aware of tie Bdbul L»f ooiifusiun and roairaciic- 
tion in which xU vrnd praKiti-^rn^r^ ntf involvoJ— th&sc 
vfc say rec(j^b«3 lujw imjuj^ible it i^ Sai viLccinalion to 
b^ I^TOUght under dUcuiuion nnil iiurvivo. Jt in thU 
con,tGioniiac=u which ftccininto for the ti^norvc cf the uiorc 
prudt^nt onler nf ini-dit-itl im-n. Thoy exrruKp thrip ftciiul' 
«9evni» in tho Holii^ion (afLortho niftnnt^r of eceliJsiiuiticd) 
hy thi* ffxi^'tiPii'jf iif pn>rr.<(Monal loyalty; and by the t*up* 
poattion thnt tin.' harm of thu practieoiHoxftf^jfi^mtcd.whiUt 
it Aervc'js fur thu cuasoUtioti of thi? vLil^r, It ia fur Hiich 
rotMDM that wo oonMidnr tbE> roritlict Um ar<]iiouH than il 
appeata. The furLilicaUon^arr undonnlnod^ tho bulwarks 
auft rotten through and tbr<»iigb Ox^t all, wo placr< 
our contidcnco in the Qmtii|>ijtont faviiiir of th«^ tvuth. 
Ooltatli, (i)j)^hty And vanntin;;. m tiVtiniiorL* laid low by 
n smooth Ktono ^hape^n in tho waion^ cf verity, 


I& Story of this Onvit Dtdiixiati> I hiive triml Lci tnll 
iwly, koffpinc c-lo«<j lo matter-of-fact, and with botiig 
•xeeptioiiH aidlit^rniij to En^lkAh cxpcnenfic^ Whru Vfr- 
T^nloro abrooti, no aro apt to fall into inaccurAcitf*( and 
draw uownrrruitahle aoucluflionfl. 1 am toid my aninius 
i« too |}ronc>unced. and thut I should \in\o donir 1iott«r 
bad I adopted a moro judtctal tone. Ah well E we ghouJd 
always hftv^ don# ilfffifrontlv bnd wn dnn« ditron^iitly. 
It %cma to mc a mnn docn hot wbtn hir ie tnoat truly 
hiniM If : and 1 i[Uf'HUiiTi v^huLber IbhuobJ havri imprcv»d 
my eaflu bad I tried lo con&^al ray n^al mind in ordur to 
nmke a uioie ^toitlin^ ^hcw of it at the doae. 



LtAily, A vFortl Ui tbuau wliu arr nccu-ituuieil ti> diatill 
oppon^tiU of va-cdnntion sx foi>U an<l fanRtics. It i« 
relftUd of Sylni-y ^niiLli tbnt cjillici;^ oti I^or^j Melbourne 
one ntornin;.'. befoiind Iiih lordship in an evil temper ftnti 
cuTvin^ *t large. Smithy urgent about hi» own nflaint, 
ftt |jut oUiurvrO Lbnt tTiuv >bouM UlVl' «vi?rytbmic for 
dfttDnwl tuid pTOCood to boainoaa. For lik^ roiuon I 
urculd AOgi^-M tlmt llic fAmilinr tirurlr of foi>1 Ami fannUc 
bft taken aa spokirn, and ttint wu proceed to dUcti^ vao- 
cuuUon and compulsory vacL:in&tion on their tncriU, 

^. When W^hoopiqg Gongki U JUA tiiit irlut ii thni Hvv to ' 

4^. Wh«n SoorlatlnA H not rir«. what It that duv to r 

^. Wbm Chdcnunot rife, what JAtliattlii* tof 

Q- Whan Smntl|WX i> nnt Hf^, vTut !■ that itTtn l^iT 

A- y taamtioti, 

Q. \Vhtt> uth«r iliacato* in ikti «aQr» vt tiino luvc bfioooic mill 

J. X Biuret 

V- And when ftmftllpas lui baooraa mLid Of illod OuL what it Uu 

^. VaMlnatlon. 

Hal. ■■■■■Ilti ihifciiilMBl fciiiriMj 
Da«Qman,-AI tte w««l4 ten bw shC^w k*d I 

Dm QcTsoR—lKli • Umv. tte fMUfCflf wU(* I taW to 

P be* I iMI hMTv BA^ il, ■»! prw k t« A»^ d ikM vai 
«» 4», vbDiilfio aM« ■« to MSB tank drfl Mn4OT (M u fi*- 

vUA A^ ktt to 1^ poMJ, .^ viib Uh c«ii^ a»«r > Mk« ^ 
hlMi to vHc^di^ »lB ii -IB* ite «dM hitf ita ^di rvMta to tte 

ttktoy apvot on to vmk* tL«B lallj mMMOUj Md J^Uf. 
will ^km^ man tarn I i lj mi ■OB«d« ikkB mn «ppb. 

yrirwwtoftW f rjwi n iwfcMnii «ttd oalj ifa>ir«, ife piy«««l of bit 

ttai« omcciluurr bit««r i lar 1 tewv U wOl AOjrwbB* Ictcft bow 
Ihui twD vtmU u iHincv ; *b4 I vut mo bv« to f«B Ikto U« with 
(nan wl «mb>ct. »«ifiM.Iabo^WshdtolBMr«bcikBfib« 
vt at «ill Wit B — h t 

DiMr Q(TtE«Ti.— Fcr 1^ (kiB thn* rarfi iImb majreit nuka ttm 

wklDB ud ifewwiog U IvbaT 

Dov Qrivot^^Fnei^ Mwil, for t httraA Ui Inr^ thM jjrvitvr 
BBCnVi, ud te ^ tb*a gnoUf kialnia m : bat it fr«*c«1, Lai B* Mt 






To th(< Turkn wc avic IiLtlct. tixid iii i\ie littli? i.h Incliiilttl 
the piscticd of inHiicin)* sm&llpoK &nitim]ly. Thd pmc- 
ticc wa» Hr^ brought under EngUvb nttrfniioti ^y EuiAniit-l 
TimoiU ill a lL>ttc<r, <)ated Coii4tajUiTiof>k<, D^ot.'iiiljcr. ]7ir^> 
oonununicaUd to tLe Itoyal Sadet^^' by Dr. WocnlwaHi, 
And piiMislifil ill ttiii 8(X'it^tiy'ii Tnnw^r/Axj* for 171*,* 
About tlio .tame tiaK-^ Pyuirini, Vonctiori coniul at 
Smyrna. iT4^*icnl>eJ tbe pracdtw in a Latin |jairt>h|i-l 
printCKl nt Vcnifio, 1715,+ and rcprodiicod in the Fh}fosii 
}Jiicid TranflutitiuUA for I71G, Sir, Eni^H^li 
surgeon, who hwl visited TtirW>.Hy, also roporied Iho prae- 
tice uiidor th*: <]r-^i"nat]on of " KngrAhin^ tho Sraallpox."* 
Timoni was a Greek phj'siciaii, who hud -iUidu-J at 
Oxford and IVlua, and tiicQ catahli^hi^^ liiui^cll lu Con- 
Ht4uitinopli'. He iluMtrilH-d "wnuilliJiix hy indsion" as 
bavin;* Wl^d pta^Mwed in Conatantinopl<» for forty ycar^, 
an<l that it had hccn found uniformly succe^ful iu ward- 
ing otT Kfnallpox ax nutiirallv devclorHs!. Tbu vartoloiu 
matter waa iiaoally tak^-ti frotu heaitliy boyu »u6reTiu|c 
from thi* Mpofitarrotis di^rflsi*, and wa* nppUi^d to p^rsonit 
of a]l a^cn and t«EiiiH^rumciit«i. cnu>in^' thrni no more 
than Urniporary and trifling [nci»nveideniv. TIjo i>nly 
pronnivtion rtquiailo for incit*ion \rna nbfitinctioi; from 
ilmJi und bnth ri>r Iwejjty i>r tnenty-rut- tUyw. 

• /'AlFucf'ArVn/ 7VflB«^*on#. No. aa». I7M. 
ilimJ} P>UiiiiLmLH V'mibL. 171^. Rvi^riaLni ui Phihiujihicttl TVuHinK- 

c^EM,Xv. m:. iTilS. 


lb SO hftp^nctl that when Wootlwwrd rtwi Timoni'n 
1t?tl^r lo tlLi< Ruyh] Siifjelj'Jie at llip ia.jiL«- ihnv jirtHiucm! 
ft aeipction from the correspondence (if U<>lton Mather of 
Ri.iRtnn, MiK^cl HI setts — a rnrioun jimiWr of tiwh% *uilI 
fnncits, Mjttl^i^r had U-en ^Icctud a Fi^llow of tlu- Society, 
nn*\ the sclectioDi) From hiH conr^ponilciicc, tmd Timom » 
lL*tter (tppt^irod in tho jtamo mUQbvr of the Tntri-artiotf*, 
No. 338, 1714. 

Cotton Mftthcr is *ini" of thp rnjirvidn of buignipliv — ft 
choice f^pcciiuen of Puriloni.-'ta tiovdijpL'd viUiout check, 
He wan a luan of boiindlt^H erier-p-y and inc\'«*arit indti** 
try, of intciwc t>ifty and iinlimit-jd ndf contid<.ino.- ^ and 
lliua. nitlouL liwiiljaion, he stt luiu?«?if t<* e\tir£?at«? 
witchcraft, sbiickini; from oo atrocity, until the fri^htfiiT 
Salem tragedy of 1C92 fjiockcd thr cdony into racr^ 
and common ^acu». 

MathcT waa juat the sort of cbatackr to bo iuipressdd 
u'lth Timrnd'i d«-)icription of the ittiort and «uy way witli 
«niaII|)o^ ; aiiil he wito bod hulked waitockd and witohca 
wttlt Miihlinief aasurancf, vva^ not likidy to hsivtr m^rn\'\es 
tt}>Mii inoculating tlio community when iii^varvUy uutinlied 
it wa<i for tlit; public tfood. The audacity aud tyranny of 
ctiUheipntious conceit ar» provorbjal H(i had, how^Tvcr, 
to cx<:rci'ic patience in AM-iutin^ an oppitrtnnity Uj tc«t 
til? Turkwh remedy, for there liad bet-ii l^o ^mnllpox 
in Ho,tton far Dinctecn years— a fact y--*?nh notiniJ by 
tluMK whii itim^'mi-' -Humlljufx ^'»L'< an urmLEpri!r4t<]]LM.iliJii?nt 
until the advent of Kiw'ard Jcnncr. In 1721 a ptriouo 
uijthieak occurred, thi; dcnthh rixing in l^cboK^r tn 100 a 
week ID a population of 15,000. Mather convoked a 
bioctjn^ of phyfrician^, an<l laid befor<^ tliinm tbo new pre- 
f(Cri]>t]on, hnt they w^nild nnt li«t*'n to ix^ l)r, FioyUton, 
howT^vcr. vmfl petiuad^?(L and inoeitlatt'd two uf hy al&vi», 
and Uii*n his Honi, Ag<>i] five and six ; whi-rv'on hi' waa 
auinmon&i before tlic ju^^tici:?^ and sovvrcly runrirnanrlcd. 
Undeterred by the Slate, ami Miijpjrltd by the t'lnn-Rli, 
ht*. pcd^ovcTcd, and by the end of Sept^uibei had tnocu* 
lattd 80, and by the itiiddli- nf DtrcumU'r, S'lO, 

His c\iMovi was to make a couple of inciaions in tho 


anwB*, int« which HU of lint (UppL^I in pox-m»tt^r wn^ 
inricrted. At the end of twonty-four houra tb(^ lint ^aa 
withilrftwn, nr\'\ ih*^ wmnnK <!n'S»inl wil.h wiinn cftlilwyn 
Uftv«6. On U^i E<.nuuth Jay tho patient »ickotK>i ^ud 
pufitules AppL'FLted. uoiEiettm^ few, soDidtimta Iiqil^l^wI^ 
AfathtT Diul Bitylston ii^nintAtnod it wnv & moht \xhL>l9- 
*omc opcrutiou. for nfU-T it "itcbii*, craig', c(jn--*u nip live ^^ 
pQopli?, atvw h^Afiy, and got rid of their former ^H 
ninfiLclietL '• To be poxt^i was to be rojiivcnatf^H, ^^t 

Cotton Maiher'^ awn account of the Boston ^*iperl- 
tnoDt ifi worth rwiding, llo wrot« — 

Th^ (lb<t4XRe«r hntli \AUly viiitoU ftod mnoiMhiK] C^ity cf 
Er^Urii ; ftud m little xnofA tliOA h>if » 7^*^' ^ ait>r# Ihria 5'>00 
pcnon* (hftt have ocdorgotio k, a««r 000 bivo di^tL BiJl bow 
mBUj HvM might lui^o been ntv^d if oar ushikprn^ phjnLciAot hod 
not puHiii«d luid Wvitthod our f>«oplQ with * blmdrng« that it 
htm »ppc«rc4 tciy like n Hatomck PLV^cfdoa ihgiu&rt lh« ciothod 
orrolninad v^vlv in lit: way oftbe amailpox laoonUUd! 

1 tiav»fv«TttiUi>c] wiUi tjQf phjvtotui {(vnd for it I havofcod bloody 
lUtMUDtn Duulo upuu my hCtf by t-itmo of our Enontiimffba} to iiitri>' 
dnc« 1D« pra«tioo ; and tUa otpcrimost ban booo m«da lapcc AJmotft 
SOO Objaou in cmr a^i^bonrbood. j'l^tmg and old [tKua on* vorir 
lo MTtDty), vft%k and ibnui^ tuaU and fomii«, whit* A«d bl««k. 
>D xDiilRiiiun«Ti Avtiimo, »Dd wtDtisri and it auodMd* to sdmimticin T 

I tfttTUiot ](4m tital 0114 hi» cli»d of it; tboajrh tbv »T|>«rinj#tit 
liMfi b«on mad* riuUvr ran^Tib ftiid mftr\'*l]L>TU liUiiilvnDtiLjf vi, Fivo 
«ir cix hflTo difid uj>on tn «r *ltor Uh but fioai atliCT dlMMM or a«cl- 
4l«Dlft ; diiofly ^m h nvinp ioLcd ialaf>tLC>ii in tb« ecanmon way by 
iiuuralion heforv ii c^rlil bo ^wti in tliic vtny br iTLDiplniiUtzcti- 

I'r. f-^iitJi. in bis Ntfimil Httlcrrj n/i*fti*Tf*fttfV, (?oTmt» U ui 
ottnuroQM voirdi lolMiEtf, tlut tb«»« «r«ra «oed« Mtt* looivr li> 
cAtdi Iha uaallpax. ftod putt ropilftrlj thrai]|*h the f1«ta of iu uid 
tlicn to die. 1V( bAva bad utwug uk tho vmy totiM o0«iiTTiD«o. 

li vtu g«i]0mllyob«anr«d«xidooimpbiitiiu]tiiftttlio pigeon.boa*«a 
of tlic City roQtitiaAS nnfrnltfol, u^d tli« pfRnoni did not bjitcb er 
lay M Ilt4<y itted to ^o aII iL« wli:le Ibst ul« smidhioT wiw in Hh 
«pl(l*mSfti1i |>tT:4iT«<v ; tMd tt b r^rr hlmngly HlVrmefl Uiftt out diirir- 
hlll fovl b^lt Tiinrb <il Ili« Itire i>rTc^ct irpon tbem- 

TVo hftvfl niftiiy amoEig tu wbo hnvfl Viflem Tinted with iha Pb^in 
in rtibor potinirrt innny yrxm igo, vlio hvia nflTnr ln^*n nrrtitcd 
feiUi KufMpnx ftftcr it. Iltoujfb tbcy Im^'o lircii exisntoiil Ht uiiu-b u 
uiy utbvr people to h > n^Hfiieo die beUaf notf logins Ic ptnnil 

VABIOLOL'S mocuLATia,v. 

ftmoiTl^ m, UiAt thfiy vvLo hwn hoA tb« FlAgu* witl nevat hava tEiB 

Considering the developed €VKlt*ncc that nwiuts m as 
tij till' r-lmm<^t<TT Atul result of iitcxiiiTntimt, it wihiM In? 
suporfluuud to ilUou^ Uiia airigiitar r<.*f>i>rtH but w<: may 
rciiinrk thr coiL^itnjumt*- audaoilv wiui wrhii;li Matlv.^r 
Aaaumcx and iiLuincAiiu hix poviiUon. ^liai a tuait^rly 
touch of the quack have w« tn those worJa — 

I coccot lokm ttal oa« liu diod of it. FivD or m bur* di«d 
tipon it, or ftftir it, but &oiu otbK- diMUvn or Aooidatit*; ditdily 
trara hiring tftkfc inft^lii^n in eli« ooraaiAn «» tiv lDi<|iiralfo!i 
b^ATH it could b* ffivMk 111 ibd Vfty of trontjilnntitkori. 

We can readily iindeistand how Ihe hnnd that cuiihi 

5ivo no ftdroit n turn to nwlvWArd dlHa-'^trr^ could in other 
Ky^ fraiiip iiTc-JiUiiMi' iiidirUtif-ijN for nilHji-rnlt, 
Tlio preei&<? truth as lo the cxUnt of the Boston epi- 
demic in far from ttsj to Mcort^n : it wa^ the lemptatEt^n 
of t1i6 inoculftlorft to ina^iify thi.* auiDlwri of the alHict^^il 
and of their aiitot'^ni^ to mimmise. Thu*) vc tvad— 

A^ A tutottDg bj fiubbek authority m tbo Toa-h llouta of BoaIod, 
M\'n Htt Uii,iMty'» JiSHtJco^ <>( (^iq IVdoo ani tlii> SvUct Mkn; 
ttlA priu*ltl:»nvrH of fJiyiio uad fLiarK»ry Tminn ^LlJod h'>fi:iri» th*m, 

A Hft*oIvfi npon a lUbito bold by th* phyiicians of Boston eon- 
(Vniln^ liioFuUtttig tho SmolEpoT on tlio Ulrt dny of JtiI^h 17^1- 

Ii BppeiLn by niinii)n}n» imtiknir^i, tbnt it hu pmvrri iJie doaUi 
of many pftraoiie locn nfkr die oppnitiriri, unrt i>miti:1it dird^iuiwrp 
upon iQAiijr 0tli9rt i»lii<ili hrtvi* in ihi* i*iid pro^intl JhjuII/ Ut 'vti\. 

TfiAt Hid TiRhirn] tflndflHtj of infnulng virh Ta^li^imt flUh Sri 
tlift mu» nf bload U t^j comipt and naircf)' U. nttd if ibam bn nnt a 
MifHcinat di!ialiar>^ of tlint mAlf|Ctiity by Uio pbcct af Indiana, or 
ftlnpnltriQ, it tmjra a fouuLLhtJDii for many ^mjlproia diitev«& 

Tlint 1\k ■jpi.'T&tiuii Itiifla U bprvud uid coutiuuv tliv iufDCtlon ill 
b plnct iLnii^BT Umu iL u)ii:hl utli>>rttiAV btt. 

Thdl dm i;uiitijjid[j)r tLv uperatiuu uuioujf tu in UkcLr tu pruw of 
uivxb duller viu cjE^Mquoiicr. 

lljcr tiuiLiber of |»iiod«. moii. itumvin Mid ohdiln-it. Uiftl bAV« 
diod of mmltpoi At Boiioc irwu tbc mtddlu L-f Ajnd lu^l jWag 
brouj;ht Lrfc tiiDD by tlic SaElcit'lhU'i Floot) to the 2tlrd ot Ihia 
isalftiit Julj (bvintf (ha bi>ltf<'l Budworal teuou ofllig jBortohnTe 
any dJ^E«ni|iiv tot air, vis. — ^ m«a, stmiii«r»> 3 utpii. C youiii: men, 
2 wonipii, 1 d^iLdKD, ] Dcgm lUbU, ju>d ^ ludiiui womau, ITii) idl; 


wAflf flu** t3ut faftTO tuu3 It, Aom« Ato ibaU rocovondH ui-I Dtli4r* 
asd fiuT wftj cf vocovDory. 

Et fat tiu-ECT Mt> Of lat Tinrjr gi Bufttov. 

ir ybunrt of Boston wroto to London thnt uf 70 
iDuculatt^il 14 or Vi Lad OitO ; luiO Uml tit Ut^abur^, 
wherft thert* wa* no umallpox, ft inoculated had *iii>(i .• 

Conflicting i3a arc the ti*fltiinonic9> atc mii^tftlli'V inuch 
to the na.tur&] avenvion from an opt<ration, not ouly nov^j 
but di^gOHtin^ , but taking tlic Icbt tliat could hv claimed 
for tliL* n*?w pmt'tieL* bv nn <iitliii<iiL%tic advin-aU', the 
bene<til was tntlin^ wfjtn scrioualy scrutiiii^e'l. I>r. 
BikvUUili vi^itJ'^l LuiiiJrm aftfr thi- TSofilvii i-piilrniic, nnd 
liTuljiij: in ovulation in bip)» vijjtTiL* ho |mhh-"-lR-J an 
Atitriint t'f tfif- Stuitilffox inuculitttii in Sew Ji^ntflo itd.f 
tiogrgit I. nr<l the rrinco and fnnccia of Wslnj hsta 
tftkcfi Inoculaiicn under thrrir nugit^t patronn^'c, and 
Boylston with ioysl fervour hurst forth — 

Sh&ll Ect |i]]jidoian4i &nd Kur|;rf(titi rociomrnrtnil anil liHi]^ it mio 
BTNiter »(lMui and j*nictlce, uikL nuvr iitmler GoA} lliouf^niitU and 
1«BA <f (JiouhUi(1« Vy St; niid ni«k« ruiUier>i'firuj*n iti iij [t; 
and Ml nioro vigtimuidy fttuut it wlitn tlwy icitLMlil^r tlnur jfrvat 
PiUlcni And EukLuplii fgr it. ujiiuvl)', tLu ^fiinttiit and wiAiwl at 
Eiii^> tltMj xciyal hiKl^">oa. iLe I'liuoe And I'jllccal bl th« head 
of il ; nitd thai it linn bota used u(idei Ihaii Uo^ Iwuc witU |:r«at 

Boylston in ha AccQU-nt locitc^ hin ca&c« with, wc 
think, gcfnotal vcitKrity. Ho pcrfonued S"14 itio<?ulation«. 
and Mtys, " tEicre weri; In the c<jwna near iJobt'.n about 
3*1 jx^rvriijx njori^ inocn^&t^d. v^hich all dhl wfrll ; namrly, 
by Dt. Koby lihoyii 11, and by 1 7r. Thomson about 25. 
nhich, to^vtlier with my 244. iiiak« up the numlx?r <.<f 
2bU; out of which nuiuboT died only II pctsonfi, notwith* 
ataadiii;: al! ihi- tUflirultitr* iht? pmrtW lalifnircd under." 

JBoyond uitn^ur-.' ■/NtroorUinary was the bland a*sur- 
ancc whcr^-Vtith Uuvlabjn. in cununon with Mathrt and 

* LflM*iD Dr. Jtifitt Ay Ftrutr M/ft^^, XmAmt, IISIL 
lifiiit. ^j '/Mad BvybtQU, Londvn, ];2fl. 


others. iiMtiruBil mjlJ arjniwl ItmL Uw 2?^0 IiioniljitffU hm] 
be«n thereby delivered from th« plagiic of ^matlpoK aitd 
deAbK Accepting the improWblo Aupprj^tion thot tho 
^90 v^r^ ft fair aver^^ of 13,000 Bo4t.i>riln,ns, of iv]ii>rn 
one-third took anoallpox, wc have to flUstiact two-thiMs 
of till* 2^0, ur ISfi riA suprfliiouiily imMriiliti,i*d, l**tiving W^ 
savlvI from euiallpox. If wo thon iaquiro bow uiorir 
K)i tlitn^r Vfiin.T saiVimI from dcfttli, nui r(>f*ort to BojUUm s 
atatiitlcSp wlio Sfty*,— 

1b 17JI «Dd b(i^m:ii]]|| c>f 1722 1liei-t> «af« ia Bi>«toEi S7^^ poi«aQ» 
who had imcJlpoi to Ihfl natiunl wmy, out of w^hioh numbgr dioi 
H44 ; » that Ibo proportioD thai -iio oi ctkturnl unaUpoi »pp«&T« 
to bv on« ia lii, or batvova that of iii lad t*vou — " 

Wc find tho Dun^bcr no more thfin 15, fiom which, if 
W(* i)i*di]rt iTin tf whcMlird iiudi^r hU )[h.Tii),hia tni|»hii?M 
are reductrd to ^, to aavo whom ho put ^SO into a^rious 
aickni^Ni and jtiopaiJ} — ao &t'iiou,^ indeed in nome in- 
fitftniMii (am appo&ra from his own notes) ibut thvrc wjk^ 
flH2l|t rejwon lo prefer inoculated to spontruiuou^ smallixix- 
Vii>wi?d ihiiB in his nvrn ligSt — a light tniwt fjLVoiir- 
Mi, how vain, not to ml/ impLt<knt, wn.3 stiich butUfting 

Koir. if ther» l>9 ikity ono Lliitt cftit itc^d ii f^jtLful accc>iiut or 
hixUirj^' uf any otiior mothoil or pnwticu timl Lua cruriutl fuch a 
uUiul>ot cf mil uw. BOKQt, tMEUitrtatiQiLa. Aud aoluura. uud lu tho 
wucal AMdonv CI Uio jvbTt IhrouAh tho imuUiioi ; ur iiuIolhI 
throuuh HDj ullivr acute i]iBt«iiil}et uilh Ittt'^r huu:tjaa, lUvu I niLl 
alkvr my opmiuu of thi«; auU uutil (li^n. I bfinU vaiiio niid ot'^Mta 
iLla mvthiHJ of hiocuUtJnj£ th» souUpox as the moat bauotLcial 
B&d #ucceA*fu] bhiit aver wai dboorerod to, oad pjooti;^ l>)' uiul' 
kiudin ihii n-odd,f 

Aiid» gaining coun^e tUrongh lii« own noim, bo wont 
yet farUMr, and procuumed thftt smitllpox was Inrucd 

und Hubdued — 

It if. and thaH bo lurkijowUih^cd, t« Ilia praUo and gtorj of 
Goilk thai irlm'tfca a Louit wild, oru^lt fierce nnd violfiul dutoEnptftk 
Bud which hjLq dcJitra^od miJlioiu cf !iTi|?«, ia aow ibv tliat liitp|>y 
Jutcvftfrj oukIv (^ iU IfBUHplauiuliou) bvoooiu UtMtftuia. iaiv siid 

*«ifl^fiftfr4MJ^orotfr>f.]w3P. f Aii. p 3a ; /Wc(. p. », 


In the kQ£>wk(I;£« of the t-mpdntts of this bounfld. ii 
nimy ^ci<m uiAlidou^ ki wiihilraw it from f orgetf alnm ; 
tut it i«rvc« to point the; tnitl: tlim human nuture In 
172G was much tlie aame aa huuiitu iminre ai ilii* day, 
taxd that tho sjituc arU of auHacious ftssertion and row<!^ 
rhctciic nvcrt! in pmcUcc tlicn an now, lnd«cil, m^ho- 
6v«r is miflicie^nily wicked to pT^siime on tho natural 
tr^Htfulnc^A of mankind, and will li* loud enough on<l 
loiftg ojiQu;(li. iTi»,y aU?iin an a[ii>a]Urig sut^ew — as oar 
atory. alan' will provo, 

Onci thine gorji U* Bi^yUtQn'n cirdjt: lie did not pro- 
pOM to ina£e poxing universal — to poUon and sicken 
everybodjr. aad indict certain injury to avcit Futui« and 
tmccrtain danj^ from a few. He proposed to rvserva 
ioocdatiicu for €meivoucie« — 

WliSD the vmaUpox Utt Gontoa* inotfoUliaa CAatccl : and who c 
Itihall plAftM ?rt]Tid«Tiefi toiand andiproad that diitompcr nmi^iui 
HA again t may iai^<MitHnmi Tuvivo. bo hottor ivoc^ivoil, kiilI oniitinrii^rl 
A btiwing In proMTvicj^ mac^ from mlaoiy. oorruptiou niid lUhlli. 

The narratives of Matbur and Boylaton are of ^(Kcial 
importODCo bocauflo we have in theu the true linca<^ of 
inoculation as introdnoi'd from tho oa«ti'rn to th« wc^ileru 
world. Boyl^toa t^jlls uv that when smallpox appeared 
in BrKtiiir — 

Ilr- MAlb(^T. to onmT'<L«^oD to Hit Uvea vf the people* tr^tisonlwil 

*«OdLwtA *(iiit thciu W Di\ Tiiiiiiciiujt iinil PjUriuuii of tTLoaolfttiag 
tlio luuUaai in Iho Luvoai. tmJ Mat tliAiu to lliu practitioDcv* ol 
the town W Lbfiir oonaiJci'Ltion thereon.* 

For sonic inncriitnblc reason the true position oi Cotton 
MathiTf in the \mU»ry of inrx^Eilaticm i» contiiiiuilly uvtr- 
looked or nti^-^tat^id. For iimtauce. in Mather:^ Uo;-rapliy 
in thiT rxcTflli'Ht RiujUaW Ctfi-Injjtrditt. it i* snid tliat lu' 
dcrircd bia tnfonuation and iinptUat! froui t!iu lottery of 
I^dy Uary Wortlcy Montagu > a atat^iueiit rt:pealed In 
tlL9 zn#nki>iTu of tnhat lady, wfiteh iju (.-ntirnly fabulouic. 

Am JlttioritMl AniwU, p. L 




As for lii'^torj ," *iai(i iho Duko of MiltIWioujjTi , " I knoW 
thftt it i^ fal.Ms" ftn*i whocvur Iiba occasion to cuter 
HiinuU-ly into aii_v Jiktoriciil <|ur<;lion will \.v upt lo 
concur with ihi^ JJuki^. Happemajr to tL-fi^r U> ^^ alter 
Ba^elial'H is^jLy on ^Mtiy Mary \Vortli»v MoiitHgii, I found 
I thia pjtaBO^— 

f She broii|i!lit ttoai Tnrkvy Ui« notion of iDttruUli^in. Llk« uaoft 
iiuprtircrftt the was roncUv spiskeu tu. MixUc*l mou wwtb uagiT 
bi^nuflo Uic pTB^tii^o Wffcs Qot in tbeic booki, jujJ colworrntiTe racQ 
WT# Dn>«4 at tLio •iroDjr «f * cru- tilca. )U3ijeioUfl |>c(rp1« considered 
h wfekod lo htTV n Jie^M* wbioh ProTideDoe did aol tJun^ fit to 
tend ^oa t uad limplfi iwopU " dicl not likfi io mnb« thouiMtvn £U 
of tbeiTOva AMonl/' Slio triiixapb«(I,howcvaar, ovorftUobriAakit 
inocnlatioii, bda^t tmUj found to 1cti|^<iQ lif« ftud mto eom- 

Now Rngpliot Inveil Accuracy mh\ nljlioiTeil credulity ; 

iui<I yt-t 111 tlioJiU linctt, delivered ntth iv much confidence 

da a cuhiuiu of tbc miiltiplicatioj] taliW, ihvTv mc ex\\l* 

nJti'd nhout im much mjtcciiracy and creduiitv «* could 

I be packijd into tliu vptict. Let iii^ t<uc what J^ly Mary 

' ri^allj' did in tlie rnat-ier of inoculation. 

Mr WortlcY Montngii vftfi ^pointed fuubo^^ndoir to 
t^f IWte, and Bill nut for Coiuitmitinoidi^ in t!n' ^ulumn 
of 17J() accowimnied by his wifv, then in htn- iwvniy* 
acvcnth rear- The Ottomnn Empire wa^ in llio^ir ^nya 
powerful and pro^id, disdaining,' to fiind r*j|>ri?iouUitivM 
to Chmtinn C-ourt^, and receiving ambji-srMLdorH a^ com- 
in^cial ft^nt^. or m beiirt*r« of lioiimgi? fr<im tlicnr rp*pw- 
iWe sovereigns. Tho KnffUah aiubu^ador reached his 
dcAtinntiiin cnrlj in 17l7.fl.nd ere a Tiiontli hail pa^^^d, 
and erv Lady ifaty had tinio to look ttrouiut &nd oppr^- 
€jnt<' the ^itnngr ^orld kuto \;'hid] »dic liad L-uU'red, with 
*^ghl)y audacity nh^ wroto as follows to htjr friaod 
6 Sfl'raJi Chiavdl — 

Uamry SfVilin. VdL j. p. MA. 


I «m goinfi la loL tod « thtag Cbal I lua lUM will mfrko jron wUi 
^unolf ioic, Tha ODftUpox* io lu&l, uid w gooonl AUioa^it o. 
iH Ijcn* oDCiri^ly biutalon bj^ th« iiivMatJOQ of mjftv^iii>9. whic^h U 
tli« l«rui ihfc; |fiT« it, Tbvr* u ■ s«i of old wiMoon vhA ii]Hk« tt 
ihalr buSnaM ti> jwrldnn tha cp«nCiun «rv«iy mttuiim, ixt Oi* launili 
of S«pt«Dat>ar, wb«u th» grttAlluint U ibttloJ. Pi4>pl» uoiii tJ> oii« 
Uiotijor io tfDov If euiy ot Xhoir ttiEaily bu » oamJ lo bkva Itae 
miBllpoi: IL07 miikD pinif4 for iLiB porpoH^u^d when ilivy m« 
nn*l (coTTjmoniy fiflffca or aiil^^i] togrthpr) tha okl troninri iwniM 
niTii n TiTit'RliAl] fnli of Um iiiiit(«r itf tl]« bt^Kl -ir^rr. of injnlltvii, and 
juOtfl 17^141 vaitit jiin f>[«fli4t lo hMVA np^n«x1. Slit* ^rTiTii^JinUly 
npi opoQ ihiLl ymiofforUi hprwlUi a tftrg» OMclta iwlH<>h Blv« you 
na mora pain thaa n Ainuiioti ui'ntphi.and piitii ihTo Uia roia u 
much Ttiooim » con ht ujton iho ItPLd of bor eihhIIp, anil nlltir 
liiodn up ttii- liilk n'uuiid witli m lioLluu' li[t of OioU; arnl in liiin 
mianer optiuk four or tiyv vuint, Tbi* OraniuTi'^ huM- fitwn"a[y 
Ut4 finjiftrHLilL;!! i4 ihjH^niu^' duh lu llit lutjillf of IIli' foTvh^iiiU ^n 
«ftirh arm, nnd on thn bri^a^l, ti nifirk ihe nign of tlxa now; but 
Uiia Hm b vtrj m BiTflci. till tbfiso wojiulU Innnng llttl* trarH. nnd 
ifi iiuL dotLT Lv LboAc (iiriL nro not KUpentilJLiUb. M/ho ohooiB lo liai ■< 
llietu m the lop. or tiiai intrt of Uie unu tliut u oonoonkd. Th« 
chtlilrvu ur youui! iKilieiitb pliiy tug^^thm' aQ tbo rnl of iha day. 
uid M In iivrfvcl hviLltii ki ttit^ f<i^litJi. TUvn ihv iwar boi^iuh Ui 

^$gAm HiMtit. iun\ Hivy komi t^bli la^lH tw^j ilHpi» irry >i>Iibnii iIlivU. 

^Utttiy hnvo very nurly o-boTO twcoity 01 Uilrl> 'piLittiiitx] iu lljdr 
factv. wblcb iic^u morL ; aud iu eii^bt JiLyi' lima tbT!3 itru nn well 
u bcfgre tJtioii' illueee. UMiw* Ujcj •« wouuilcJ, tbeio ietUuIq 
n&noiuje som duriDU Uji> clipt«mivr. wIiicL I clou'l \\<>iiht in a ^tiMt 
r«li«f to il. Kvvrv ,V4At liiDiii«auil' nuilr-r^^c LbtB o[iiirAliim; Mil tb« 
Preacli ftm^u*ftj<a uyH plhA^WTJttv tbjvt thv.v liiitii lLlo >>iiuill(wi 
beio b>' Wfty artUranioii, d«tbcy Ukv tJia »«lti» in utli^E (.-iriiut^icsv 
Tbcro ia no exocapte of luay oae Uini liod died lq it ; oud ynu iuaj 
b«li0Te I UQ i-ery vtcll patuEccI af tbir iiifcty ^ tbo oxporimtiiiti 
tiaot I iittonil t<i Irj ii on tnr <l«At Utile boii. 

1 va ^Hot ption^b ic wt* pAJU^ to biiiiir iMa uj^rful iiiTDnticA 
falte fMluoQ ic EDgland l aal 1 idioiiiJ not fiuJ tu vrttc ki *oiuo of 
-yu- doolon T«TT |»urt](<ulj|prly about jl. if I ku<w Auy od« of Ui«U3 
tbal I tbon^kt Aikd vLiuD «iiou;;li to destroy rueli & «oaBidcmb|« 
hfUcli of iWr iov«nu4t (or Uuc good of numJuud. I^nt tbat dis- 
Ittapor is too bftntfleUl to tb«m not to oipOM to nU tbvir i^tw^oi' 
tDOnt tho boriy wight tbat 4boaId nadortiikt to pM nu oiui tt it. 
pArbftpc, if I Uv9 to raturo. 1 may, bowovor. bavo eounigo t^ war 
with ikooL Cpoa tbit ocottfioii ndnuro tbo b&ivum in Ibo beut 

In tbiv letter there was oiftUri&l for a smaUrtox icl^l — 
nolhtng etw(i«r. Dothin^ nurcr. "Mnnllpox njaJt- entirely 
hftnnteBaL" But klyls &re <}«ceptive; th^tr fmrnjlisiauil 







«n >htihirirl bj tbe icdal^m txclttakm of wbat- 
k athtrwh^ Ahoat thm time thMt ImAv M&it wk 

duft note lo lier liusilmiul — 

SaaJAj, lOvd JUrdi. 1717 18. 

vHyfapMicoi far OM nppvr. 1 pmyGod nw 
■nl ■» ct>* V |VM Ml Mvovfli of lim. ... 1 evmot «urr*& 
Aft cM : ^ BM* fcM not fcad a» flwUp*!, 


Wbr ahould t^e vnj;7&fttix£ of the iaf^at b^vc b<^«Q 
kiiid«T<t IvcauMt tfa« Dunw tml not had mihaIIimx f The 
10W«r t>> tkc ntMNttoii revtttlit & pfrril ccnccnIoJ from Uin 

Imblr haxt* co<DDaiiDk&tod amniti^tod ^mnllp-^x U) the 
nvcML Wkr DoC iben cDtfraft nuTsc util cKil) ^ BrCftiMO 
they wotilcl Kave ftMk«oea t^«ibcr, and motbur iUry did 
BOittrf Cobcurlheriflk. There wuno<Ujii(;«,atieatid; 
Q0ikR whati^vrT, onlv ft plftrauil AiverwM', nnmrthfltlM 
•be pwfemd <iiacrotioD to b^r o^^ti voiuUo n^uranocL 

Id IfiMiorj w^ hftve alivajrs lo «ii»pect lb« pirtnresqvwt 
for otttikiDd hare a fAt«J mi^Ttnoo for butd^aonto UffOr 
orer uncomely- f«ct: jwd Lftdy Marj WcrTii<-> MontafD 
m mother of Ivn^lUh inociiLaUon, and d^nvjitiv^Iy of 
rMciit*tiiO«i> 9 ever :h> lauch more cncefu] L}i&n dull 
TlnMnl usd Px^ajioi in the Phifiw*}ini^i Tmntuiffioiu, 
or Cotboa MAithcr in New EngUnd. Kcw coodcnocnd to 
tiicitiirv wlittJirr Tjidy Marv, i^ |)nui&M' iiiuculut'ir, vwt 
acUn^' LQ<.lefciidor\Uv, or wheth^' «h^ hnd ju)vis*<r>i and 
|kroi]4]ttr:x " All i>f hi*r M'lf 4uii3 ly iicr.vrlf " i>Uic htruic 
re|ir«£ieDl&tloa— " J4 woDian'^wita^tn^t iIh> world,'' and 
jud^eat surrend^n to fancy, ta u tbc way vrith raylha 
uicivfit &nd incidcnL 

But ii AO hai>p«sfi that wbftl in iuelf ought to be In* 
ctHlihle — cbnt a young EiLgIt«liwoniuu slioiilil muMeoly 
ado|>t thc^ htrfui^ practice of a slrango people— is 
<]«moii^trab1v ijiciei.lLl>le^ lAfly Mary diJ not act a1on& 
SIm bad fof cuunwilor and director, Clitirlt^ Mnitland, 

Son k Yuf ktbir*, 1T13. 



the pb^flkUn b> the enb*j»j, who, fftmilLtr yeHh Ihe 
fime ii iDOCulMioD. wt» j^I^d to observe its pcactice 
cxporiiii«nUlljr- Mutlftnd vmtefl — 

la Ih* T*u L71T. wlu* I had tlu Ikmoot to «lti>n^i tbo EfngHtb 
ilmbi— iim uki bti funlly at CoAi«ik&tli»pU| 1 liod u FaI^ Of^er- 
tomrr foih- to ufami i&fMlf «/ f^b^tl / JUrf Umg 6r/«M hmr4, 
sftBMjr. t§» fiunoiu |ifActio« «f mruptActtn^* or nitiuf tha •■lafi* 
poi bf iaoralatioa^* 

Here w« niAT noUf, too, Uiat MiutUnJ wbl-^ Awarc tbat 
InoouUtioii did not origin&tA in Turkey. He mjv — 

Wfailct QikTVTHlIy pnoU»d th ov«r ^itk«y for ibMo-Kora 5«An 
Hii, ii hM lH«a kaoffn ta otbttr p*tt« of th# EwU a haiiilr«<l, ^. 
for ftog^l WM liDow. coma hnnilrMA of joah before, f 

It n^<i MmUimcl vrh» inAiui^'rrl tltt* iiioc<iIjitpioii»ryoHiig 
HoDUf^, and he tUud dcecriU^l the opemtioa— 

About Uu* tima. 0;^ JVoabftMAilor'a idhuoiii ladj r«Hol-rvJ to 
Mbndt Ld only «oii to It. a ypry b^«fal krr of aboal tkx yt^a of 
afa- Sba fljolcr ^U ordered me 1o fi&d uul a dt Kibject t'> toko Ibo 
maUarfrom* aaI tLec loatEOTAJO oldGrt^k iromui nbo hod pr«£i- 
tisad Ifaia wky a crtat maojr y<a*iL JUUr a p»d dcol of tronbU 
and p4lfl4, t fotLiiJ « prop«ir aubje^t, and tiion tkio ro^ woQua 
went l-f vr«Tk ; bul lo ikit-Izmrdlf bf Xht tli^Hdag <•( h«r hand. Add 
put iho flhtU ic iii> much t^^rloro WLlh L«r bluikt »iiJ niiily eoodle. 
tbat 1 pitiod Jau cTiH, who bad cvor bo^n of «uch »pLdt huo ««tir»f^ 
Uul b&rdt^ atijthin^ of paiii oould make Mm t/rj bofbro ; «niU 
tbonfor*, inooujotud tha otb^r arm witii my <wn inaCnimU3t| ft&d 
wLtb 14 iiltltt piilaiL t> bim tlul b* did io iha IwiAt evmpl&ui oC 
it, Ttio op«rat3cii look Ui boUi u-mH, aud krtoc«Hd»d porl«otLj 
walL , . llo had itf-nt am h'lrjUpsJ pn !xU ripan hi* tioiy- "nM* 
Oparatioo *m parformod nt i'or* Jo Iho month ■>< Miwh- 1717- 

That IS to «ky. almi^st fcimuItanetHi^tv with the Am- 
bai^ador's arrival in Turkay. 

The eiaba^y rvturned to England In 1718, aft«t a 
^^til!tj■ILCti of little oxer a y^ar in Conntancinoplfr. Tho 
date« are worth obavTVAtioii ; {or whiLit it i^ppL-nn tl^t 
th" ilnclor ntid the \^y were la common resolved to rv*- 
coiiitQfiDd tfat; practice of iniji:iiijitiou to their countryiuoD, 
thv dateA ]iruv<- with vrhal inexiH-rurnce upd luvity tbfly 


Manunrs ftXFouiin& 

wmi^fMS^tj wtevwHh 1)etdopMdtfa»aDnlptic9tm 

ill-vin oi tb« ftvU-* Evm laiy CnaJM Scaaft^ vfao 
■adv II Imt tan** Woomei 




■w/ r*«^£««^ Jfory r«4v JTa^*^ X^L t 



Wfts not A <|ibcIe ;" and Prin^evi CWoline kiiaaii itlitstra- 
tion «f itfl truth, Tho nfrw r^moity for Ktuftltpox cai^t 
Iter fmncj, tuid shr. dHjinninc*! to put it U> tli« tir^ She 
bcig«*«d of Oeorjfe I. that six frioDfi sliould be pardoned 
on oondition of tlicir sabnusnon to inoctil&t4i>n. and the 
Kil^ WW p1«A»ed to coraply with the vslr«criliinry re- 
qoMt UaitUnd wm tlien c&ilcd ot>:>d tocxhif>it bi^ ^kilt. 
but he Ur^itiU*'-} to Jurt lu langtitau a iktilutitudt ; wli^mriu 
^ Hjus Sloano, the court phyucion. w&^ iippo&Ied (o. 
Sir Hans ticli) toiinwl with uv. Tvm- of RiilicM, who 
h&d pntctlwd ph^^ub tn CoIllt&atillCif>1'^i And knew ^omo* 
thing of inocuUtioii; audfoTtilvedirtthTcnyAaMarftUce, 
he iru onablod to ovorcoma Mutluid'ii Kt^riiplr.-fi, mtt or 
Affected- Acctirdtn^ly.oniheOthof AiigU3i, I7Sl,n^ri(«» 
Mjuthnd — 

«VBdtfuuiH) CTuuiiuL at Nn-Wk-nto iu t^Tcmeuod of wtvnd uiodttent 
pbywciun, uurTgtvaA, *uil olhwv TJw [muio* of Ui> ariiniiuk 
motif — 

^^■^ fin J<»a¥ Ai/>K-«, . 

4 BicaAU> Etaxs. 


: la 1. 

*i - 

.. io ^ 

On Wcdnc^dar iD^ming. Oth Au^u^t, h** lua^k- iiii^i>^i<>iis 
In both aruiK aiiJ tbi- right I«'^ of tht^ kIx^ TlnirKihiy 
passed and FrMfty j«v%»<^"i widiout any iihlicntii^iL'* v: 
conMtituLioiml dUtiir^miK^-, nriil. despairing of sicce^H h« 
obtained frtuh pox on Saturday frcm Oiri^tn Jloopital, 
and repeated iha incx^idation in n«w incisions In ihr* anns 
of five cf th«m. He !ia<l no inattor hll for £van«, who, 
it appeared, hod bad smallpox m !^>?pt<-m1rii. 17:>0. And 
who thorofor^ evcap^l haoi^iii^ unwArrantuhly. The 
dlaeaae tiow "took" and progrcaHxL satisfactorily. Soya 

One dfty Mr. Cocl, un omiDmt Tuikoy maLTcLjiiki. h.-^vla^ hdu 
Uiv p«nuua eugnfloil b Ken«ate. and bavitkg fully rotiiidorecl 
Ui«ir iiidiioa« and «rxiptloas» b« ohoIj dtoland tJiej worv ihr 
v«rj MOQA as Iw liBd obfcrveJ in Turkey. tm¥iii}- mcd a 




nutanoea i ftnd th&t vc inijfbt bo iiuujed they woiiU tiAVtf t^itim 

Dr, Mtiiul ii]^go«t«Hl ftnoUi^r (>xp9rimi?nt — that ooUoD 
dipped ill pi>x sJicniliJ bo in.icrtr<l in t1ic iiDiftnh > ildcI a 
y^:>iing woniftti wnk*nced tij 6en.lh re&L-lvtnl h^r life on 
i^Midition of sulnjittin^ to the opcmtii:»n. Horo wo hav« 
Me^d'a own iu?i?i>unt of Ihv triuiAatrliMii— 

cmftlEpcii. AF limy aitll It, Imfnni V> tlia Ct;lnM<i kTh»v« tlifM Iwil* 
drrd yoDn.whii?i] Ia ihU. Tha^MlCftlho (km^ nf nam* of IhA irud 
piutuli?'. vhi^h nto fibttrra from tbA badir, tnil jint tliDiD icto ft 
Mtnwlain bottle. ttnpj>iii^ tho rnduth of il vary olntn artlh w»T. 
wb«n Ibvj hnrt a ittiTid ti> i[ifL<ot any ntu^^ they inukif up tbrM or 
fonr i>f tliMn Hklna, pulling 1i«IwMin tlit^m witli nvfi t^niv of miuV 
mirt A t*Tit wflh piiltiin, wWnh \\i*j put rip thfl ncstrHfi, 

1 myiftlf hnvf hmi lui cifporliinitj" of mnkiiig ui sipflritrwnt to 
tliw piirpotw. For. wlinn in ihn yoar iTiL ^y o^^Jl^ pf Ma SMtvd 
M^lHty. bolh fur die .take of hiv o'H-n fnmil;. iriil of UU «ihjMt«» n 
triu WUB to hi3 [iiiidi< upuu Bevi?t] ooink-ujutd iiialtfiLctors. v^holbcr 
or U(rt thi- "iriKlltmi ii"dd ^aMy hv i^\'tfiuitm\rMM hy inntmUliDti ; 
I «(ud|y obL:fciEEiid EtfrkVH U\ utuke Ilif r}i][ii.'M»> mpiinimiTii in itaip of 
Ujam. TUtiru wjlh aiumig l]iLi>'e ubo wtn-\^ rliDkiii iint t» mjdtrrso 
tiiv optTAtUm. ^ Vijuii^' t^rl fi cit^lili-i^u ytnm uf juju. I pul into 
liGi [iDBtnb a kut. wuttcd vdlh maitur uK<::i out uf lipo puotuln. 
tht tveiit ou'iwerod : fur ^St iu bku iiiauutr Aitli the uihtsr^t irbo 
Vfti« uifccled liy iucuiiuDR iuAdt> in thv.- hkui. ft^lJ tk'k.iod ri<ck>Tft«1; 
tiut Mlflivtxl juurh iJiikr^ tliHu ttj4^^ iliil. UiiiJt;, JEuitmlijtLrly itfWi 
tlw l^iMm wu mcutvird lutu Lte mxtt\ iiiiAciAbl.'^ tui uitiiittnJ \hitb 
*hup poljiA ia Lvr hcj»d. ftuJ a forer, nliidi Dercr lefk hoi till tho 
eraptioa uT the piutultn.^ 

Finally, Miyji Mnltlniid — 

Od UiU Qtli (rf }^rt^i1ctxii}.H<r llii-y ^Htv jlU dEhCJiif^ed lu theLr nftvorftl 
OiAuntioii mtd lintiitAlJoiih. Tbv IhJng Iiei« Wujt ^ucce&sful «u nil tbo 
Iht). fu Leyoud my c ipoct At JOU * couBiJujinf; tli&Li q^j:c Imblt of 
body, and cin?ucaAUucca ; »ud it hiui pt^rF^'cLly aUBWored Dr. 
Tiiuoiii'i AOocimt vf ILp iinidtioc. and ftlao Lbv tfipoHoTicie of aU 
w]u>bavD BDc^jj jt ii) Tiirhi^y.t 

So M&itlaiid o^urUd, 1>ul others weri' of a dilfi^reat 
Lrpinlcm, Dr. Wa^taiTe. >rho vbited the pfttictita la 

• rt* Sn^iJIfffj 'tmi yffiii^ij'. By t)r. Mt^ul. Ljndnn, 1747- 


N<?w^tc< n^giilnrljr, niniiitAlni'i) in a It^tUr addrewcd to 
X>r- Frciutt — 

V)xii] the whole, Sir, m tb« caacn fnouitoned. tbtr* w*i cottinc 
liio the utuElpox, eitW ia ftjmptouu, ftppoaruiooe. wlvajioe of tlio 
imvtalM, or tl» couxao uf Uto lUnivniMr. And it ivouliJ inuclo bay 
0B4 lo ci;iuc«£^ bftw It iApcGnblo tEiAt fLiDnllrHti can over W prs- 
vcntod by ii]0«iilfttion. Wi^ tbo cxocrliitti ot ano of the mcoa did 
j^jrlnrboMdooUou dilipodia m&ttoT Uirust up }]criVMtTil»|baia« 

Sir Hun^ ^I^j/uic nml Dr. Sti?i^rtfih), phyj^intan to the 
Kin^', to tc^t thi^ tiiatti>r farther, "joined purHc-n," and 
bftd ODC of the wQmun inoculfited in Now^'iitc «0Dt to 
H*irtfcir<3. wh«r" aiiuUlpni tjf tt!wvi'n» form wit* prrvftli-nt, 
to lj<i in iwd with fiaiallpcis patknta. Th>* she did witli 
imptinity ; Imt it wn^ rrjt^nnnbl}' ohjf^li^d tfint nisnv who 
wuru uot iuooulattd did ao lilc<.tvuo and c«cApi»l without 

Tho Ni^wj-fito ?xpoTim<mt, of coun^, caused ^raat 01- 
dt^Tincnt, fU]<I tndtio^l mnTiy repcdbionA in town uid 
country. Tho Princes of Walea wu c«pecl&lly «IIvg to 
the imponnncc of " the gr«At discovery ;" and for her 
oddtticinnl Hiiti^fji^Lloti, kix diarity dilldivn, ht^loit^itg to 
tbo ptkrifih of i^t. Jamea, were inociitfttod ; and aII but ono 
" took ^' and did irtdt ; ifiR ^xn^ption ^x^rin^ dim (f> tho 
craft of tht child, who, for the take of the reward, cou- 
oeolod the fact of haTuij- bnd <iiiiat]pox. 

XTTMa fbMo tnab, uirl lort-nl oUrnn in pririiU fomiliM [vtoIq 
Sir Hftnt 81oan*],1h* Piidm«« of Ws1«itnnl for nw Maw my 
«4nlon of til* ittwralatfon of tb« PftnoMMK. I told n»r Bc^iu 
BjAbiMttii llutt tiy vhst ^tpmuvd In tb« MT«rml auojv, U Monuil 
lo M ft nuihcil t(i ii«car» pcopk from tba ffrftat clnc^im ftttttndliic 
miftflpoi in thb rmtanX wigr, HaI prmnktioni b/ dUl wd 
EucOHuj pTM^ittlbna Mn; takan. nuda tM finotiM T«*y <l«rfr- 
•blp : liat Una not Mnff nrtdn of di« <KinHr|iM)a« wblnlf tiHflfat 
ItHiri^An, I VvIqIiI not pfoniiiulB ii'»- aJiHta LliA iLAklDU UIaIi npoD 
[uai^ntM oi mnb IntHtnAnen Co tha mibUe. Th« Frtnn^ tnan 
ofkni mplf r would diMUdahorftinaft: Ia wfakb t londavuvN' 
Uutt £ would HOC, lu a matUr id Iflnlj to Iw of nuL ftdvftiUaHBi 
Hor rvptp woa. that kbn «« tlieii rMolfad to lu«9 U duM, ul 




ordwvi] nM to g9 to ttio EiiWt who ooutouuiiUd mo Eo vail 
him oa ih9 oo<Nuion- I loltl liii MkJoAy tay opbtion. tb*l ii Ww 
jmpovibbla Uf }}0 tctUant biit th«t ndtiof[ tnxoh a oomi&«li^ii In 
tko bload tbfiKi might b&jipou dnopcrcnu uociiIcqIj not fpiTKmn i 
but h» raplio J that iraoh ini^at &d4 IijU bapponcd to porsocu v)lO 
hft4 loflt uidr lir«c tiy blooJio; in ft pleuiur, uaJ Ukinif j-lirtu) vi 
•HP (lifft(»mp<ir, li?t naTv bo miuh oar* b» tokcit. I told hw Ma- 
j«My that I thau^ht thU tij bik the itiaio cA^av, aqJ Iba nuttt#r w>a 

tQ|T tho op«nitJou. ^r tti« !a<ut ill Hymptcra or disordvr smot,* 

The Princes* AmrlU, Age^ cl^viiti, itnd Crtr<)lmr. ngiwl 
Dmo,u-cEv thoreTore mocaLated od tbo lUth of \\m\, 1722. 

Let us return to M^hitLojid, whose triuitipli for tli« 
moiB^nt nppniiri?j1 comjilftLi*, utirl wiUi it ItU lutsui 
To hilt detr&^toTA he profeea^l boldljr — 

T eaixlA hrias a i:rt\ai auay omu of parro&ii JoMolataLl !» TnrIrA? 
tn pnnu «Ar VfMfjinf awf onMn «mmm» of th$ jracttca; m aU 
whicli I huvL- ticvtr senu juiy mJsoairiiun* oxoopt tn odo. whicAi 
wDj nhuUy duD tu llw nisliiifiu and iiudvcirtaaeo of % mugeoa a& 


]« :t mil w lUAtUj- iif thti i^njbt^^t imjiortju-in* fiirtin tl kiiow hov 
Ut i<zit\tiul lliii QiljfUtj coifta^itia of lL» luiuillpi^t, ^ujil liow U\ nra- 
>*rvo our o]j1Ei1jvu froiu tLo vlolonl altriclu ntiil fnUJ ofCootfi cifU F 

To divine Maitlftnil's characl^j<r — to deteraiino how fat 
he wft» vicccivcrrr dcccivori i.n not ciwy, \V':t obviously 
uuuJ^' f>rof(4^ioD5 in v&ivt excc^A^ of liis knuwleJ^jv. On* 
oC hia coutcmporftrics %iTitcji— 

r rdmombcr Hr. UmitUnLl at ChfldV OafTnn Hangup vlmn iho 
aiperizneut wnsjunt be(*uu at Kew^to.Wiu lu aanAjcTnt hdlI niut- 
tlvD Lif Ll^c £iu*O0a and Eci'urity |irupoiiuJ by moculiiticu u if ho 
had fcn'l iw<mty je^r* ffujwriwjw wftJiout wiy iiiiHtiFfcri'iiHjis wtiioh 

for tlia employ Lhau fur llm <aocou of it. f 

He had not the pro|>er craft of the cotiHdousA rogu4>, 
for alongside his a&scrljona of absolute; couijietuuco and 
icnfaly, he si^t forth such confes»;inna of i^ortincL^ and 
diaafitor. that one la impelted to pronounce him a pur- 

+ JUaae UiiMty Id Sir Hmu Slouirs 172S, 

i'ii/oi'typAiiMi 3Vin*aciiojw 

kIU. p, 


blitul cnthastn.^t. For ox&mi>1c^. talco thU caac, which 1m 
publLalici t^-itliOLit t^>i?tirent1jr auy Aeitati of lU sco|>e — 

t»dOtMibifr,JTXlj—Ji.iUirt\\in pri>p£ir»tiDEi of thfl bodj, I anyrafl- 
ad Uiuy Bntt. ah infjint of tvra yean jiiiil % h&ir uld. duuffjLflrof 
Thouutf Bitt. ■ QuLkar. IWiiik: it^ Tv^uple* wltliin tbmo tuUei of 
Herliord- Tho rttl Fi^uba hiuI tTuMliu^w'" ibp^tartd wx Imr Ikcv athI 

novwUj or 9Jv1iIli> ^itnit »Iid bocaiuo a UCilo hebT> iitiil Uikjit^. 
witTi ft fulUi AEiJ l^iuo1e«j f<nLi« ; tb*Xk the pijfiulefl cuiue oat fruU 
nud full, ftaij tba mdu^ne (UifiLbn;T^<l ^ thick ujlI well ilijEutod 
umUct. Sho bad not ribcivc twMnCr iu nil uikiu lict^ Ihpy oon> 
tESiMil about tbrcc* (»f fuUr ^Ay^, tlioti driod nwsj tind fiJl olfi nuil 
Iho cTjiU r«!crtT*d pnrfetrtJy, 

TbtiA Cftr all «fl« wfiU ; &uf u^af happvri^ed aJlefui&rtU t^a*. I 
iHU4f i>vn, H*t a lltiU turfri§iK^ Ui rm4, n^i MVinf lAm or oh' 
9$rvi4 ii4yfAiA^ tikf it ^f/i't^ Tke CAa« WM in short thin. Six 
of Ur. Bktt s domcotio **«v»nt«, tmusoIji ibiv hmq ud tvro maid*, 
vbooUin ll;drt(VDJWQn««ol to bnj(ahi>dcaf*Mtbifl chiM vhiJA 
BD^AT tbd opoTAUcPi And Uttf puflcjM ir«r« out ii|)an twr, dctst 
RMOVoUd tu«in ti> btt cAtebitaif, imr tnJM^ did 1, won nil JieUad 
wiu lb« riffbt UAloral uiialIf«K, of Mr«tn[ oikd vor^ diffcroot kjodi ; 
fbtf »o<n« b^l Uto round dulin«l imrt, vote* tho dmoll ooitiu)ued« 
otbcn iLo c<iiifiu4Dl ; mil of *om bkd ii gn^i m&njr. but otf«- 
tb« kri. vilh Uio tMQid bod vy»pioRl», mmd fry iwrrowf^ 

would nol bo j^v«niod naJor tbo dLflUmpor, vrho di^ ^ tl j 
DOW tmjov A parftfol >tiktc of boallb,^ 

lliu^ai llio outlet, 6maUj>ox anJ Ucatb were the pro- 
rtiiGi« of iiKH'iiktJon — tbi^ prtril tii hf. nvirrUwl wan inciirrpd 
iL&ii iDuhipliJxI. Yet the diad vrhu thui rc^onb hia oivn 
infuuouA i^iictance, had the uupudieDcu ia the a&tne 
ptgM to ftHMrt — 

TA^ pra<iU« prvdtnily mmivtyrdt m a^<ry« tit/i* rirui iM^ft/, <inJ 

Word* mrc wjuUd en vudi rt-ckb-w fully : wo perc«ivo 
bow tru« b Corl^le'a ohwrv&tdOD, " SLU|4JIty jiiltlltK:- 
toftJ Alwftjs moftDs stapidity tnonl, &^ you u-il], with 
iwr^riifo or not, discover if you look," 

Before leaving Maltlana. we watiy talce jiQother liiaf 
from hia cspcricoioo. He writes — 

VtikOtM^t }7Sl. — l ioocoUlcd J«fl«fAi and Bimjttaua,ioM of 

* ?kUilMod*i i«reMUi« p. 3T. 

t/«iif. ^^3. 


WilUiaa Hi>*th. of Hvrtfoml; Ui« ftrvt ct about uven, 
ftMond (Jircc yi>kri of 4g# ; boUi witb Ibo taxao EuntLt^i lu^d M tbo 
iftmj tiiu« -r lliH ]ju1 )iAr! ft ;{vntk uid favauaubie kittd : but Uw 
&vlr iiun«lf. Jiv^f'ti- Mnn h rut, tviil, ntnlioiooiu boy, win? «ofild 
not l« ooofimitd to tbo mits utid dir*etioiu X had vlriatly ob«r8«d 
hii mothw wiUiaIi m Ia divt aind k*«piia|[ watid, wu tok«ii T«Ey 
lU lMfor« tho «niption, and oftflr It h^ A «rMt load of tho ooDluiaad 
nnoll kinrl, Init itt Uit rrtfOTdnxt iDi] did vdU^ 

twi-i1]iiy»! Thftnuwon of l|io«nia to b* plainly this: th« joonipsTt 
wIja \uv\ tha fftTtiam^U kind, wm of ft woaii lutlnf., infidATnt* App^ 
tito. anil flBjily govmicvl linrtng ih« wlifJi* ttKicAu, Tbo oldorwM 
not only or a ffmu foul roDflDLriUL-m, liuf ItVcvita bud a vonAifJXm 
App4>tirj>, al^vityK PBtiti^ and lillrng hi* bally vlth dui coftrHflt food 
— fK din^'i'^H fill wnntry i)rid(lm^. colij boiled 1>«ef. md the lik*, 
wliinli I HAW ttiy*«\tvi I GAJ1U ill by ohanM tLa Uiirtl day aAw tho 
Hpamiion: nnr Vim ih«ra ftny «ar« takAn to ruHtraiii ar kM>p him 
wiihin doon In aa\dt wlTtitv. frMly vAAtliAr: ha antta vAt bin fuit 
Id mtCff^'-iiMOimQdi that h^i Iia uk^n thri inLall^icix by infoatlfm. 
flit worid ooold nnt h^vA uiVfH bU lifo. Honm k apponn how 
mdMHirv It U to {-Icniiiu) ihnrongldy inMl biiblu brfom ibn fip^mticin, 
ftndp witUal. U> kcw[i juticDtn to a Tory ithct rej-iuiL^n uudor it.* 

Verily, fta Cobbott eaiJ, qiiaclcory is ncvijr uitliout a 
shutHo. A% Wf? p,hn,\\ Kii\ ill 4 KM I In Lion camn lrt> rcLjuin< & 
preparfltorj' courno of very wtricL mjiuieii — so strict as to 
DO impTocticabki fi^r the rank An<J nJc of the worH : but 
Iho practlcii wiw At fin<t comiutmlLnl witliout any such 
confutiona. Wliat saJJ Maitln.nd*a patron, La^iy Mary, 
in hrir fatnoiu lotl-^r from AdriHniiplii ? — 

Tlie imallpoi. lo fatnl and ho ^nontl mnnrii^t tin, it bttrA «n- 
ttrvly itumititu by Itiu uiviTitton of iftyrn/tintf, . . . iCiftry ymf 
IbniiMLridH iiFirl^rtfoiU Jij^^ntttLin : Ami tha Frrtnnh JUnbaiiWldor iiayD 
plaaunlly UiaI th^y taJc« tlio HmrL]][KiE lien by way of divci-iinc. 
M thoytakfl waUm In other counCHot. Tlitro bi tJo r^iAiiiplD of 
nnyana thnt hwi Aiad In it^ 

It waa Ufldijr cover of such nddticttvo AKsiiranc<^j* that 
inoculation vqa iDtrcducc') to En^Luid, and iMttkUiuHod 
in pcrvorstty and quAcker}'. 

* Uaitland'i Awtnat, p, 3T- 



^^ _ _ 


A>; wo ha^'« aeeUj it is part of the L^c^q^ that tlio ID- 
troductioa of inocdkticn wm ranaticall^ resisted by 
|>Uj'&icUrui, olumy, auJ uioT>; but tbe rwUtaiice waa 
notther fAuaticafnor oxU>ii»ivo, And b chicfty the Invr>n* 
tinn of thn rDi:i[ii]ciiig 1jii>^(rnphiax who roprcM^nL 1,iul)' 
ilAty Wortli^ Uonlaj;^ oa a li^rotnc and martyr ci 
science. To do that Hhrowrl anJ brilliant woman jtutice, 
«Ui^ made no prct<^ncii to the charflctor imputoii to lier, 
(] 111 hvT C0|)if)UA t'urrc^puuiJtiiR'ep there In not & hint of 
oxAnce on tho i^core of ht^r patronago of thki Ttirkifth 
tnc<bfication fii ^mrkllpox. f^>:i th'> contrary, it wotiltl 
appear that InocuUliou broitght her a large share of 
that veiled notoriety in which aho hnd slncoro pIcMurc 
Writing Iri the Cciimti^M of ftfnr in 172;^, she says — 

Livly Bytm liiw iriiiriilnl*iLl IkiIIi Ijftr diiEdr«n, anA rdm Uiftt 
«V|iiiri]n«ni has n^^t htui any 111 urToel. tb«> vhn1« tavn Am doing 
tliA UkTDD tZiinfr: Ami I am Eo ETinch pnlfal abdnt. unci solif^ztDd Ic 
Tliait paoplc.that I nm forcwd toranlotiitiiOOOiuitrjtohtdftmjMilf'* 

Lady Mary rnideretood h^r countrymon thoroughly, 
and, thirtv ycvm afler her cxpl'JitA in inoculation, iihc 
wiot« to Mr. Wortloy Montagu as folloT;^^ — 

I £iiU la-i Witx^r cDCOeodod to WjwJ'b Prcp» TU pc«iblo. bj 
th&9 time that ftom« othor qnaokcty lifwf tibkaa pUcc cf that. 
Tbo Bnicliftli AT* FTL>i'Tr Ihnn nnj vlhtr nhttud LufAtiicilnil liy th» 
preffpeetfff uixfrvnjJ QiniliciuM- nor U tLiure ftny &juijfry in tb« 
worU vlioro 4kie diMrlcni r&iii« «i3ch imxnojue fi:trtuQrTf, 1 AtCriliDte 
it to tho fODii of ertdaUty vbdoh ii in all nuuikintL Wo ]i«to no 
IcckRor fAitfa ID mtnol&n asd r«lic«t and tLcnfon ^th tiio DAiae 
bny noa afl^r rM:ip«a nnd phyvioiaTi*. Tho AAUae moDoy vrbieli 
tluvahuodrvdj^Antittfii viMjriT«Qfnrtt« li«althof tha Mralwnovr 
Ktrve for tho hf^idth of t]i« budj, aal by tha afenko «ovt of poop1#^ 
voofta aal hftlf'Wittod mc&. f 

* r^fitfrtfmii Wiirhti^f htuf.j/ H. W. Afooficw, Vol. E, p, 46^ fiillttM 


Tbooc who EukCT tfacrc cnolc) lie u\y wide or ctrrrtiTe 
rm«U&ee toi&ocaktk)n in I7£l mbapprdhend iUv con- 
ditjoos of tl» tiitto. Tbere wu do aciG&tiGc kiiovriud^ 
of tht Uvt of hodth ; diMduui vere gononlly rr^v4«d 
aftib]rMcrio«Bdlm«]k9tttioa&of Pr^vi-icocv over vhkch tbe 
Kuflcnm hud little control ; And n grcfti |iftrt nf xu^ilirtiu) 
VTAA ft cotnLinotioii of Absurdity wiUi DUlUosa. k vorukl 
not bo difficruU io eoiu^ilp a wH^ of red|jes bram Iba 
|4i«JB«cop^iA of that dMy which would AltcnuU^yccctte 
AOlUBeuKCit, auqiHM:, and dift^mt, mid U) dcvcnU; Enrdtc*! 
pnetm fnm which it is marv^Uocs tha.% ^^rer patient 
OMpcd aUtcl bat so much xaml pus without snrJiig. 
Suite* it to lUiAurt, ihaL to to(«u1atton thure was Itttin 
oaterial for opposition, rational or irrational ; and tiiat 
wliat we migbt tliink ihv. naturaJ hurrar of LranxTiiHing 
the filth oTamallpox into tho blood of health, ma 
nmtratlAt^t hy Uit- cumsDcyof a muIUtude of ]>opi ' 
rooMdie^ which s««im«d to owe their fa^ination to 
uutmgrou-1 and luatlisotiic cliaractcriatloi^ 

SIoreoTer, as th.^ datm prove, the interval wa« bn«f 
between the introduction oi inoculation and ita authorita- 
tive aG«i)tanei& Tht* ^irl MTmla^cu was pHv&tcTy 
tnocnJatea in April. 1721, Dr. Koiih's boy on tbo J hh i^ 
Mny, thn Nr.wgntii r\jii^nmitit IcMtk plncr on tJ[*i Vt^i nf 
Au;^At« a vativiy of cxptriments foltowf»d, and lAnily tb« 
?riBceeittB4 Amvlia and Caroline were ioocuJatcd on tli« 
19th of A^ril, 17S^ — nharp work for one ^^ear. lliuia 
iraft not time for oj^HitiovL TIio citadel of aoeaai 
approval wa* carrt^ with a mtlL Aa a cont^npomj 
oi»crvcd — 

I <onJil not txit lak« netiA* irtth wUftt cldiivJ forM ui^ i^al Um 
bnctlc* wu nuiih«4 on npoix tbo hf# »Qd tvpulftUan il ran»iifiid 
vonu Itn ftilmlMioii to tU« licj^'&l PaIiu^a: tkA pttOft fttnl Tr«»t1y 
pkp«T> ftt vork to VMODunen^ hOn] pribiiili it : ukd ii vu tlghi^ 
jn Jgvd, than or ii«T«r vat tho linu ; uid hid it not been for t 
nnlucky mitnuriftgM, th« Innonlalon vinnlil ha^ lijul lb* 
frltMflf* for fiLllprnctfr<i anil tall poek«liith*t«Tav tell into the. 
of t» HEiiHtl ft H*E ^f ra*n.* 

•A SAcri ^ad Plaia dCcntwr ^ /heniliinin. Qr laaj Mi 



find On B^. E. 


mm IbU<v to Xt. 

Bftil f^tsoni ai« oAm mdrutmd^^mik lad poficy, ABid 
wlubittis i^oUde tfaai mom; m1^ tUi» mn vttand 
■gpiiMtinnriitoHrTn jitTHifnlr inrjriftffiiliiiiwl 'mnM 
te inpfeiMd vith t^ la o dcfU oa of MAtUukd'a ^M 
AdvenMto. There vu Isaac Hwej, for Jnittfte^, 
^oUwGfif7 to Cbritti Hoifiittl. «^ paUSAwl wesjgml 
dumDhMbm us 0pcunuott_ "vbc^voit ^BttdoDT aod cood t*^** 
ftre Utfo uiJ fcoi m cooi p faw^ B« defined — 


«to» «U| J l ha rk u kM lb«i no J jMo, ■*! y«^ to 
m-vrnfM i«» wilfcMt it. «licr«^ mbo mh af ffl j cob* to §m 

He olaecl«d W the txM^penUA diagea of aoaftUpox 
wharwith Uh InoettbUm opewted on the Mihlk 
fewB. ftDd tiipetkd to tw own czpcnoooo m Cwiit'B 

Wh«* 11mm M« gaEMBA J BMT ttO cadUm. Ito noMflM at 
W«»«nd IhHfcnt wif niljming >h> ftoflta <rf <to»wb»ff> 
oC Ii tiAib HBMtoiac kAMMAd itttt (fMi mnotoci tov* mq 

or Bol loi^a): ntldnnj, aad Sir Hm Sloaka. I u ii mbu 
wfll ttjr fto tao^ ifaftt [q 1TB»I7 jMn tbttv Imw iw< dM abon An 
oriiT tl AMI of ih« dlftMDpar. aod Id Uw last dcfct |«»n tlMtv 

dMbvioB*. ; 

So lightly illd he TvptrA the peril uf HUiallpox lo Lh« 
jomig uiat be delivei:^ thia duUMtgo— 

8spi«M tiiat tvwty-fvB Bl i aoi l Ilovpitol l^j* ai a nMUvim 
y«tf BiUi Ano«bcriUkBDiQ«f tlw smaUpox. 

- U^TUtJfr.M^iOmtd, Hi Bdudnd UaM«T. Lv4m^ 1780. 



Supwuo wa lileirUe. tlml ike Inooulatoci tbko oni of Uio 
•evvnJ wijd«« jMbflf, aa they £iud ttitiu. tvrirulj-£i« licj(i| wluoU 

Quorep WLaI the tUfTertoiM of •acocw ? f tolomoly protect thftb 
if Ihu ooold te put ia priKtloo, I would lay tvo to ouc c^;AiaBt tbo 

I'cr. ju I bare a^ld before, we have lont bat one anjfLllpoi 
Vi)iti«iLl tJittH tiia« yom (wriliaK ia 1TS3 ilthoiwh 1800 cbUdreo 
ha.vij boon ih Ui« HcuM diiKQK tlut time, &nJ f dficlum t> 1ibv» 
mcl with no iiaoqiuJ toaccM iti otlur families unaQj^it cbUdron 
ibbout the nunc Jii{«a ^that U between S and 15i whore I hnvc beott 
ooQEwmodt «ad I doubt not b^fc naanj of tfa« LHmod Faculty, m 
tv«U «A Kimo othum of my profotwou. oo-n cuy aa suaah from ttieir 
own oipoH(]ii«o u)d ob0«rratioa, ■ 

To ftpprcci&te MiLM«oy'n contention on thiA point, vm 
}mve t4> renkBTnber tlif^t ^nallpox \tt the ilEu^ignation of a 
diacoAo of many tiemoA of inlcnnity ; a cor^idcnvtica 
wlitcU Dr- Wtt^aU,ITo, aiiulh^ir i>p|iojii?ijt ut inoi^uluUun, 
thufi enforced — 

Uicro ifl 0onr«o!r, I boBovo, po groat « diffonmct bottroct^ aajp 
tiro durtomporfi in ihtj world, m belwDcn tlic* b^jt uid vono Dort dT 
nuftUpotf, in T^nptsot to tb« dAJijcani vtbidi utU»d Lb«m. ... So 
tru« in thut comiiiun obtqrvntion, Uiht tliotv w oa* Kort In wkiob • 
atirvo ixuiTii^t lull, ftod uiothcir wliieb urou a pbjsioiiui coo navsr 

OHfO. t 

Of coune tho Bilt& of MortAlity wcro appealed to in 
hv'iileit(*i! of ltiT< rxU^it aiid fnlnlity nf Mim]l|i(ix ; funl m 
it is uiatti*r of oominon belief that prior to iiiocuktion 
and Jennet: (then? i& alway?^ a hazt* about tho flnW] people 
Were iiio^n down with Muallpoi, it may iv worth wliito 
ruviving the t^M'- of relative mortalitv in Luiuluu during 
tho first twenty-two y*^ars of tho ISbfi (!t?iitiiry. 

UurlbJf Ifwa feJI DLfcam- 

FroA Smkllpoii. 



















• LtitfT Id JTt, Jwfn. Br Immm Uamtf- London 1733. 
f I^rrr- fo JM JVilHtf- BV W. Wunaffd, H.D., F.R^„ ontr of bbo 
IihyiiciAiu «r 9t. Bwtkolonwwii Homtw. Loodoiu 1722. 

THE praer opponects op iNocinj^nos. 


BiuWi fiviii felk DLmm* IV-a BTAllpda. 

1T07 . 

• fll.600 ,,.107^ 













1713 , 



ma . 



1711 - 



17« - 


























By tb««« iMw [wn>t« Dr. Jujiaj it &ppcan that upmrdH of 7 
por o^nt., or «oiD0vhaC looiv than a fouit«catli pari of lUAukinJ. 
din of the fraiJlpoi ; and c^D^o^poutlj llic tuzurJ of (lyin^ ti tl^at 
^ftUniXTf, to flvorj mcUridual bnm inl? tho vorlJi i' nt Iradt tiutl 
ef 1 la 14.* 

ThU litTgD iuiliEctUin fnmi LimdcjiE U> unlvmnl iitcui- 
kind H &oteworili}\ b^cauHc, as wo ^liak} tK*d, it t^aiiw to 
be oftj'ti rnndc, ftiid involved a serious fflllacv ; for unlcw 
uolvi^ncal iimiiktml iIwl^U fn conilitionH AimiLir Ui Urn- 
<loo<9ts, it wa« idle to infer jl commOD rate ot diau&^i> and 
Jily. TKcf po|iulnti(m of Ijondon in 1701 wiiH 
tatou at about 500^000 (tliorv wut no L-xact. oviuu^), 
to about «00,000 in I72t>- It wiw cicely p/ickr^l 
lod^d over c«aa-i>«oU ; Uu wuUt sujiply was 
imntfid^ikt, anJ thore was no ejfectiv^ drauia;;o> Tbo 
VAAt niulliiuclr w)L4 ili^pEKiul^ nft if by diuigii, f<ir thci 
goncration and prcmo^ittii^n of xymotie dif^oai.^ and 
ially smallpox Litile attention, waa paid tcr jXTragual 
[Itneu, and still least to vontiljiliun, tu ftght, to 
?xeTciae. The condition of a Ur^c urban community a 
cofitury Ago is aliiicMt inconc?ivabr<i at tlio prcTurnt dny. 

By JuiiD Juriu, M.D- 



LoiLdon«» -wac then ovU/ nlowly nnd blinOly rislii;^ cut 
of thoA« louUiM of exiatdDce winch miuXv ilie ll&ifuc of 
lG(t5, sncl otli^r pla^'ni???, pcw^iblp. H«nc" «■« n*?i'(l Tiot 
be aslonuhcKi tlmt-tmattpcix wa^^icomuK^numl pi'raistcnl 
nl^iction ; but it was le** pivvalenl and )*** fleailly tlinn 
it LH th*5 cuntt>m to osr^crt ; and liml the Hiboobo not bocin 
aLUtiiikd witU luJTiry lu ftirmtimi? tH^uuty* theru inight 
hftvo be«n no more fuss made ftbout it than ab^xit any 
Olljcr fonn ofcnijiLLVc Fo^rr, 

It baa alt^o to bv obaf^rvijcl, tbat aniallpox &Ji a cmtsi^ of 
dcnth was pi'obably imich c\a^'^i>ratcfl in tho Billa of 
Mortality; faros liiaiur Mrtsscy pninti'i! out — 

'Ihtms llili*! an fi>imdf»d on llir- it-m^nkium or ftkUl of ulJ woraoru 
who wre the Be«r«h»TH In ovnry pjiTiiili, umi iholr Tiiports (vary uf(*u 
wbat they nro bid to nayj maal nacouAillj bo vary tr^uu<J^)U^^. 
Many dliftampcrs which provo mortKU sn miiiUkau for iba biuaU- 
put. nbmel/. bonrlet and mttignont r«TOEi with «ruptu>iiB. fViitHf' 
pui. uiviuiltti, St. Authouy'ii Hre. nnd Himh liko ftppebraticv)-. wLiich 
jf tli»y ilvblruy lu Lbn-u Ljr fuut dnya (.X)* Fre[[uuLjlV b^twivuulh) LUo 
dihttuijiHf tuiji nulir bi- j^ljuk^kiI m, jti i« gnEiHriitlv triit Juwn by thA 
ioiinrberji nu iuiiiUi|Kiv, iiH|wdiLll>' it lVi«y >t(j lolJ Uio deooEHiad 
i]Dv<]i: liftj Iheuj.*' 

Massi?y, ilk Ibft same spirit of gooil rtousp, obj*'*".ti;d to 
gen oral isatio&fi about i^nLallpox From Uio Billw of Mor-* 
taUty^AH if all who dird wiTr« alitin by the disi^oao and 
by nothing else. 

Tbflf* ought to bo no <ioinpimion [ho nkidj botwfl&n tiffk pfldjiU, 
vroll roj;iinoarcd Willi tlicl nC'l mc(hdri«. hq^I tlirwi) ivho liavn nn 

ThA Rit««rMl3lA i^oor lihil pHnhh rhiblrhn ntnlr* up a gnuit port, at 
Uait cnti-bMlf of Uie htllu cd MaiUlity; b:i ooLitima Uik I hart 
■Munltiod A»T«nd ycwly hiitt, ami I un<t tb^f tlio oul'Dariduii^ 
pordTQlly biijy more than iha ninnly-ipryn p»(i*li*H wi'Oiin 
wnlli, unci the pnriiili of Sftijmay ninply. \i-ry riorir *n iimny Mi 
Cily iif Lmidoa yunrly; UiinnunictiiuLly vhowHwhHt littt'r b^itpi 
dirt* &ni lakfiii «r th« foor- htek, wludi i4(3 uiuoh uljoimil in aU Ujou 

Of coune th*?ru lurkn a f^illacy in all fttatistica of 
lUeeofie whereia conditioua of lifo arc not dUcriminatod. 
Wbotbc^T pAtbnt» Mirvivr nr t\\^ frtiiii any zyuiotio 

■ Ltifrt la l>r. JwriHn Loihloo, IT^ 


THK Fiwrr oppr>NKSTs or ikocl'Lation. 37 

ailmint ilL-ittnd* upon iheif Wt-inl. thinr drcijiii«tanc3M^ 
itiuir lubit^, at]d thoir m^ical tr?-atrDorit tuid numin^f — 
aII «?uc*ntJiLl |mrticiilaj?(, A^?L <liFlii:uh to dcGne and 
rv^vter on & larps bculo- It woali ajjpe^r thftt in soumi 
GOnstilutioTitt. aikd vriiL fair Ui»tincrkt, iiriAlIpox in 17i!l 
w*a by no incaiti di.'ndlj", whiJnt (a ba-i oorwtitiitions, 
and vrith eEpoauro anJ ncsli^^^t. it vroa cxtcn^ivvly fftUl. 
Yet <if ihnwf i1ilT<'Trn4>vi. little Account wah Uikt-n by ihv 
InoQui^lon^tiid Ui<i m^tindy wibt mcamircHl and discussdd 
ut Uiough it werr) f<uriiT>Uiin;f uiiironii like wntvr orguld* 
H&Moy in cn<» 3'4tar h&<i tt'cowBoFidniLllpoKandouodtiath; 
in Btephtfv All oijutil nuinlH^ of <3iM^ laiicUt liav^j sWvm 
tL morulilr of 20 or 30 |»r coot ; vrhlUt I)r Nuttbion 
report^^l that of 12i'^ caw io HftJifjuc And Adjocont 
(owns in Yorksh[ri>, then* di«d £70, or about S^{>erc«n^* 
One of Uaaacy J( feani in relatloD to inoculation wiu* 
ihi! rUk of potMmin;; th^ blonil with mon< tlinn .-tirmlliKJX. 
Ho vraa ngt (ItMncitrKd bo cxpurlmvnL with "duly pro^ 
pared children infected witli muallpox by ins^ation,*^ 
for Ibc^ — 

Tlit^j win nm nd h&vord of bciii^ inr«cl«d by « InroDi, T ^pt w al, 
or Mff^akwi Uini tbai EDftyi for Migfat wo koow, bo liUHpljbDtvd 
by uiociJ*Uaii-t 

Uaeeey'ii prmclunA? hitt biti^i wcHTfuDy verified; in 
Sodwd under perp^tgal veri ft cation in tha pollution and 
deatmctjon of naultitudca of infantn. The notion tbiit 
viriia with a comptex of qualitStti can Im UaibforrDd 
from one body to aootber, and operate with the ainglo 
4|u&Uiy tlic- tipt^rati^r U p!<t&KM to farour^is a notion Unit 
tni^bl piLti inu^ttcr iii a niunual oF ma^c or Folk-Loru, but 
which nerver can hav« any warrant in nuiiian physiology. 

Of eourae Uid chtof utrcn^th of tho oppononts of inocu^ 
latlon (exo expcrieix^fT ^\c t^ktm utrungi-r gruuiid) lay 
in Hut axs^rtion of tbe folly of incurring a ci?rtain injury 
for &a luiG^rtain ivJvnnta^. \Vhatcvcr the nsk of miioII- 

* Mr. MaitifmJ't Artmmt ^ fr>mttfi*g Hie SmnHf^ findhaUd^ 
LoodiM. I72S; p, SDl 



pox to thme who li&vo it, y«t largo immbeni, It was 
argued, pus thtoufph life tutouctwid; und why shoutd 
ih-^y TEt,iK4T UM^mselvOT 8ick, ami ri«k their ]ivrj« in otxlflr 
to nhuin a eupfirfiuoiu st^^urity ! * 

The ficqiieDt ftHfturtioii thai th«* cIeT;^y thimdctvO 
a^qhI inoculation U iLiitTi]c< and invpnl«d fur vlTt-cL 
Tk^ Hey, Hdnmiid Maascy, Lecturer of St, Allan, Wood 
fitrpi^t, Hid preach a stTmon agaJmt the npvr prarrHin*, and 
a fair^cTincn it wu, according to the rttandanl of scnuotu- 
UartlaD<l jnililiHiitfJ noine reiikarkft on the sennon. to 
which Miusey rqjoinod; and if 1 «olc«t a poOBgo f rem 
the rcjniiiilcrr it wiCl ]>rovi\ Ih^tU^r Limn aiij deacriptiOD. 
that tn^ <livtD<£ w&a tiiotv thai) a uiatch for tbo aui 
Sftid Maavoy to MiuUand^ 

loooiilattuii. iu yDurvacH. la au Qaifnnmpittof n coirtupUd 
into ft iuuad uim^ so attempt (v uitu a m^t^ a iIjmmm, irhvj 
P«Httot 1i««llL, wLieh diMvaiw ninj prjvD ucirUli 

Thi« I <nld WM l«iui>tmir PivviiUJictf. 

Tq wblch you rc^\y. It ntaviublu* Umt ^f a i>ar*ort vhoIuMonI' 
of n vrmdow for foar f>f Are; aqJ tiu^ly that Con DEVd bo nMUonntf '^ 
It iuihtri>l of rix3vidi^nO(». 

Ni>t Cflriruiiljr. Sk, if hia houao bo reuUy ^^ ^^^' ^^^ tho tlain 
Imrot. Ti« 0x4 unly probulte nny of ufcty Ir^ft ^ «iji1 if ib« kap 
BbonLl IcilE l^n. ill* notion could ii«jt]i«c b« oal]«4 sltifiil ot impni* 
doct. lEi^li vhat ihciold wo amy to • inaiii who JcxaiJAl cut of tbo 
ivindoir yihtti hin hoaf« wu not a-fiie^ ody U> try vbal bo nu^t 
p«ri3apa bii forcrd to do hmftO«r f This xan-X itciioti vx^ctHj hito 
the euf bvtwoan tu. For if my boiu? bo Dot dq fir«, tb»i ii, Lf 1 
naia do anpuaat doDjEor, wliBt n««J 1 jump out nt the window f 
V/hai occttAon ia Utcrc to iaoouUU lao 9 

To PiiTTy en joiu- i^wn ftJloaory, I WQold tUk yoti, 8i», wk«t 
human or divine nuiLorit^ yon iiate t} set it maii*B houao oa firo, 
tiiat ie, put ft man who i> in perfect bf^nltli in dncitrrr o/ bin li£o bj 
a fit df niutf» ? HIa OWE] OfiiiMnt i" mil minirii^nl, Wjtofio ]|« liai 
nc atorc Ihvtbl power ovor bJAoivD iiftf urkuulth IhAn ycu bai^to 
put jtbor of thciD in haxard^ | 

In short, nothing can be inor« unfounded tlmn ilie 
aaaumpticn in litcratiirc, popnlar and profcasiona], that 
Maitbuid and MuntJtgu ^vt<^ amifrufit^d by a cnivrd of 

* Jarin*» Ytaiift Account t^Iaoti/JMifit^ p. 13. 

f X*T/' to Mr- J/o rf^uAti in VimiiM*i<r% ^ihi Srrm^tk ogiantM tnor^ 
UaiIoji, i7£i. 



hovrlm^ faEftt^e^ over wlmrn ihcy l.nuinplieil *w H^'hl 
over dfl(rkna44. Marvellous is the imbodlity wlmrtiwiUi 
1>iQgrn.t)1i«rH ani.]^irianx rcjiroduce the fablfM of &iiy 
j inventivo pr<Kieceseor. 

I f *hflM now proceed to show that the pmcticc cf inocu* 
' UUon lntroiluc«d by Cotton Mathor to Naw Eogbuid, 
auU by Haitland to t^n^^Uod, collapsed in a few ycon 
imiU'r^trrmiif thnniiw^liiitfsiind faUtliiif-'i whir.h nlit^mlml 
it; that it waa levived in a sulMe^^uoat ;,MDomtion; that 
It proved ft ciio4»j* whrrcvur [intctiso^l ; nnt| UtNt finallv it 
■van atandcnui with ojccoration iu tht» Wi:j^t4:ni world. 



Wk aomcftliiitvi fi-t^Th froiu afar what in tti \tK Unuxd ni tiiir 
cwndooTV; and thusitwaBwith inoculation- NoaocfTiei 
mw the gt**t East^^in juxvi'titiv*; advcrtiiu^l than it wha 
Bald*— Wfcy, It ifl nothinff nioro than a practice euiutiion in 
pWaUaand the ilii^hland^ of Scotland I IVrrot WilliaiikH* 
ILD., and Ricliard Wright, xurj^utin, tif Hiivrrf«rdwe>it, 
oommunicatod to the Hoyal Souji^ty* tlmt thv (>t}uplo in 
Fembrokpjihini hiu3 pnirtiwrd intKiiilaiinti ' ttnn* run of 
mind." Tbcy cithur ncrapc-d tho ^kin thiu cr pricked it 
with yliib, and then rubWd m [tua imui a amallpox 

S'^^'icnL ThiH thoy called " Uiyin^; tln> imaUpox/* a* it 
cuatoniary to |iay ?tomi?thuitr ^^*^ ivhit wjia ^fll]ci^-d tti 
good matter." the Wv>I^hinoTi gavj^ tfii? aame Account 
Kc practice a.** the Turks — thorc wa* no ^longer, no 
luiahapH, and corialii AL^curiLy from umalEpox. In ^kot* 
laud it did not nppoar that the sictn waK scrapod, but 
wtjnttrtd thrc^d-s Maturated with [iilh wt^n' tipd round iJiu 
nrrists of children to whom it was desired to conim^inicatd 

Monro. Edln,. 1T6&. 



Dr ThoifiM NeitJeton^of Halifax. Yorkshire, wu u 
carlj' anil fiiicrgrlirr Jiior ulfttfir. Mo |>riMniTwl Jiin r^lienb 

IuhI'amqbJI puQciuivd, ajifl uiadir ^^bca an inch long — 
ODO in thd ATcn tni] ono in tho oppoaito teg, nnd inMitiil 
lutfl cf cotton ftt«ejxd in pan. and covered thom tip iri^ 
pta^Ur and rdlens. It vms hin (lf?^ign ta \tt\)fittcQ luge 
irowwls vitH cnpaoii^ dischhrgon, so that pDCCOct mAUct 
migbt ba ftMly evacuate, )f« wutt well sati^fl^l with 
biit heroic pniclicc, nud a record of hin omusi wiu Bont to 
tht- It'jyal Sixricty" — >l r<*ciir\l fioui whicb any nodar 
will 1x1 apt to coocludo that theri> wah little tQchoose b^ 
twci:u Nvttlcton'AinocuUliotLsand imiaJIpox it^cll Ho 
mads nu prcU^nce that inoculation ioduced a trifling 
Ailment, b^it orly ono \e»* serious than the ispontnncoua 
duuiMu, cungmLuliithig MniM-ir on Imviiig c^nvryril )wmu 
sixty inoculatM pationt«i through ^mve poril; whiint, bo 
wrol« — 

In HiUifivi. Ki»ni« Dm hrjj\nn\rta: of liwd trtiiFnr, 270 )iiti> had Ibo 
cmallpCFi, ukd oEtt of lliiLt nnmlktT 4^ hiivti ilk-d- In B(it4ii]«lb, % 
tayail lulah-bouriiiff mitrLM Uiwn, 117 lmv»i fiiul tlin dlHUiriiMr, uA 
Sdliav* (lied. It u to btt n^jl^d Unit in thin U>wii [Jlnlirai] tte 
nuDpoi have boon man fikvouniitU C\ii> tuobdii Lbau ii9lh], dLiid fn 
Lt«d« tb«>' haro b»a doro tluuj u^iiiillj^ uortrJ ; but it|iuQ n 
SwdtTTm tbiiTi Ijtvv <Ilud noulj' 22 uut uf ctdij 100 in thna thfM 
trnif, wljkli !*» about ft HfUi tjad of all Hai bnvu bflou mfeoutl la 

l-ljigli>]i oxpen^uco tftiivXly uittdci jtri i*iid uf tJio Hcdon 
under cover of whicU Inoculation bad Ixien inttoducsod— ^ 
tliaf it wim attended witli nomk. nnd might 1^> per- 
Ebrmod by any old woiuim. Dt. Jutin, ^ocretAry of tbo 
Boyal Rocjcty^ and a steady ndvocaU^ of the practitv. thu^ 
luddown Uit mmlitioriH eDnsidrrt^d (.'.'wi*ntiM,l U^ siTcceas— 
conditionH anivod At through ^treaa of euttl^uig and 

(hvAC cflTo uu^IjI tv hv Uk«u bj itiouiilatD ticrtic but ponnTifl of a 
nod hnUt of W^, anJ free, uai oul> Trum juiy np^jju'tfitt, IkOt, m 
ura^caa be Jad;c^<li from auy Inteut iliAuiwif. 

tLdUrfromDr. N 

Mad JVntiwfiAdi, Koh 370, 1722. 

•tAn to Dr. Jons, datvd n^fu, JUth J im«, 1731 




TEio bodji Btp«ouliy if pl«lbom, oTigbt to ba pTCHnd by proper 
#TMIl^oa>— M b1o«dlc|r, pttrffinjr.voniiltEiK, «tO — thot3|Eh iQ mtay 
OMOt tilAT* wLJ b«ooa*cton f^r x*ty Ultlo av DOnt of thasa, tt hAinu 
ffUfiduil to ODjciiii a tam|>firftta ilial and \VtopT ngttnoit. l^ui tiiij 
nniBt b« Uft to th« JaJgmant of tbo ffaynmu]. 

Tho ntaicst o»atioD ou^Ll to ho niJjd in tL« eboico of pro^ 

matlar to MnEuniniMto tb« i&fDrlirirt. H *ht\iih\ h^ tak^n fr<>m a 

rotutg ittbj«<<t, olhonHtW p»Tfhpr,li,' )*-njni1 uri^l }i*Hft]t.Sfiil, wlin ^^« 

vullpAt in thA rrtfitr. tkx*rtrtnih\ii ntfcnnftr Wti^n lli<^ niJklti!«it 

^ propflriy rafttnmtnJ. nm} Jii>[ upon thn t'lm, or loan iltiir, two 

IbrH of'tham nlionid bo ripi*4 witb a filcivor"* noedlc or smcill 
Iftnmt, and n ?i^]ipli> of iinrLlL plocl^DU of lltil or i?i:>tUjn nro 1o bo 
wpU fiiDirtctird with the tnikiUT, nnd immudj&tvljr put mto a llUlo 
Tbil orbux, nnil mrrir^iT m tli'* warn luud or boaooi of Iba opanloT 
to tb« boitw ^r th*< pi>min tJ) !>« lououbM.* 

Th« jnibU<<)iiiini of iht^r c^omlitumN wiw UuV uluirl of 
& pmobical siirron()<.-r, and ihet oppooente of uooulatioa 
irare not alow to umlW ihi^mboJrcs of tlw advnotagei 
WTiat had htt^n proclftiiQcid thg onsyiin'^ timwi-Knl cL^fiince 
x^iunnt muUpoc provcc] hedged &baut wltli prt-oiutionfi 
And rr^par&tion^ for wblch only henlth with n«aIlJi waa 
mitA. W'hfTv wufi the profit, argued Fmr»ci» How^TnTc, 
or a pmctieL* tttiHi Wvtvi the ff?«blL< au<1 d(*llailt and 
poor to their f&t«. wliicli malco^ tho wcill ^ck, njid wounds 
thoM^ thtt arc wliol'!, whiUt MTinlh>iix in thi' nntLinil way 
very reaa^y affWta life wbor€ tbe sabJt of bodj und ocm- 
atittitdon ftro gwxLi' Inac ibasoj wu especially indig- 
nint ovcrr Jtmn*K compftriKon of tlkfi mm'talitj'of Jimnllpox 
with t^ie mortality of inoculation. JuriQ reckuncd that 
out of rv^ry JOO who t/wjk KTnallpoc, 20 died, whilst 
OQ^y 2 in IOC died from tho cBccto cf inoculaiion. *' llo 
for^^tt/' Maid Ma^ifvy, " that tbi? inotrulated am piek^fd 
lives. If tbi9 b<} fair, Man^ fair 1" Moasov war ri;;bL 
It waa abnurd to itutiLutir a cciiiparipton bctwi^ni thr 
tiOiiuiH>a smallpox. compriAiD? lUat of tbo poor imd 
ncgltcted. ud ;ho wcll-fcd and carcfolljr tcndod 9ubji.'<:t« 
of iikooilatlon. Mflaacy, too, waa Airoiig In bbi own 
expori«iioe, wyiD^ — 

JtrVaim. JI7 Jimn JorjXL, U.D- 



1 LftTO a Itei of ih« iinmei of 93 otiildroUt irhu el» ali tlial 
bad tlio uunElpOX during iho l^st two jrcon llT^Ti IQ 
HMpiUl, ftnd ATOty otw nioov«r*d. 1 Iiavo lud, baD<l«, ]" or 19 
tDiWo La toy private bimoosi, of whom odLv on* diod. Ileri?. lUaa» 
vo bnvo 4^ CQBoa iit natural Huallpoi Kud but 1 ^Mib.* 

tion of tlic inoculibUira* 

A Datunl euBpIo BOi&IlpLix ooldoiu kJUai, iinl»* nuJtir vary ill 
mouiu^iuctiibt ^t wLvi^ c'jiui^ iurkiuu evil Limit vm i^uiot Wforo Ii 
iou«e<J ia tij? iIuUk and fri'iarn^Urrktvil ivitU tLe pooky feaatuU^t 

At this point wi^ limy !^oo th<< jurigniQitiAnd iho foar»of 
ihc EiiglipOi |iL-oj>lii hiul ;^ti[iL* Aj^iiittat inuniiUtion, *,nJ Uw 
ptaciicu appuari"i lic^tiniZHi to j^raducl i^xtioctioii. Aoootd* 
mg tn the iiiocijlnt<jr«. iln^ir wifrk wjm tliiH Miimmftrised — 

183 luwiihliuiJH 111 ITll Aui "23, willi 8 doAllii, 

-2->Z „ m iT^iS, with ilertllu. 

40 ., Ju ITIM. wiLb 1 diuUi. 

F^cc FrecEcnck and I'rinco William vrcro muong tb^ 
iriouiiUUTr] uF 17'2'fc 

3A0 moouklioEU Id iTiS aiij '124, villi 4 dwlbi. 
IM » ia ITJJ &ud '^, wiUi ^ da^thi. 

Dr. Soheuobiser, la 17^0 tabulated' ihe cuos n 
results of lln?j*e ywiw, 1T21-2S, ns foUowa — 



bllll Lll]]>tir- 

r«i riiiAii- 

lib] hit 


iTnJfir ] y<mr. - - 




1 tn a. .• - . 





Vto B. ,. . 



» ^ 

eta 4 





4 to 9 




t J 







ID to 15 





1 ^ 

WtoSa ., , ^ 






flO »iel np wordy. . 





a . 








17 - 

/mxf/iif^on. Sy Ivuu MuKy. Loadoo* lTiZ7. f /^id. p. A. 


IliOfl Hi-nxl i\iv mijiiiint hy th** itTCK-iiUt/nV own tliovr- 
ioBi ukI it wuh by iiu ifi>jniLs a t:&ti-<fAc(L>ry W&BOO-aJieQbi 
Wli-it ntriknA wic Jioinfully in Io«>kut" <tvi>r it> Is the vast 
pr^poTultimnGf^ of iIk- youii;^ ami dc4anc«keui (7S0 out of 
007) upon whom tho obomiEUkblij oxponnit'at waa tried. 
■' Hi*Ii>]0!4»iio« wliii^h cummautls Vrm prjU-crtion of th*» 
btiiVi^ M tliL* opporttiiiity of tho inv^^ati^^titmi; siitftk." 
Whilst ihi* IiiTfiilrifni^ jAT^iXi'd !nbnr]n;i^ly thnf. if wiinf' 
UaDicvrAUciiiicJ iirtKici^l HiHallp-JX, it wua triHin^' to thnt 

roplio«), it vr&i; muintaiTJi7(l tliftt ciily tidier much vri^Lcr 
6xp«nenc(.' ctinM it bo known xhjit were the pn^dw 
<TffMU of mociilAtion. Inoculfttion, lua intrvxluced by 
IkUtlantl in L72L had proi^oi] vastly ditFrrt^nt aft<:i' 
Jiojuatnn^ncfv ^^^d tli^^ri' ti-iw ui* t^'lHiki^ what remained to 
be rcvcjvled, A» l>r, Wai,'?iUiH"i^ u^wKT^cd — 

HuL it aluaya liveu alufbl, tfDutlu, BtifB. iLaJ luaful. wilU nU tbcip 
ttlluno^ v|nIUuU bwlu^vil vii jt; buU injiiir I^jhL ftbiiv« & litimlred 
cir Iwii huiidml iTii»t'i1tfK> ^Ei^l i^ ctn* illml oif U lu thii >i|ifkri(< vt 
AOTcriil j«Bfi> ^ OJUit lind (here boco no inBlaaco of nuy tm^H Imi^ijt 
war DSKia iiifookil irvlb im«llpox vrlio bail nuy iirutitlu* ni aU, how 
Ibv ^Dover* nu>ed lij* inootlUllJJO. &o1hh1x uuuld lubiiiir bbVe nub- 
«i)iibc>l lo tbo irraotJcD thui ui^vfLr.* 

The primal proitiUt' that the Inor^iilatticI wtiira t1ieraaft«r 

Sroof aj^tiiiifit rimallpox won prporrdily boiled, but Ui4t 
itiicijlty w-m ilUpEKi'il »f hy tlii? awiTrlion that iinirida- 
tJoQ in Auch cafiL-u must h&vo b^vii iriuiorf-.'ct» fur it vr^^ 
iiujittaibli! F'jr any ono to liavc JimaUpox Iwica Th^- 
Adiiuw<>n of fautiitie?t from Inoculation wu vary tardily 
ouulc; and they were gi-^ncrAlly referred to ttouio caiL«o 
perveT^ly conck>at<?i1 frum th» Ui<j<^ulator, vrbluh. b^fi ho 
knovm, would bavu pravontH hiJt opui-Ation. Tlien, Iho 
UiBidfifHt ftUh.1U.i»'> wrn; rinliiritlly itUH]JiN:Lifd U» ntnud fm 
A lar-p'«.r mimbor Acdubut^ty i^tpt oul <J "^tfhL Aa Haxtoy 
put it — 

Tlict in florcoHiof Ifiocuhtkn U ntry p^i\ttl\i anil tpofiniW itl>ta 
to U^e wcirU. Tb« openlor wUi n-jt uU li, irliu Urn br ili« 




ovriaii, be fond i>f retciJmfl iUat to lZi4 i>iiUio, wliLi^U i» ^ri«{ lu 
theim in priy&Us." 

Fortunately for the public, several Cff Lbc iui»1iAps 
occiintKl io "good aociotpy" and wer^ too coriBiiJciioiH to 
be hiTHhc*! up or doniod, Mws Ki;^l^,v ^lid cifiht w«ka 
iirtiTint>rJiliLtum."tmsi*rjil)ly ilisionlrn'"! Iij the opiTation," 
A fiOQ of th<> Dulco of Bri<i^ewator a,Dd n sr>n cf tbo Enri 
of Huniltrrliiiinl likcwi>«*" ppri^hcd; ;tn<l n nr>rwmt of Lonl 
Bathurxt diid of (*<}iiUu«iit unftllpox "coiwequent cn 
eagraftiufrit/' Hucli incidents struck terror cvorywhorc, 
luu! cntiHf'd WTso and titnid alikr^ tf» tiuvi tli« ilN Uuiy Ictiew 
rather Uinn riik ccrtnbi peril for uncertain fldvaDta;;^. 

Mnitlaiid returned to Scotland, liii* Tifctivp ro«Mtrv, in 
17SlIp atid^ (foing amoiifr ^'^'^ relatione in Abcrd^ooabire, 
dlicwt;d ulf liiA skill bv iriDcofatui^ six cliiMn-n. Ono of 
tbem, Adam, son of William Urr|UbArt of Moldnim, ag^ 
IW monthfl. *ickrnctl cn the scvc-ntli, nnd dird nn the 
eighth day, Thr^rti wa^ a ^'t^^^t outcry, and MaitLand 
tried to excuae himaelf by assorting that Adnm W(lb 
afllicrtt^d ivlth hydrnoi-phaliis, whldi haj| Ix'un irniirtjpwrly 
conct'ttleU from" him. Anyhow, the AKerdeenahiro folk 
wcru satiMfl^d with thmr experience, an<l mcoinmi*miRd 
"Charlio Mnitland to koop hia new f^ii^lod tomody for 
the Hiii^linli in future?" Ilir waa uioie fuitunn.t? in tho 
west of Sotlnnd, where h<» " inoculated four chihlrun of 
a noble family," whn uscaniid iiUve. The Hcotfl, huv'<?ver. 
were deaf to hie persiijwioni. and he mnrlr no hpndwuy 
Otnong then. At a later dtvtr, 17^>f, inoctdation began 
to be nm<!tised lu and about Duinfrie^. and o^^caHionally 

In Ireland UttTe. inoro wa!« rfTectnd than in Scotland. 
It waa Mud that 'io inoculatloTiK took place between 17S9 
tuid 172S with n fatalities. J)r. Uryan ItoHnaon inocuUtod 
five children In Dublin in I72S, and waa the death of two 
of thwn.+ 

Inoculation in*t with faint acceptance on tin* Oiinti* 
aont. Mnitlnnd went over to Honovor in I7S4 and 

* Mufluy'i Rfnuirkt, |h I R. t SohauahMr hrtil Mnatvj. 




[no?t.tTnli*rl Prmtr** Kiv*Jorirl: mul i*ight. chil^inMi of Baron 
lie Schu It'll ijci^. In FrAiiac- thf^ jtracticc \md hccn rH!iai-v<cd 
by l}r. KoyerAo far \mnU as 1717 ; arnl in IT^-S the KTi";lLfth 
ijx]i«rhii<:nU ivcro roooimtud in I'^U with much <^n< 
bku^utniu t)j' IJr, ilu la CuhU% pvi^liiy a Oi-duniUim fmrn 
tho Coll*^ of Phyfticiane, " that for the benefit cf the 
pu1>!ic. it wiw Uvmil tfl inflkc triftN of inocTjUtioD." A 
commcQceiuent w&a about to 1>b mnili- In tht^ ho^plcal^ 
under tho sanction oF tho lic^cnt, thi> Diikc of Orleftna, 
whu-n tiii cU'ElIi put ft at<>p to th-? Ui-*ign, Soon hHkt Dr. 
Hocqutt publiflhod J&iM<marf« D\juU cfntrolInotitiUiHon, 
whicri* eutipli^i:! witli biul rnf>ort-> friim RngUml, niAilc rtn 
oud of Uio project. 

If ft London jdumaliit hftd bt^en callcrj upon in 17SS 
to report upon Inoculation, Ho might hxvo writt(>n a* 

Seven y*a.r* ago tbe practiTO wa^ intvo<lvict^ to tbU 
country under pon'crful nu'^picen. It was contidcntiv 
averri*u tliat anyarie uiiglit liaw IiU blijoiT inft^ttfd with 
virus of emaUpoK, tliat a tritling olliaont would cnauo; 
tli4il tboiiccforwjtnl hr? would I'o ^wun? fnjni MiiaH- 
pox In tho nalUTjJ form. Hxp^ricncu rapidly belied 
thiMO promiaca 'Hie IriHing ailment pn^Tvd, in many 
CUOH, a wurioiDe fti!ii!iMtt — so scvxoms that phyuiclnnii tried 
to anUdpaitQ and miU^te its acvcrity by a prclinunary 
roginn^m of bleeding, purging and vomtims. So exhaUBt- 
in^ and lio^ardoun i.i the whole opcratimi, that only vound 
aud vij^ixm.H tuiiflLiLutioiia a,va fnitmyli^teil fit fi*r it; aiid 
tho dchcAto and fo<*blc. wJio rcquiro pr<*toction mcstv&ro 
advbH.'d to Atibniit tlirtmmdvrA ati of old Ui t}m ordmaiy 
course of nature. Moreover, the iniituced Hiiallpox U 
occo.'tionnlty oa kvctc a.^ tho Ap<Dntanf!ou« ; th>^ piutulcs 
ara tiiidtitudjfioUH. and simi^i^Uhu's <^un1lunnt, wiUi cltwili 
for the iMue, Fear may ^xivggerato tlic riska of inocula- 
U<m> biiL mon^ iirr Miiwvd Ui haw p^Hjihnl thn-ti tin' 
inoanlators ara willing to confcAs. Afiain, many arc not 
foscoptibld of iQocolfttion. and tboogh tlifi infection CaiU 
to opcrato in thrir blood na dcsirud. thijy v!o not alwaya 
kpe injury; tbcy tlud tlicir health dLwrdcrcJ- 



rfintWnil ^wk\y ami iiiic*>iiiforlA^>lc. Wortt of nil. vhfti 
non« at Qnit reckoned on, tb«artJficUL MCaa)li>ox tntiuodt 
to be infccti'iUH, aiiO bo^tj* natoroL) smallpox ia ttiOMwho 
are with th(» LnociilatetL Thus, Ui« very in^&Od Uik«<n lo 
limit the iJL*%n.-ic lH^come a cause of ita t'ytcnflicn, SmalL- 
jiox WHS iTiore than ii^imUy pri*viili^nt in HtTtion) m 
1721, an4 in London in I7:i^, ami thi>n5 was fair rBRsoQ 
to ci>njeaLun^ ilutt tt won viLvrmively ilisacuiinAtcd by 
inoculfilion. Lastly, it is doubtful wbcthor «ran suoceM* 
fttl innctilntion j^rolnfjciA fujm Milwi-queiit smftUpox ; I'cr It 
IB maintaiDed that Mome of \h& mociiinUd Imxv jilTisnTy 
fallen victin^s to the natural disorder. In tilmrt. Uio 
prev^nt^ive n[)|)r'nrx to hnv*^ stt many druwl«u;k» that it ia 
fjUr?itioriabie wlitther it ift not womo than tbo malady; 
and it IK proWblrf thnt in a yi>jir c^r two it vriU |ja>A into 
forc^ulne^ in coniTnon witli many otbei tenw^tlii^ a« 
hignly extolltjd on utrly and tiuptTr^^ct af^uaintancc. 

So much mi^tht bai'<* beon htnlcd and prognosticated In 
1728 : how the prognwitic failed to be venlied romaLna U> 
bo told. 



Thk prw-fior nf innciiliLtion, thim fliftrre^^tted. revived, 
and not only r^jvivcd, but prRvatlpd- Thrr revival wan 
^^adual. ami n^ay b« said I«j liflvu uTiji^irHl ilnfiiulion 
about 17 4«. und<^r tho powerful approval of I>r. Mead. 
In the ftcoie of ytiLva from 17^^^ Ui 174S. ib i^ not U: bo 
imn^n^.d that thp practice was aban'ioned; th<>re were 
Eilwa>'» a few rcpritting the attempt ti havo smallpox 
vritUont the peimltifn uf HTitallp^jx, Imt mi^w^s whs nai 
OQaitt|>iCuoUfi or en cwii rosin jj. Inoculation waj* inliOiliicoU 
to a (jMneratluji spttmHy ilispcisrti t« rt'ceive it; mid it 
Vrucnl^allo^'ed to slip for a tiuic unJer the comiiulsion 
of iniUiif<^t diKaAler. Perhaps th«rc n^vtr war* a people 
witli wKh a ta*it^ for dodgrt in fav<jur of health as tho 
Ei3iglUk of ffvft century: the common inttlligenci^ wa« 



lQV«9t«<] in rmai^ery, Kve« Wi?s!ty found tint© ki 
(Ubblo in momcino, fi&d to compile a volumo of pM- 
hcripUotis fnr hU follower*, mlitlril PrtntUhr. /*A^flto— 
tL pii^itanl iin^iitrc of HL<rirw ^it)i fibdurOity and crcautitj. 
Otjr foiT^lAli)*. i> tiad Eo ck-ar ojncejitioD of the coimecUou 
of physiottt wi.*11-beS]igvrilbpbyMciil wcU-iloing,iuidni&Tiy 
of iho essential condilioi^a ot ht:4tttli were uakaown to 
Uictn, Thifir phj-vicnl at^lioLionf wre regwdeU ns mjs- 
teTiouA diifpeiisiiUoivi tr> bti <Mi4liircKJ with wni^iuktion or 
frustrated with luet.licintia. The Raiike attiUulb af mlnO 
i» fur from iiiicf>mm'>n nt the prt^cnt (ky,and manv will 
rccoUuct b(jw, vnj ^^tiibuj' wuESJce attaliifMl Tcpub^. iL wili 
ooasidorod prt^fane to auert that typhna vnu aubject to 
control and that cholcr* jni^ht be supprcAcd; vrhilattt 
druR to subdue elUt«r would bo ht^ard of with gratl* 
tudi:, ^aperbUtioii baa lardy had tuy oljcctida to ilte 

An iticiilcnt poiaKHl ovt-r in KUtoriai, aJthoiigU f^r nicfc 
inwardly chaiHoLeri^llc of tlie ittind of the l^tli Cf^ntury 
than ainultitudo ci ihn itupcrHc-inlibi^tfi whcivwith thoit 
pttgiftt are cutiilicrt^il, la thai ot Juntuin Sto{>licna nxxil \wi 
retti«di4« for th^ stone. Her curM wore so rvmArknblu 
and (on ovidcnc:^) ?k> indinptit^bl^^, that a giJicral dviuand 
arose for lb© revelation of h«>r Hocree for the public 
bcndit. Thi^ rti^vclaU^n Ura, titophcns Agreed to nialcc 
an riHU*ipt of iTiUOO iw cnmpi-'iisritiiMi ; mid a AuljM'rij}Uiin 
w&e Htartcd, to whicli Fullowii of tho RoyaJ Society^ 
phy«]dAnj«, nohlcni^n, hijshops^ hh^lk'a, and kindly folk of 
all (>nhTTM Mti thuir najuoc Such, however, was tliu 
uaatUDiity ai>d nnxiety to poaaeu Uw Btopltens secret. 
that it w-fiA prvim^nnci^d a nAtional coniKtm, and Parluu 
ment wtui invoked t^ nupj^ly the ro'juiaitv fund^; whe^^OD 
an Act wa« po^oiod "for providing a reward to JcAnna 
Slophcni iipon n proper dwoovory to bo Diudo by her of 
thi! iJLi.-<lieirifr.T prr|Hiieii by h^r for tlje cur« of the fitonc" 
Th« lii^co^'^.^ry wa* duly discKiiiod to uppointod trust4>^, 
one of whom w*u Archbinhup of Canlorbury, and the 
£0000 was paid over in 17S9; and bctro wo have tho 
heads of the ptccioiis re^-elation— 



Mf mtdioifias or* & Powdor, a LJfi<M>ctioa, ooi) a Pill. 

Tbo Powder con Bista af oggabuLb cjid Ei]ail<,b&tbcatdD«iL 

The Decof^tioa it ma^la by boibti^; oamiimiTo, fenni^]. ponlvj, 
»Tid iTirdoct leaved (toROlhoT tHt)i ft b»D, wliit'h oonwrta r>f ftc«pi 
nwine'd crDK«,GH l)!^^!!! lo n bUokntH, itnJ honuy) in vkUr. 

TJie Piliii <cneiit <rf tiniLjU eklciiiL^d. vUl carrot Hti*i!»t biinlodc 
tacids, Eubvn kayi, liipA uiii bjtwtd. nU bttmt to a bZacknoii, *atp 

IQlbJun*. 17B91 

The public were ftppnrcritly Kiti^fJotl vrith t-hc pai^ 
oli^sf?. but witli Lhf< UHiJul LtvlLy uf crn^dullly fi^rj^ul Mra. 
Stcplionfl and her niftvVi^lloTis cure* in tho pui-Miit of 
frrVli imsLrunis. Fm^ii^Tw in inoiliclni^ ar« on n. jwir witli 
fashions m dn*^, firnl have only occasional refciunce to 
the pen nan once nr<l voraeity of nniturc, 

Tlu^ rtivivnf of inocuhition in EiigUnd wm silnnihiad 
by rt^puTtrt ivuiii abruttt]. For instance, in l!iu Ucntla' 
7Ji/in.'t* Mtigti^in*- it. U'a> wlAtoii thftt in 17^7 llK-tv were 
imjGulaU'd in Philadt^tphia — 



CLUklrvu utidor twelve, 



ftUcT that out of the 12^ only ono Nmjrro diod, A^ain^ 
in the lomc nta^;a9nnc for I7ob "wc read — 

In I^tLrbrnto* in ATHruli Iii^t Lhitrv V'^rv u^mjirilimf 11000i>Dm>ui 

lI^jhii lit Uio muidl^ioi. ivh&jo luocul^Liou ii iirac(ihfil wilfj great 

Such r«porU, whilst wcnr*^ from examination, w«re 
nono the lea* cffoctdvo over the nuhlic imaginntior*- 
Tbera was a rej^ort piibliaherl hy Dr, ML-ad m 174/^ 
which di^rivod ^r^al cn^dit from hifl cnd(>rsomcr>t. aDd 
which ci>rit]niiuA to he dU-il Ui the; prrM?ut d.ay a-* proof 
for inocnlRlion, h(it which Is a roodk?l of con^'onient and 
circumstantial vftgucncw worthy t>f Dcfoc, TJiUs itca-J** 

Tli« foUowUijj r«UtioQ svufl commuc ir^ikC«iI to ma by % flflntJcusui 
**i grv^t credit^ Ho won ± nitfr^haiit nt ^fl. CiLnstophar'i; ju th« 
W»it IndioE. und in tb« making <-f >n)-aj omploy^d & irniiit niuubor 
of dftTM. In ODO yDftr* uJido tbfl uuoUpoi ng?d witb mors tbau 


onliuuj vluleiice iu Uie miiifliliiiiiririi^ iflftriLlH. wLlli lilh riwn liftaJaL 
bo iDocokted ihnti baitdrc^l of iL^ui, ftxmi £t\n i,t uiiy ycui at 
tupe. wJUi iuoIl euocet*. thai not (ia« c<f tlium dicJ. tl^r-ujjli [lujtt of 
iHaiD wom ii«|i^oa. ^il vrbflrKAfl ilII ILd Aiufiiic^aiin tufFar thin 
ilifllfiUltwr m ft rtimt tcnibte tiiauucr, yel Dipflnuiictf ^buwti, tlinL il 
in uiuuA niDTv 4iLii^niaB whtui it utdickt iLv milJvtii iff Afticii* * 

Mmd lit'H poriitloo!* which UUt ant! more exact In* 
quiry txntltnx'J uiiU'iiabtc. He woul-i i^ct allow tliat tho 
ptUK of Kinji]lpn£ cr»iM ci>minittii(-Htj' nny dlxcaAn hub 
amallpox. if lAkcn from a propor aubjtot— a o^mUiUoA 
that rermiipd Mipi^rnntural EiHsiMtaiiiru W fulfil. He iiuun* 
tabtod Uiti inoGulntiou ^^iiurat<Tcl trac uni&lEpox. and that 
as no ooe couM have sm/Lllpox ivfic;. ihvt*:fotc no onu 
CQlihl hAVo KEirnllpox aiuyr InociiltLtioti^ and thAt r^ptirU 
to the cCFiitrary wck ni^t crtdiUo. It now gOT?fi wiuiouL 
^yin^ thftt In this contention M^&<l waa stfrnilt, hut at 
the time hia conticloncii wa;^ not inoxcusAble ; and whilst 
ilrtViidlng fuiil ri'Cimitiii'mljii;^' inoiriiUtidii, hm miulu ad- 
misBions wbiob fully juBtificJ Uicho who roamtud and 
ccmdeihicil hiM cQuiwcis, Let ii* not for^'ot that tho 
following pOittNifio wiXK puhLiJEhcKl in 1747t niid wftH tho 
fruit of eu-ona-twenLy yeais uf uxpcneiici^ in the beat 
London prictico^ Thii< Moad wrntc— 

It fittubt nat lo be ciiaiito<I, tbnl Ijoils ftnd iwrlbnn uniUr Uj« 
•VH iin4 iti ibv *nii-j;tU aiiHa cnoro frar)anndy hflcr 1)10 dihifliaptjr 
ivDourod by Bii Uifw afl«r Ui«tvfbidi ooiuM t>fiis i>wu nooortL; for 
thi* rcMOD, on I mppOM, tiuLt the vdooddou mattor U jitubod Tor- 
wanl with Ion fort«. wbi«b diitodvoiitftg** Nature rofrko* onum^D 
for in ibid w». 

T}jvr<«b>r4i ul poMJMo mcp&« w tobonMd tori^aniob tuiuotm 
of nbutoTCT kind tluy nto: tf tbE« uDAot b« ilno** tlavy uiuxt Ik» 
tipait4d by iccition ; adiI wbso all Ibo mitfttor U d/awa out, tho 
b^y mmt bo [lur^od by i>to|wr niMlioLaoA, wbiob an to bo ofknor 
T«|iMtad JD lliui than iti ih9 aatunl diflOMO.} 

Hovrjustarc the judgmi^nts of Divino Otderl These 
bolld, swellings, and LUTuourt, w«ro th« ncqwmciMi of t\u* 
violated liarmonv of tht^ body — of the faitUI««s antld- 
paticin, L)io mcHldling and mnddling with iU prncj^ifji. 

* JfnlloiJ IKor^i^/M MfOil. VoJ, H. p. I4ft. Kdinlnirgh «!.. 1703, 




An ext^RMVci MjricA of inoculations took plnoo sB 
\74-'i-^5 in blir 1^tnli]i tif Eii^^laniL f^innllpox via pTOVOr 
l^Dt in WiDch(>eler aoO ailjaot^nt towns, and Dr, Lajicfriah 
opcratftd freely on whoever rosortcl lo him- la Purta* 
mouth, Cliicheslur, GuildfoM!, K-UTirtold.nnd Winditttet, 
it yi&fs saiij tbat ut 1i:^Tj ?TM)<) were poxcxl.And th&t only 
hwii pri'gimtit wniuf'ii jwrislu^d, who.A* tAMi^l, " wiiriMtiocu- 
lopLoii cvmtmty l« iho ndvii'L^ of thuir phybioian " Th-* UJ 
nwiilU, u'r>jt'? BiHhojj Maddtix, "wf-re mAy Mich it* njight 
rcia«ottiibly to stipp<>Hnd to Iielvd bvon wcrsv hod lUoiO 
0[)erak-«l uii WI Miinllpox in %hv iLatur&l way"^ueb 
tein^ the QUpherni»nL vli^ntwith boHK. Uiinotirs, luul 
oth«T soiineln- vrcrc nccoiintcd for. 

Ther^v'lvW fiL\'«ur for inoculation wjw indwut^^d m 
tbw para-^rapVi from the ncwspopcrs of VMh Aprils In 

Ihn fm!«TTpnx In tfjn Voiiiulirng HnA^ntnL. fTAtton iriinUp. all with 
^ail tuptc<>4], tho Gtivdrnim h»vii rotalvoil la linre Jtil (Loir fLlldroii 
UadLilnt^il at Uid itBmo u^D. 

An tn^portant Diovoni^nt wa^* made in 174€ with U19 

opening of a t^nmllpr>x H*K*pitAl in (bid HaUi Fi'i^ldavft 
which " LhL' IviiL-Ht, i>F kiiui.-itJjinMi'' wan i^tft-rt-d to tli« 
poor. At first thoao who Applied were (niton into the 
httUKK, iiriil nifrN'd Urtiugh thenar M^lf-hiHii'ietl ifhti*vt, but 
the proximity of tho vi>ntabl(> smallpox, tho r^E^iiDer), 
and tho ftcclunion wirrc sufficient to d(?ter nppliavnta: 
thoMtf, liawoviT, ^^ho hnve a hobby to rlUo j;rovr reekleaa 
in pi'tiseiict^ of ohAtnckM, and by-anJ-hy iiiociilation waa 
off<^rcd Ui ftll cQnifr*, who wnr:* dUinisKrii lo rccfiviy un<i 
ditrttnv infection in their own honica 

With llie revival of inoculation there wa« a m'ival of 
tho GontrovorAy us to it? InM'fLilnosa theologically. I>r> 
Ifuuic M&ddnx, iJiPihoji cif WiiniK»»ter. preached a w-rnion 
on behftlf of tho Smallpox Hotpitiil in St- Andrew'9» 
Holhoni, on 5th M^rch, 1752* which excited cgnaider- 

Uiii. 7- LoDilon, Yia^i Mooad od,, nOSt 



nhic Alt«oiion- Ho t^hovii'tjd th« otsoefialty for ^uch an 
hospital for tbu j^oor anJ forflaken of tho great city — a 
nQcc«ity incontvHtublr- H« tncntrtorti^d (una Hie n^marW 
jupi'licH a cuiifjuFi note on tbcf txyjfionc of tht timf^; thai 
»tiUcoT8 wc-re to bp introdiwrl, uml it wiw ox* 

ptiUi^titA. Tlie leliirn uf tlv ULHjiitai fur 17j2 bhtiwed 
^44 Admis^on^, with 202 VQCovdnvN, mid ^2 doalfi-c — & 
prppOftion Hmf, dcn^.t nob iroiitnat dUacK-jtiitaxHOiJaly with 
lOtn century hospiuU, fonitko'l with MDititryiippliftnces. 
During the same year 112 inoctiJnti^tirf were otKct^^d ftt 
ibi? Horij>ital. Tile Bltlia|i bad hetn aH-Hiwil by tbre* 
omincot flur^ons that they hnd inoculatctl 1 ^CX) tuTKoa^ 
with only 3 fntnliljfv, omt of ihvux i'Sit^jiwiL Itjutby) 
having ^oomi>iL^Jiod <ini^ thousand wJthoLit a iai^ha|>. 
The |)racUce wa& williuub duubi lawful* for It averted a 
d&DgoroLi^ <li;4«aj«, And somti mtc wax ituopftntblu from 
all iDtithods of curtT, The practice bod alrtsaJy don^ 
muc^ to lesAon HmallpoE, ami, as it becflCDC commons, it 
would do tiiorc* 'i'bc icault ©f the fwrmoii wilt a rtub- 
flcnptSon or £SO{f for (Jii? dianty at iht^ Hubs>^jiit?ut 
dinnor in tho Drapers' Uall. 

Thr Bifdiiip wn> rtiii^Turly at fnidt in hijt iMcnpUoTi of 
difiiinUhdd mortulity Vj inocuJaUo^i, for, m 175S£»amaUuox 
vnis more than umi^iuaJly rLl'e iu the MelropolU, anu itA 
prevaluncti watt not unrvjusuiinhiy atirib«il«dto infoctioD 
rrom thu iooc(ilat«[i In l?")! the dvatha fr^m bmallpox 
in fxindrm \Ft^nt fiHS; th«y i'<h» U> ^t^3H in 17<'^2- i14>cUikm1 
to 774 id IToi!; i^nd rwo to •iJSy in l7o4. 

Dr D<ii.Mn'Iijt.' h^nt bJM jjifW^rful iutluunce in favour 
of iaoculalion ^ ntal, con^i' hiring tho un<|iiali£io<l osmr- 
LtOKm (jf luudical uicii ^Ln Ui iU bciictiu add harailoMnM» 
HcftAOot be ^aid ho was blam^woTthv^ Tbo audadoim 
asttiTadc' -with which ma&y of them i>oro down oppoHl- 
t}oD ov«rcatft« tlii' Kiiuplu^iidnd^l, who argut^l aa if lliv 
world wcro con,stitiitc(i afUr tho patUrn of Uii^tr own 
inufHMTut hfiju^u. TImI xiiiali|>ux fruijUL'ntly followrd 
loooalatioQ ie now koown bo^ond dijiputi^, cuiil y«t JJr. 
Kiilt{Mitnck wrote — 



bfilr^ QFiIuriLlly iiiCioUd sjlvrn'tfidi^ uhioh upon oiuDtnation 

Hqw oonid wotnon &nd divuKvt rt^iat »ucJi evidence f 
A volublo AHiagoiilAt of iitoi^ulaLui:) wua tlie B«t, 
Thoodore BctnfAyi! uf TanWrbury. H* prciichcd a 
rai>n IE that city on tiic Srd of June, 17->I3. from 
t<'tfr, " Trt II* ilo evil Umt good may como* (Ttoin. lit. 
B,hd puUir*hijtl it under Uic title of ?n(>cn^'ifw?" an lfid> 

Inucultttta^, and in 17-^* iMUed -1 Vindioitifm of SCM> 
p&g69. ill ^'liicli lif^ n^turmd iiiorr tluiii hn n^n-lvnd vritli 
vigour rather than dtttcrvc^ion- Hia t^onclusiuu w&s — 
tnoealcttiJjii I mAiQldUQ to b«, m a rolkj^k^ns nml marul viaw, ft 

drill nnrt ^n ijiiFi^nKorinhlw, iinnnturiU, unliwiiiL m-wt hfl/ntvfnUK, 
InnfTiiiitna^ fniitTpfM, unr^rWn, tmiiAMBBarf dcvion ; ia a trord, % 
prjv^ttoA vh{<r1i imtiirfi rrcoiln kC, vrhidi mn^i^n oppoMrK. and vhit^h 
relJ^cn Pon<tnirtiiH. 

We somottmoH ri^ thnt inccul&tlon wim fknounocd 
M Athcimii, And w<ft are i^prcttnl tii rtjirol-at'? cr to 
amil« lit thij Kigntry; and, whiUt wo may not aripiOTd 
of tb« riti^um, vrc mny at tho i<ATnr: time nxngn^^c tli6 
honest sense In whli^li lL mi;i)il be nH^xed. Suum wbo 
iipoko of inoculation as Atlici^tic felt more vividly 
Uiaii ll)i*y i'liuld uiTmrwiru^ Llfixc-riW, Ue^i it ^vnx zm la- 
fraction of the deeper BELDotity of Natiiro, wht^ro mftxi's 
hand cannot enter and prosper, and tliat thimc wlo made 
the att&miit cijuM liav^ nu pixjper siiiso of !!tm in whom 
they lived, and nicvi^, and had Ihtic K-in;,'. MovoovcT, 
if Wf- an? to n/htiit thnt they who thu* rvpn^sM'd Uiem- 
aelvori aro LlauitaWc for cxcetmivo vohcmt^iicu, what are 
vrc to wiy of the njore iLutiterDn^ party who did not hc**i- 
XaXc to pronounce inocitlntion a Ciscovi^ry uHtecti^d in th^ 
human juhid hy <1(m1 liirnsvK? lfttwa*i n-a-Htinallo to 
Bpvak nf tliG practice a* Theistic, why Ehmiltl it bo 
fanntical to a-v-^cit the contrary, and iiiiiintAin that it 
involved a lu^gation of I»ivico Pruvid..-iJCt.' ^ Dr. Kirk< 

' jIm jlUu/f «|< C^ /j|«?ll74LfllOA, lu'loJ. iTtil, p. li^ 




I mtridc, with t}\e Avr^ofihuQr^y which v&h tbe custom nf 
I bis ftgc. praised GcoVl-c 11. i^r "the benevolent, find cv<?a 

" tbo woodertu] aiid probably Hoi^vcn-duscendert ^Titcticc 
of itio(?iiUtion ; " ilhiI i^xtnlird "Uh m^iml MinpHaity nni 
aqcmm'* ^ d«inc»n!itratinir "to a nficetivc* tiund the 
gooda«69 cf Providuiiri' in ui&kinv wbat infty be ^o often 
n«c«isary, so Qftsily acoomplUhijd-" * It would not be 
diffioiU to i^ta f^corc-A of cjDDf<?JuiioiM of gratitude to Gori 
for inc-culiitioD, but to whnt purpose f 

Wb&b wc think go£xi wt ncc^^^arilTf luicribe to God; 
ftnd we do mvW ; Wi niucli tliuL wc think ;[Cod Ih oLh«T- 
WMo, or 18 only pajrtiaily j,'ood ; and what tb^^n ? Why, 
we are imdi'tvivj^ii mid (virrrctrd hy rNprncncv. Wn put 
our notiQii of what U ^ood to thti U.-At of pr&clice, nnd 
Ood answers u^ in tht- tivunl — ju&tiUeH, amends, or con- 
foundv viH. ThiiB with inoculation. It wju fair that 
tho«o nho tiipught it ;:wid ^^hoiild rcfrr it to Ooil, ajid 
dinnk h:nj for it: tind it wns equally Cair that ifiow who 
thought it bad should *ftv it was none of bis — that it wm 
at varlanef? willi his orJiT, and n discredit to thv iiiU-Ui- 
^fiiico of thoBc who imputod it to Him, How vhh the 
lattue Ut Iw dctfinnirii-f] ? Oidy by Ood hiiiiAt^lL And how 
^nld Ha opuak ? In th^! rcaulu of exj>fnenco wh^-roin 
hifl will would bt'coujc iiianlf»it bvyojid eijuivocatioiL 

In 1754 inoculation obtainix! full roco^ition frrjui thu 
Landoti Colic;:'? of Pliy-^icianK, It wiu* dbcl&rrd " that 
rxiH^nitnec hiid Tefut»>d the ftrgrimenle urced a^in^^t the 
pmetjcc ; that it v/ta now moro t^xtcnnivcTy cmployc^d in 
England tlian v\vt\ and that \t wha highly ltt.*iirlt(^Ul to 
mankind," Thi* fonco of henitAtion was thrown down, 
uul Lri he inoculated hi-caiiiu tho dhitinction of all who 
wislked to be numhcrud with the calijrhtinvd and pruilont. 
*niAt the Ciica.^iaii£ wervi famous for tbcir beauty, ami 
thai thty practifc^l inoeuUtion, waa a nUibU ari(Utntnt. 
nnd an irrtsintibl^-, with a iiiidbiCiidc of Liigli^bwcmcn- 
OppoHition WRM dtirJty rnidim-d tu thu lowiT mdci^, who 

* Awtfytk ^ JrtontkUiim, p. Uj^ 



ftnd in ^orue places tKroAteued to demolish the- Hoti»«i 
whr'n; mociilrtbion ^a* pcrfonncd-* Occfwign^illy a tnoiii- 
cal praetltioat?r ncqitircd rv^putation as an inonil^Uiur, 
toid wna resorted to by patients from a diAtimoc, and 
bw ojH?mf-uinK u-nm not rr-giinlril u-ith mtidi favtiUT by 
Hh iK-T;;h1jour^ Tliufi thu ph^'siciftziH ami eurg^om it 
Nowburj', Uetks, wuiv a*i[i|»yIleJ by choir towa'stHHn to 
promifW to incoiilnt*^ no one who hjul not reaMoi in Now- 

Thi? new practice CK^ted mach Ininnoiw. nnd iU d»- 
tributdon oxcitcd Homc jcaJoti^y. Iliy^iciana oamplAiDod 

SODA that apothecaries^ did so Jilccwi^ix Vr. KirkfifLttick. 
d (Itjwn lU(» n^li* thah nviTy rii;lillv (iiiiiIlicIoiI inoca* 
iation involved the *mp!oyiiutiit of physician. suTc:i?on, 
and npoChccary — the |»ljyHi'"Jaii U> [Jitpare aod prcncrjb© 
for thf* jmtirnt, the Kur^^on to cut, infiuo, and d 
And llic &]}oUiEti^ry ia luakc ap Ui<i iTU?dicinv.v^, 
howuvor, disp&n&i*d with all Uiree, and oH'<*pt<Hl 
own iDOCulntion^. A boy posed fourteen of hi» ftchtX)!- 
fdlowj* In fi^JOTl, Jind amttCi-ur uim-idator*, rnalt' and fi. meilc^ 
raaltjpliod. Aa an cxaiiiplu of amateur prooodure, l>r. 
Klrkpiitrif.k ri*Tftti*H tlint n g^iitlritnnii of KontpMnr. bU w*t- 
vwit, SilvatiU[»,ay"ting man, to Mri. Cb;irin»"ii, at Hvath-I 
Held, tu l« iiii>eul»te<L He bjid t<) rMe ibirtefiii ntileH. andi 
arrived hot find fatigued fit tb<? houce of the moculAtrij 
An b<! had tnlccn hia pn^parAtory pliynjc nt his ntnzrfcv^ 
UtBh Chapman desired him to i^i-^t roaiy at once for 
oporatioD, which ho bogged her to defer m he waa in mi< 
a ItmL Sill* K'pISyil ihitl hi' nni^t 1h* inrtPuhiUnl tliaL vcrj 
day, Tucaday, or rouiaiu uiiiU tho t'oIloM'in^' vk\-ok, for] 
TiicDtdd^ Wits ht.'rr bicky day. Tbo pinir f»!low allowfidj 
him»ali to bo porvuadcd, arid v-v^ thi^n and tliuru inot 
lated : bevero AUiaU|M)x emutrd, and ho dlcd.f 

Thufi vnia inoculation rr^viv«d ami ^stablisihtid, 
analLpox with li — eHtAUi?^hccl aii<] difTu^^ed. 


It ItAvti^ ooiDo lo p«0k, •cco iJija^ to Uw bo«xt of Dr. 
Kirlc|Mtnrk, that iivifttUticm w» rv^nied &s " the mo«t 
0altitar3^ practice rrrtr dbtt>T«nd (or rcrttmuiiae % v^^ry 
[nfc^liMti ufeJ iltfaltojntt dlMcder, wlite^ it h^ DMriy 
«xpQBgw) froca tiw caUtew of nortftl dbeweo.* it ma 
tlw aim of pbjudam aDdpatieQla to ndooa Uw ttoabk 
and hfliard ot th^ opttatioo to the kiw«Bt tcnoa potaible. 
In tho wcrrlsof Dr.J^oncr, "Thefivvraa U<«dia^ till tl>o 
hiood a-a^ thin, ptir^iii^ till tli« bodr wv wa«t«d to a 
skeletal, aixl starHn-; oo Tv^et^fe (Mt to kc«p U ao ;" 
ann! pcairtitiQom wbi prnciui#<d to taiti^Uo these rjgOQa, 
pUeed theini el rc fl in tlw line o( pO|Hilantj Uftd proneci^. 

naiiMd »ittoa— "thd Svttofu" betai* a faouliar naioo a 
GcnLury a^ Dr. Robert SoUciti nnctLval nutffCT}' and 
pbwnoaey at Debenhaoi, in 5uffi>Qc, and wont into tn- 
ocalation with aKb cncirgy that betwcn 17^7 taxd 17C7 
he o|H-ral^ on 2^14 poltenEfk HU «on, Riihrrt.^ot up aat 
iifcoculatof al Buiy St. Edmunds, ^berv he did a hun^e 
biMitM^w^ \flii a^weond Mm, D&nir!, wa^tlwgnniiiAof thi> 
household. Ho had been acting aa mal^nt to Ur. Bum- 
Uead at Oifarxl, auJ relurue^ to \thk fatlier >ti 17&1 
^thtKia^ic owr a im^w plan of inoculation ffhcn)t>y th« 
time or preparation wa>i to be short«D^. whilst the 
patteats w«T9 to liro in tho op^n air. Old Suttca 
ftlhcrrrcd n<» favour for the projected mnovatMO, wboreon 
Danitil opened an InoL^latiti^ liouv un bin uwii aocmmi 
at lo^tflfitono, in Ce^ex. advcrtism^ hiinaolf as iuoculator 
on a i>cw, Jttfe, aiid sure niethinl. Tlic ^|•tcllktic)U 
anflvercd. In 176* h« took 2000 fpuneo^ ani in 170^ 
hia rcccipta were X030(X Ills faiuo aproad tJirou^TKrtit 
tfa^ country, and so many rworted to hiui that lo%iitfB 
wen^scareelr to be had in and flround InnUetODO. m 
practicii in Kent a-ax abui rxUn^ivR. and no was ohlignl 
to employ aftdacant». To crown hk ciiterprbe, ho kcpl 



ftpamon — the Euv, Ro1>ort Houlton, tn pnO'liUHkill BUd 
ftUCGGsa. Acroniing to llonkori, tlu^ IxoitLi.'Sh of Duniol 
Sutton durln*.' tbroe yr-nn; wjl^ oa follows — 

jDovukttfd in nm, . . . U19 
1784. . - IWT 

176B, . - - 7816 


to which DiiiDber wu added COOO inoouUteJ bvSuttoa'a 
adaUtojiU, milking a totfti oF £0,000, vnthoufc.satJ HoulUiDi 

Kntton w&Q denoimctxl a^ & iMia«k, nDd if to reMrfvo 
11% oiiiVn nwii, iui«l to tnttHc in wlwit la pmdfkiotc^il to bo 
for the cuuiuion adv&ata^u U uiajkUiiid. Qoii8lkiiti» t, 
quack, Sutt<oii woaone. ^^ovci'tlick'A?^. he ^^'a-*s succcf^tih 
and liU KuoC!(M4 bogot no much jvalou»j' UiAl he wan 
in-Jicbcil at tli« Chelmsford (luartcr-^euionH, ^ut acquitted 
with the thank* of tlie granil j ary foi' the Iwson ho had 
taiii-ht t!io I^'acidty. 

Mudi iiij{«iiujLy vvaM vxt*r4?iAtMl in ferr^Uni^ out Hutbon'R 
AAcrot. J]i8 f^ccTct, 80 Fnv a:? it was anvth^nr*^ w&s ^ 
opeai one; atid Mippij^^ing k iiuct^Mar/ io infrcC jilWk 
blood with variolous pua, aud th^ii tu operate for thoir 
recovery, thcro wouiti be much to .say for Sutton'a pro- 
cedure, hii piiUiMitH w«re oblt^-d to go thTouu;li n «Lricl 
Ercparatory re;fimcn for a fortiught, tluring which ovety 
trill irf 7uiiiiiu] fooil, widi thf^ t'xc-rpl.ioii iil* milk, and all 
feniitutp^d h4Uorft and apic^ were forbidden. Fruit of 
aH ^ortA wa^ allowi-il, iiuli<»s on days wlit-n puryi*^ were 
takiifi. Jn tho cuuivit of ii fortnight a powdiir wojs thrico 
admiuLAtvred at hi^J'timu. and a done of nidU dd tlio 
micicupdiug momifig, When the days of preparation 
"vare accttrnptinhod, the patient wat Ukcn to tnc inoculaV 
ing hoithf*, where iii thi.^ public [Oljiii wha found ah array 
<if pc<jp!c in various (^tng*:i3 of amalipox- From on^ M 
IhiMi"? HijfT'si^rH, ihiJ nijumtor fltlficl^il a pustide to hiS' 
mindj opemod it with hia lancetj and, turning to 

Ttawm or rvocTLAHOx *7 

■Btieat to 1j« poxed. lused ihtt colkle on Uw onivr pvi 
^BF HU nnii vith ite Bkobt luK»t« sod pncnvd it down 
' Tnlh hift fiiif^. ThLi WAA the rjidrc opentioa: D* 
[ila«t«r or fauiHftg^ to ftppliM ■ tnd frnm thai mcaw^nt 
the puticnt VM proooooccd proof igftiiwt ksaUiiox. cren 
if he ftliuult] lie in bed with uoe «ufleria|{ frucs Uk 
<BaoQaeL Of c>oaT)i»lli«Ti«revttin*dtb«vmrioiovaafl«ctMo 
to be dcftlt with. Tbc irpinitn of nrtr|i&ratioii w&» ooo- 
tlnoed indbaii^). in^ s pilt w«« tAki*ti ni^htlv until lb* 
fever came on. Npoc wcr* «Uowcd to rest in £c-i. except 
fur !i}(<^i, bat bad to valk ftbroBH utfl vojuy fn^^h ^ir, 
<>veil in iiinl€r weather. If b f«twnt w«a tcKJ aide to go 
nloncW inw mtpport«<l h> atttfadaata; aod vrbcn c£« 
fever wad at Iih hi^ij^t, he was oneouraj^ to clrink 
GopiooAlj of cold water. 

Vudi DKirt wa« aUHbot^d to Sattons pUli and pow* 
dan than to kL-< nr^nM.-n« uid tbrae werr^ no inort tban 
prvpar^oiiM nf juitim^m^ and nutvury, witb wbich 

EnctitiontTH of atl ordcn ««reoaly too fajaUiar. Sutton, 
uvr«viv, contrived lo maintain hjs nij«l«Ty uoul he had 
DO longer occasion for it, ^lul lived to rvco^btA a mowuiior 
in Jcnner. Hi: removed lo London in ]7f}7 in ho|)e of 
«nlarf;^g hia income, bnt Uk«» miinr other proTtnciaJ 
eeJcbriti^, dkcorcrod tbat ho bad b«ttof ba^'c remaiiked 
where ha ahooe without rivab and doira4*tofa. 

The 8uttoa resjmcn, no far a^ it loii^ht be described aa 
"eool/ cuiui int4> grnt^ral favour, vhil.U whaL wan called 
the hoi r«;:imt<n ^ warm roonaa, bed, and eordiak was 
GOrreflpondi^gljr dW<Trt)it'vi tVintnuktin^ tho tiro ma* 
tbodif Sir Goorgo Baker, writing in 1771, obotcrr^d^ 

I iwind thai i& th« mvBllM of XorCoU, bcdToUi, mad EMMt, 
iDftnj thoomsif^ ot p^ApU td ftll ana uul eoiMitilvlHiaji, uid miao 
oC thora with ararj »ppkr«nt dfudv^ntatf*. bvt bMu laAralAtc^ 
wttb g«ii«r*l good M^Mn; wh«rau >t BUn4foi^ in Dotiot, oat 
of 3^ who ««r» inf>cTiUud, 11 Hinalljr iM, juid tniny olhon 
nuTOwlj «uap*>) «tUi Uifar livM from n«lla*iii raiAllint,* 

A fatnfliitfi innciilator war Dr. Tlioriia-* Dimvlolp of 
Hertford, a Quakor of oa«y principlea. H-* piih]i.*h<Hl to 



17cr> A UcAtiM entitled 7A< PrGmU iVcfAo-7 of h 
{•iujf'fr iJtr SH\aUpor — iin 4.*x |H»ili*m «f th*- mo*t Ap[ 
pmcUo of iho iitao, vrhich, by otio oi Uioau cui 
fvliciUcN nf cimiiiiHtAnri^, mnfcrml on tiim n Km 
rftputdtion; Aad in 17si, Tracts on InooK^ion — i t^ 
coH qF hu opLoionA oud a^veuiura at homo and abro^ 

I^TouUIo do)ilT4Ml to untviirfAliA* inocaUUon^ h\xt with 
drcu inspect ion. Ht> rircoromonded th&t the inbAliitonU 
of A (^uitRbl^iiistrict should bedoftlt unth u AvhoUjand 
At once- That the iiamc-*i of aII !(br>TiH V*r tnkj^n, nmi on 
n (vrtAtn Jav lIi£lI evirry^juv, wbu IieuI [lut liail xiiallrioi, 
should be iDocolat«<i. ThAt the district should Uran 
contlniir in qiiniuntirit; ftjr about Uirvc week:*. At tli<? tind 
of which tb« danji^r and ih« foar of saiAJtpox irould 
ceAM>» uEtil All unpolluted gcii«rmUoQ should nfratb 
Accuinuhto. The projvct waji not nict« dr^tniinc. IMoi** 
dale ttan a man of intluenod and cncT;:}% and i^Hected 
sL'vei^l r/>mpUtfl incK^alAtionsof Wlla^rw nnd i>Ari>h*« in 
llortfordihire itccordin^ to hiii plan* In laUx y<*n, be 
coukhiiieJ Lankui]/ with medicine, and llit^ l^rtii of Dinia- 
dal«, Fowler, and Co. of Comhill ori^atod with him and 
]>erEH>timti'T* hn nnmr. 

I>LEii7^daIt'^ pnct-ice Ifty c^ieflj Anionj;; tho upper cl\33>08, 
to wboia ho mado luattcni very cooifortaolcw Aa ha 
wtot** — 

J j1*i not finjirii fliir r«trintinn In napfrl ut rttflt. nor (!In>ei any 
mAUirint^ to 111* ukfin bhfiim lUa iLro» al ap«imtioa by nvch 
apiK'jir to Iw 111 n proikp</ staUi ot htmMh,* 

f{i> WAA AatUfied with Ailminiiit^nnj; a povdaroa 
cvvtiiTii^ of tho daj on whicli a pati<inb waa inocula 
C*in.'ii*lin^ of tniluiTiirl. l^ir^Jir <.'niir«t.ic, iiini tralin* dawn. 

Whihi liibouriii;* to populai-i?^'> inoculafloii, ]>iri>4dalc 
WBW <JtroiiL(ly opjif«(\l to tlio traili' thcn*iii p/L*^inj^ Ui iitl- 
AuthorUocl handa— Hiuiptvv buSti, and ttalutary thou^'h ho 
awHTrted it tu Ihj. Thus he avened — 

Tlio mlflohlpff mriaJng from th* prnctitfo of moauUtbn l^y tta 

f itu. p. lo;. 

T Kimm or 

dwiTigJ froi — ni*> wW iwfe i» pinwoB la HrttmHigfL 
Mad i«eM>» wt«, ■MitoTw^ i«i 

CbrU> «» vunat lad wDovn^visMil f » B^i^A iim tolMn. 
In I77S « SofMCy m lom^ for OcMnI iBOOiklitB, 
^ ukxtttel «K optM^ far tU wMea «t BMk 

Bil^oBtU iito of wtAt liiMm A> Awat XofUwm 

Qnak«r plipaaui. fvovrf ■■ W*^ «n bthi^lf of tl^ 

linflTcoobtnviflj/ maaued b«tm«ii tlw Ixvchrvo — fifrwuiftl 

crioBJtMto iDocukaiua: be w«ft rattdjr to tnoewhl» Un- 
wfaob vorU, but ^ru«tBatic&)1y, uul tu»iWr iitfkl Mb- 
gv«rdL Ho poiaud out Uut vh^tcvcx migKi U Ui» 
advurti^ to ue lihil\-l-juAl. qbIos ibe ioocvluod P|*tttiiL 

frcnn wki^h be KKi^t to b» d»1iv«tv<l. ami ttwi tlio jwW 
of hin life tny^t be ibo dMtnwtios of omdt, UhiMtleV 
v«niings von, howrvrr, »liditJjr itMnkrl. 4iiJ inoenlft- 
ttoQ v«d pumvnl witb ctim&al neuMAiKM. Aa hytoftl 
obM-rvea. of a11 the fAcullko |jven to n»a. tho nnvi 
ft«ful in iu coDMsiinoocviG U tho power of •Uodtag amid 
a omubvr of foctd, aod Meiiig auch fts ire plcAM to ttec, 
«imI beiti^> tlitiH to tli« nvL 

i5|>r«ially rciDarknbk ia ooraicctiott with tli« uiuOlpox 
cf IW O'ltturj waa tbe eXAggonUHl t< rrur nprenMnl fur 
it b^ prof««Hiorkal iaoeuUUors, ui<t tbo liul« rr^ftl \vmr 
m&ikifcntct] Inr tUu niuttiuuii:. It wiv by txf iiHfinii tli<* 
noet btal of dU^uee^nor ^os U a Urj^ f»cti>r lit tbv 
cofOTooD mortiUity. \Mwiw«r wo toab th« niaUvr hy 
unbiftoMl ooiiUMiiiMira^ e\'id^n(v*, v.'o tiiul tlut outcry 
fOictitiooa: tbo aKAiitaL anil tlMoUtiuj; ni^lAtly ftoiii 
wbirh JiniiH-r ilc^livrnml bb( ctJtinliy in iiii>r^ly Ji flctlriU 
ooriliuu^ by tlia vaoouiaton from Uio iiuwulikt^^TK Kur 
proctf lei \t9 Uxirt to the ovidcncv of I>r AlrxniiOrr Motii-u. 
PTtjf<?*aor of M4?diciiu* anJ Atiitomy In iU« l*niv«r*ilv of 
Ivliulur^lk Till- Faculty of M4^lUdtlc in PatU "hiitl 




ltppoint«d a commi&sioD to tnrtulri? iDtc» the ndvanUf^ of 
tnociilfiticin. whicli in the courric of <iuty applied to Monro. 
vrlui in rwtpinsH pr[nluci-il hik? piiMiNhnil in 17t.S An 
Ac-TouTii of fh^ Inoc\il'.ition of Sjtmlip&j: tn Scotland^ 

bv Mtuiknd in 17:!^, tlK^rv had U^l-h 5554 inccuitttioDA 
eirticU-d m St^^iilauJ with 72 faUlilioi; t1ia.t im to a^ 
aWit 140 ftnnimlly witli deiithM I in 7S, Aocnriliiig lo the 
cutifvrnion of Uif imicultttotB tWiia<jlvt?rt. Mmiro fiuU^t 
stated tliat the practice wju <1Uiik^<l in Scot1imJaH"s 
tcrapUng of Providence," an unwnrmnt^iblc ri^k of lifo 
for an iincitrtabi luUnntA^. Otit pTtsf^nt lut«n«t. bow- 
OVOT^ ia ID the Htatlstice o£ deattie from dcoftllpoic in 
Kil]n}>iirg!] for n iteritu of twenty yt^nt tliiix nrlductid by 


1744 l>S4a iB7 

1744.,- 1463 Ul 

i74« )7ii* laa 

1747 l^irW 71 

17*9 Vim 107 

17*3 llSa IQS 

17iO ItMJrt fA 

17al IMI KHI 

I7&a U97 147 

l/Sa 1105 7U 



17W iai5 104 

17fi6 11H7 69 

t7G0,,.. ISIS 196 

1757 -. liST ,>. U» 

nfi« „„i'wr.. fl« 

i7fis 1 1 mi 'iss 

nee ...n^a m 

i7«! iioa ,. 6 

n«'^ I3I»6 -.574 

n«3 iiert.. ia» 


lS,T(Kf 12fia , 11,r^1A 

Hero we tiave a piece of valid i»iptriL»nc<? with every 
ads^anta^ tu the ^TDftUpax Lorrori&l: for Edinburj^j IaA 
century wds a city contrived lu* if for tbt |^ini5rtttif>Ti and 

i>urpetufv(ion of amaHpox, Thu popul^vtion of 55,<JO0 was 
odii?^! tbickly in ilal;*. in boiiht-*! ut luany *toreyh. clo«i^ly 
built in Iivncfl and courts — Ft popuktiun denav^ly com- 
partm] tvi any ni Europe, with ii,mLii;ji?rni'nts for i^It^iudl- 
□668 indcscribabk', &t thia day perhaps incredible. T^t 
in condi^ons so propitious to »jnal]pox, we aee before ua- 

• SJoiiTontHiiiotJifftrthe ntoAttive morlnnty of thi* jaw If^' tli" Ta»fr 
«iGo ol riiriiuHiiU in EdiiLbutiEL AftfiC tU' Auppn^oDiau i^t t>iK ri'lt'-lliaa 
*f I74t. 



loliil oiili*i>iii» ihtrln^' u snrit»t of turi-.nty j^i<niH; Kn*\ 
r«preh<rQ8ibli! fi£ tho rcHult umy a.}>peftr to oonltmporary 
^A&itfiri&Eu, vbo hold, and rightly bold, that all z^ mollc 
liUeascs flTo pn'vcntih!^, yut it nlfitcud Monro with no 
aoxiAty ct dismay : nor Jooa the tat** of mortality of oli 
Cdintmrgli contrAst unfftvoiirnblr vith thntc^f thi:' modern 
city- 'Jtic cnAO mf Edinhiiri:)!, h-nwovcr, twrvi^s to r»liow 
IhAt in a\} ciiA-i'ri wli'H wi' lunr o{ tlie ravag«a of nruAlliMX 
b«fonT Jcnr*'r iipp<*ftn?d tw flt-livcr4ir, our riolicy i» to inj^i^l 
JiTinly u|ion tlic jiurUiicLioa vf hpecluJ arid Advi^iuito 
«vid^nco : it U iiion8tri}ii>4 thAt the asaertjcna of common 
<|tMcl;N whether inoculatont or vaccituLtorn, should pcuvf 
irto tmditioti and Ire acLvp^xl hm i]iii|iK-Hth>imb]v vt^nty. 

Wc Iiavc, moreover, to nhnrrw chat ih<- mortrfility from 
ttDMl1|H>x in KdinljdTj^li wiL^ infiiuti!^ niitrUdky: fut rin 
Monro t4>stified— 

T1l» icJiftliitnitt* <J SvotUnd ^ooordly liikTO tha HDillpos In th«£t 
io&iwy or diildkood ; vory tvw Adult* bdn|E Mon m lni« duMM. 
W]i«lbc9 thti U o^tintc to uxy portiouliu- cooBtitution of the air. or 
«f tlio poopkt or to ilio fJi^iute not bpinj; wi much drciulcid oa to 
MUM any to fly li^mi tlio pUon vrltur* it L«, or to iho icnut intor- 
«e«uft»iniiah miiatbo uaonjftlui mlLJibtiiuiUarttuitowui, of wbiob 
c«TVt«l, nnj, suuiy famUioa oDtcr ^ thDii boiiMN by ono oonrnion 
tLiir. vrh[I« ia tLo vilU^ IliD jrooaantc ilxv ^cnonmy oMistuit to 
Ihoij Pvtg^Ubounof whoMAuiiily any iflci«kjtitncit tiow nooviHity 
to ItiqttJro, 

Not only wore tli<r hnbjtf^ of thn pt^opLo contribtitorv to 
the dinuAmii of eruptive? dinonlL-rn, imt likewise tneir 
food, of \rlnch oatmeal wnt the Btftpio, whilst vegetables 
ircr<? few, Fniit mrr:, an<l U?a unknown. Iloncc many 
tDaJftdles liAd free course ; arH tiH HoAn Itamsaj relatr^, a 
gifl en her arrivnl at Mrri. !Wty Mnirhcid's? boarding- 
HLdiiHjl in (III? Tr*itij;LiLf\ CIil-^how, wh«n >ukif3 whrtthiT 
alt# had Tmd smallpox, fe|iliecl, " Yo8, oi^m, I've had the 
smft'pox. Uic mrh [nK^h^]. the blab^ [nottfe-ra^h], the 
Hcnw [itch], tho k!rk-bo»t [whooplng-coLigliJ, the fcver, 
the hranlcA [laompaj, and tht^ worm [UK>thftjdi«]."' 

A loat word ah to Lady Mury Wortley U-onta^u. After 
a reflideQce of twenty years in Italy, she returned to 



En^livml til die. 2Ut Aitgun. 17G2. Ov tlip west ^de of 
tlkc north <]oor in IJclifi^lcl t^jithnlrAl, thero U A f«inMl» 
HfiirOi in ni&rbl«» le&nm^' on mi um inHcribc<l U. W. M. 
!%(; inwriptinn mm — 

vnio UAn-iLT nrmoiiurKEi. mrfa T^trrv, 


uit niwT Tiiiii> IT WITH icaccKiu 

(vc tirii nviTf miLfidiKK, 
Ayi> tBMV DKrovuicvitvrh thk rHumrv or it to 

sirn rmj^w-ririitK^n. 

TffVH, aT nrn utahpi.k jI v n invrcK, 

WK ttATV lUirnrxETi thk viGiti.Rwrit, Avn 

KAJU^n TXv ji4Kni:ii, of tiit4 uti mx'AKT Tii4ieinc> 

iKt> T« HrHnn MEH CllTfcTlTlTDi: 

roit TiTA UNhrtT T<RK H>^ifS>ri r mmuvrEO rimv 

Tllltf AILC lUnXkJ AIIT, 

T81« H<i:GU¥R9IT IH KMIiL'Tail bt 


HiTLit-T mr rnvoDaRK weu-iav i.voi, mq.. 
xitu irAL^tmTAii or IkLn JOKI WUaTTHni.llT. u.iaip, 

Wbibt wo do not r^siort to rpttfiph^ for trwtb, wc maj 
diiixiV4W in tlitim wlihl wan Liikc^rL fur triilli. or ivlmL wftM 
vishfid tobe taken fOT truth, W<* huve in thi? fori>si>i]i(; 
c|Htaph tho InsrnJ wJiitrh Ihv* r^m^ht thr? jmijuiIa:- funcy. 
ftnci vhScb Is likely to »i.irx'ivi> corrc'ctLonH inTiainera1>lci. 
It U the custom of mnckimi tn iil>?ntify a commoD moi^o- 
mnnt vith »onin pmniiin'iit or ]>iHun-*r|m' figiirfi In the 
movAmcntp wid to auppiv?^* tbc reel. TIil' pmctieo b 
oonv^ipnt, l>ii1 it tAint* nil liiiitnT^' wil.!i fjiMa 

Tt may hv sn'u] thai tlii? practice cf mocuUtiou mrt 
vith no fictiv<i ri*^i»<lancc in Kfigknd during t1i« last 
thirty yi*rs of Innt ct-ntuty. How widely and di-snply it 
extended it Avould be ditHcult to dct«rinine. Thi^ pro- 

TSioiPH or rsocriJLTioK. 


btWIity is, that tW numd Ihe populniiofi nnji ^'"}***^^ 
uid tfaiftt inoculation wttitiniU^I lo ll.v upiAtrAnd nm* 
daawo. and ki tha tower m far u ihvy c:aiii« lunlvr tM 
imnkcdiatc ibHiwnco of IboHo alxA<« Ui«n. VVn luive, 

Khu[B, ;ui iwUx lo lliB ouikrJiLiun of affaini in l>r Wm. 

wbicli ran through cijfhUcii rtiitionn. amouiUi'i^ to 
80,000 copit^ In tlu.* aulEor'a life-time. U U nuL iiuooiu- 
mon to refer coat^^capUioiul/ to Biichan. lui hirt vr^>rk 
WAA tha producticn nf a tnui uf vijfdnitik uocx) MiTtm^ with 
faith ID the good fioiL-w of bh rrofion — a book crL-jlitablo 
to the author and to the |)Q>jp]r whti npprcuiaUd bim< 

Biidian wa« an inocuUtor. a /x-aJoxm advooau uf imxru- 
tatluu, ai^Al earjitaUv Ubuur^d Ui univcraaliAO the practicv. 
In the I^rufsti*: .\ff4icine, «d. 1797, bo wroU— 

y^ cUsrnifiij ciTi bv uf iCDncnJ iitililv vliilc Uu imotloa of U u 
knptiii ihehai^ilfti aUm, U»t\ 1 Davubtlm bnni pn«IJu4 ki> tliu 
»biu« kiuit uf uiwtkIwii bu uor c«uiitiT M tu tb« vouutno* frum 
vLkh na iltvired it, It Lftil kmg omo boon UDirarvttL Tbo f*ftn, 
tLo icalaiudei, iLo prcJQiticeVt ncul Iba ovpg^tc wUrHtB ol lli« 
Fkcully uv, nfid overfill be, ILo iiujvt ^accrtual obiUcIo* to Uw 
ycc mt iM c>f maf Mlutftfy iliKcotQij. HvuLTO it I* thai IiLvcuialioa 
aeicr broauw m m3J uauDttr jp>ntr«l ia EnfUud till ttfk«a n|i b^ 
AKi it«« bnd to i^jife.. 

Conuetcf^tl^' with thia opinion, Buohan atronj^ly advo- 
cated doiuc»tJC piaclicc^ ^In;; — 

Th$j know vfry XHtln of Uib Dikttcr. vha unpuU tUa ■QC«*ei of 
tnodsii ittjwiil-^i'tr^ 1o kiiy superior hIuU, •iiiuif in prvp&rina Ilia 

KlfCbl or <'nlnmI]nil^4t{n|f Uiu (Hivw*, Sois* of Oicni, iud*«4, 
Bt AJiiirilbl dofira of *c0rii«a,irjf Uih wlioln jtncUoo lo Uuuil<alT««, 
ptaund E') liavD pitnordizLuy tM^mU »r c^lruiriA Dir prvparing 
fOftacift for iiiJDOiiUtion, vhich oaT^r faJ of nuMM^ Bnt ikli ft 
oiUj ■ jirHpnw ajLloiilBtcjl lo bLnd Uta jimfiiaQt aad in&[tantlv«. 
Coiimifiti-x-]iPtfi Bj^il |riiiJ«DM aloe* kT* jnfflcinit hoih in tJinf^holAv 
of Llih idiljtwt kriil nianuviioDt of Um ojMinilinn. Wl^H^v^r ia 
ponumuHl <if thaw may [Mr^mii ihin nrTimi fI>T liln dtHilrHn w!Nm»T«r 
ho tlcUii it coawrtiont. jrrOKHd^it ihnj hf in <i i/onj i?t[£* *^/ ^^fjffA. 
Thb lUtnuiODt id Bf>i liin iva^alt of |]:iAii7. but of obsm-kUoo. 
TbaUfili few i«9j3^jriii[ij. h.LVft liad morn nrportuiuUtitt of tfjiim 
inoobUtidi itj nil iia Otff&rcct foroui, 9& UlU« »^?wi to aio to 
dopwid »D thoMt e#ntiraJly nckoiMd unparimQl <iu«u~~'^ ' 

thu LuJy, coiuuiuaiMliuc Um Iafafl4li3n Igr 




otW metJirt^i ale. t}ikt, for vervn^ ytaxv pa«t, I bftvo pnraiiAdfH] 
pftrantw aa^l mimcfi lo [wribxin Ut« fioitlre niwr^lkm tliatnMlvM. 

dtoD, Mid iwvnr Au iTiucU lui ha%rd of cud tjtid coniiiAquoaoft. 
Coz]iiDx>n nii>c?hjinl« oftoQ, ta mj louawloJgi], fBrfunu tbo u|iorAUim 
ivith U3 k'tKid aunwi as phyidcUm. 

Having dcflcribcil tlic anlinftry itictho<l of inoi-ulntion by 
IndMiJiL witli a Inn[^^t ilip^ii-i.1 m [luri. he i^oua uu tu nay — 

If tT*fh ntatt«r Ui nppli^d [nng «nongli tn tlia «1dii, thorit ii no 
oeCAdi^ far my wnrincl nt nil Lot n bit of tlirnjul. nhnnt halt an 
Inob IrmX- vet with tlic tnntTrr. 1>o immeilihtely nppTunl Xn Eli" jtrm. 
loblvKj'^otM-ciun th4^ vhni]ldf>r ATI J tht clbnw, unil fif.ivitvil wl&h a 
pi«(» of r^nmiEum alit*kiiiirpl-iHt'>r. ikiiiT bupt oti fi>r «iif UC fir ten d^fl. 
IIiIh will wUoui fnl1 t<> (.HiniTuEiiilciiti* t\w UiMimu>- 

Instond nf niultl^ilylng argiTmonU tn rcipnimufln J this praddM, I 
ibftll bdff lotT4^ to mrint^on tlur' c.\i%o of my cmn non. lU t^uj Umo uk 
tuilj' chilli . AfUirc^viii^liiiu iwo t:f-iitJD purjp.'urtH I orJrrtil Lliu uiuvt 
to Inkc ri bit ijf thrcjvl w)iirli hiwi buon ^nrvkouBj; wet wilU liittli 
oiMtLifr frum ■ |Kick. aJkd lo lu>' it upon bui utu. oovvriiii' U wjtb b 
[lEvcv urBtio'kiuif'pltMtvr. Tiiln ruiuuStitiil on xit vi nvwu tljijt, ^Liitil 
it 4itfi rLil^Nii) (III hy AL't-iili^ul. At tim liBiiml liLu* miiJillixtX uijulv 
tbvlj' ii^ii]£iEkr^uoL>, nnil nvi^rc vxciimUaglj favt^uinblo. Surt'ly IhJH. 
wbidi IM ftll thftt U tfoncitilly iidci»»u7. ouy bfi ^;mQ nithout any 
JikiJl ij3 modioiDCi 

Tbus wm fltntillpox va^c oo^y 1 

Buchiin ap[ii^Ab'it Ui tlii^ i:1(-r^ for ca'0|if?riitlon aa 

The nonoiiA to whom wo vouli oluodv rccommood tbo poj-foTtn- 
iaoo of tluf opcvntjon uro tlio clcTtfy- koet uf tL^ci kttow coiito< 
thing of xoodkino. Aliooat nJI of Ih^tu llinrA. nn\\ ciku orilur ft 
purgv, which &r« ah l^n i^aAlllbiLUutifi uaovMiuy fur tZiv j^iuotLcio of 

And AA ptt>|HlglLI]diHtfi-^ 

Ko MBtof mon hciTp it ei) iniioh In tbcfr mw^r to randcr the prko^ 
Uoo of inorulntion gonrmJ lu tti4< c^lprpy. tnc xTprittfAt opp'^Kitiim to 
tt nllll HrliuTij froiri «niiiP KcnipliiH of cKinnrlitru'ri, wltlrli Vlmy Ttlono 
DUi ramoTC. T wi^nlil rrronifiutnd tli^m ni>t .inly t^i AriElAnviiiir to 
naupTc thd mMgloiia rlijoctli^n* whl^li weak mtnclu iiavf t^ Uii* 
Mlblory imctiiw, but to eo^oiEi It jm il duty, nnd to pojnt out tho 
ilvj^uf UAg]wLi[]j;tom«lu)U«Df a lufiiLnn which rrnt-lilon(?a h«a 
put tu uur |iuwn for MirmE tUe Uvea vT oxir liflni'nh-^. iiuiaXv xaeh 
mU urn uUriilly n«|E]iKt tbv hihu-iih of kjlvicl^: Llitir oiilklrBOt'i 
AiG u Kiiilljr aa those irUc puL tbeiu to Jmiiii, 




How fnmiliiir linvr v&ccinat^mi ttmilm'n] Uibi lint? at 
Adjumtion '- If you ilo not comply with our pre^rip* 
tjcn< nn<l your children catch smallpox, then arc j'ou their 

Hero ia another paaaogo from Buchan, whicii with 
euuiil Riocuracy fiiigfit applv ^ VAri-iii^tirm — U miltH^l 
miat la porputually a-sfwrtoS lo bo thtj truili coneenung 
Vaccina lion — 

A^ ihn SrniillpDx in now Wccine an «p^i1<im{rAl Jiioutt in nit>ct 

Ui« mjiliuly v< luild «h iHifMltlii. TliU U t?ie nul^' niiLTtTinr nt iiilirp- 
fttlou na« leitiu uiir |mwvr: aud duhiiifh it iua\ hhull pihrhtloiiciBu. 
tb« Jutllicuil ut>Uioil <if DummuQicalJug Ibo aJMHua. ouulil it ha 
tendorLHl unEiDTBal, voiJj ATUouiit ti) Doarl^ tht> tkLLoe Uiia^ as 
ruuliui; it cuU It ih a uintlvr uf niuiill tfuDssiiouiUTa wlicthi^r s lUb' 
vuv U) HulLity ci^riiuluJ, ur rouLk-rvd so uiJld aa Qtiillinr (o 
dovtiTi'y 1i.r« ticFT huxl thu oEiuhtittUi^vci ; but iljul Ihin lunj^ trv lIueid 
li^ Tnoculiilkuj. iluve iiut uvwuduiH uf a JuuU* TUu rJUiuWn wliu 
die iiu(1i»r luuuiilitttuu hurill> (Wcivu W (ju naiu'jJ. In l\iv tuktiLr^l 
way, uu« ia fgui or Jjvc i^DnctAllydioii; UU Vy lauoiJAtiau uul uim 
cf n thoUHVii]. Niiy. nurua cui Wiut or liiinii,if iKDoulatoJ tou 
thoiwmd witboab lh« ban of n vu^t-i pati^ut. 

In this tlcUvuratic**, Biichnn Hid not lis, nor *{'»{ he 
^>6ak for biouotf alouv, but uxprataod thu nnUic/d 
opinion of his time, pTt?ciao1y as a phynician uf tuMky 
t^tlUca conccmin;' VaociniLtion. Y<;t nv all know that 
Buthan WOA compktr^I^- at fault, and autfititutccl what ho 
wislii'il to lio trim foi whnt was ti'0(*. 

I cannot leave Buchan without a few words in hin 
larotir. for, uccoi^liiig to hi*, lights, be M/aa a worthy 
fcIloWj aiul thiT worik shall 1h5 his owti, Hi- WTOto— 

J Ma M I'QpUKh to romciubcr tLo iitac when tho hqccodb of 
InocuLkti^au wji« HUpiJOwd to b^< ^ulirdly owiriu In tljc prijpikrfttioD 
otiba btjdy, ftA it A nil ciivlW; but [ itm ocini-incoil tbul Muuh prvpa- 
rolioii olvrayi htu <I<»co, ^ni itill dooA, laoro hana than ^>^ rA4 
Actfy fonno/ 6^ bclttv prepared lo n\f<i 4 rJuAUfi fAdn o^ }>9%n0 in 
ffofjd hrAlih. Mt^dioinu njoy ovum b ^ujbak, but it cannot moud 
jfood iti^AlU). WJivn It |iimoD <rnj«J< tliO bUtuJinir of hraith, he 
oQgbl utticT l« mt^cldl« witb ii>«di«m« on any •^cuunt irliiitov«r. 

Ko: nor with half on Ineh of tlirud dipp^ii in pox. 





Bbporb frrocfefling to relate Ilov luoculatioD vos Mipcr- 
sedvA aiift uUlmktoly Happr«As«K3 in Engbmd, it m&y hts 
cxp»?diertt ttj tiiakf aomc Jiotoa oa the prevaloDce of Uw 
pnietic** in MhvT Inndn. 

And limt in Ni:vr Lnglond wh(>re, oa wc h&vc aocQ, 
('otttin Matlier luul jirvL-wlence In ftulijeclmj:; the r^porta 
of «-juitom inoculniicn to tlio t^st of ivojitoni pruutiM- 
M^ntUf^r and hlh coo^liuUir. BojUtuii, did not prLjii^ie to 
nwke iiioculaUoQ hatutual, but to rm^rv^' it for qbo in 
«p]<lpniic-H. SomctiTDGfl ycam eUpwd in New Enfrhuu] 
witbciit sTu&llpox: ihent were no dc^nf^c nrVmn popu- 
lations to conatituto flcftt» of zymotic diaoaau; aiid t9 
pTijvidc' luTpotiifl-IIy iLgHinit wKilI, wjw opriwiuiml uiis «b- 
vioualy unnoooaruu-y. Ncvcrthflt?!* Uit' coloainte ^lixrod 
tlif cfimincn diipiwitwii of the time for pottering in 
r»*inor|i(w, mid tboir hIuvpr itHbrrlrcl t*fmvfiQit*iit <»j>pot- 
tunitk^F^ fijr rsjH.-ii[ije»tr* in wiicli t<?[i»L-nty Lad the 
sftnption of beo*^fic»?nca With th*^ Whiles, t']i'imlinr«ji, 
veTitiktinn, droinngc, And pmc water* wen: condttiunA of 
RCcident rAthcr than of providence, but witb thf Riflck* 
UVo wftfr that of the atyc* and the conflcqiiRnccr* in Miiall- 
poK wi'n* Miotidit tfi U» HufRciiMtlly m^i^uiinlrd fur by the 
Assertion tJjitt Nt;*r<Mjfc wore conelilutionally pvi*-di»posed 
to that dtwiir^lT. Wherefore the Rljvks from Bt>?iton to 
tbt- SpudKli Mnin wtro frcmi tiirio ti* time remoniele^V 
iDocQj&ted. and &!! of them who afterwarJa escaped "niAll* 
pox 1ibd their immtinity fucribrH tn tbt^ir iniieulAtJon. 

Jo&atliJUT Kdvk-antjEH the princ<^ of CalvituBtic dirines. 
WfL*i killt'd }i\ inoenJation, Tln-rr* wi>4 nn cpiih^niic of 
ftmnllpnx m New Jersey, arid, ftjr st^yurity, Ed^vords woa 
itiuL'uljLU^d. Tbc< n^uU wu>i tht^ ^eNfratltiii of hmatlpox 
in ft rtpvere f<»nn, of whieh he died^ 2'2nd Mftrc.'h, 1758, 
in hirt -^4tb yeftr» In .■search of a Mjj>erfluoufl i^afT-tj' was 
he al&in, A inan of the fk^e of Edwards had little to 


ivocruTicn abvoad. 


wan sn Aflectioa oT the T*"''^ «ooeBmii]g which, lu 
liAviotf mttoiiiMl komUU UA^ IMirftnb might hav« main- 

The coiooutu ONttllj Mmbod unr ootbr«Ak of wriiaU- 
pox to impovUtioD bv Mji^mg rroca Europe, if not 
manifesUy, then eoT«Tlly; fcr. it wu hdd thai sihaJI^k 
eould Dc^-cr U «volv«cl BponlMMCivJx. Uretl puiui w«re 
tlHrnrfotf^ takm to hokte jm^hMM, aatd Bc»ton ami oilier 
Mtt-jxirts hmd hotptUb cnctod oo «t«0 nmou from 
babiUtUiii, from wtrirh a flag im dwplajvc] w1>cii«vet 
occiipi«>i by Um Mclu A pbraicsao who viiit«d an boa- 
pitul wa^ r«<iojx«dloUkeofi'fiUvig.(ochaneehUnhoi», 
and lo put oo a govm which hting fn/m hU n/xk to bn 
aakioa ; acd. when ht^ cAni« out, to waaJi bb bauds* and 
he fiimipiU<d witJi frankinccoM. in aeUin^ Tgrtli Uicm 
pneeaoiiorw, f rofi-«6'>r Wat<.thouMr '>f Cjunbrid^, Mnwnir 
€blueiU.uWr>'i<j| ion iKicr Ui l>r, H ay j^iirtb uf Cheater-' 

I fwuiel lMU*rt Uitfin ^tof*lb«r iirtPMMurx. Ow towiu an 
nuH, ocB- kcmu* i<»tUr*d, xnoi« of dwm luwtag ft ganliia bfflVMQ 
IbMi, to dial va bvM bteo mU* lo Uace lb* aetto <if oooUcioiL 
Ve baw Ul«d HUUMT g mmm ttiti wiUi mtUlpoiT in !C«rw Engbiod* 
aikl panuaaU wnpt f it Ibat v* bav* toino pivtradcts of b&owiog 
taorv of thAl dSana* Hum jon in Eunvpe. 

During the war with England, Bioallpox broke out in 
tlie Amrritinr. army, and iDooiiIaUoD waa 90 ^^^J v^ 
sotted to Uiat A^iiroely a nmn ««<ftpcd tbc lanccl Waah* 
ington ha^l U'ia Ntvt- England Kjldii^rs inocuUt^d ak 
Oambfid^^t in 1770. anJ it was difficult to 6iid men to 
keep ^uard over tlM? uck ; that in to Aay, awn whu had 
pBMud Uxrough smallpox and wor« not coottiiorod UaUe 
to Infection, A cimotia cvirJccoo of ihe r&tity of tho 
nMiiral dlaea^e in (hu com iti tint tint front which lh« iLrmy 
hod l>ccn rccruitod.* 

Ck>Vum MntiirrH trinmjili ovtr Hoi^ton wr* ctimplrU — 
comploto bvyond h\a inUntion; for it come to be aa 
tliorougbly inoculatod &a any town in those dayn ia 

•nam^htMtJ^^VKm^nlJ^Mim^f^ 1^1' 



vacolnatrd. Dr. Wntorliou<o» writing on 5Stli Ortober, 

Wo flnl Ihftt ID l7Cfl tJjoTfl wjtu but 170 ponoaa Imblo t^> mift&Jl- 

Sx in BoctoQ, lud in ITM. tIiod thoro wot o general icocuUicD 

thai did not rti«otvv tbo infc^otiun vfr nainn^ V4t ttrtu^ In th* 
yoifi 17TU/77, Ani7t^tb«yiiiocatBt«ilrrotLjrT«oljrtbroiigl]oiitUi« 
&tat«. iVo diiyfi B^, i won ftt tbo TCtfaw oT put of th* milittt of 
the cviUDty of truilulk, ftnd of 5l£0 man, 1 mftn*ly think ibaro 
a lJiiDi.irui:t ilIictd Iwoaty'^T* ;f«iLtv of ago thai bad not 
iUrtruitli cjhaIIjiox by mouu «if moonlAtioii; and uf i))i>0 »<vi< 
ft w>*]t or two kvfi>r«> in tb* conulj ot MUdlotf i, thftTO wnt not A 
miter pKmortioo of ilt« uvnw o^o li»bto to tiUta Lhd diHiuwL 
filuM 17G4 th« divij ifir UTiolLrii}! hiut toafiittil <innibd*mb1y : and 
dnoo 177H «« miMt tbfi iUonlct vitfi ita ItttU Wr U iny p&opio 
you ca,ii tiientloD. 

Iti Another letter, dated i^-lb October, 17**7. tho Doctor 

I ilo not believe tliflrt la at present a hinplo person infpftfHl l>y 
fmmllpia in 0.11 tEifl four New EnfilanJ (ju%cniiuii[itiii tli^t ih* nob 
obc iu A imlboD of pooplo.' 

nowi^'cr il mny hum ^M<jm I'lAQtrhf^rc, imiculAitun waa 
Gonductod iu Boston witli a formality and deliberation 
that might hav« satisfied Dinis^-lalc himscU", Thcro was 
Hti imK'iilntitin hrwjntjil I'mct^^d cm ShWuIVpi PuiiiL, wlilcib 
}utA into Cliarlu^i Kivcr. TctijuU- hy a li^ilt? and n half from 
Ihii r/iiiiinon I'iwi, fLTid Mtnnt*^d in |hlrivMint grurmd* with 
trt-t*n and wnlkn. Thicn w^'cks wurc di-"\-ot<?d to iDOCU- 
lalioii auO llx? HuWqciejit bickiieaa, and before di&miflBal,, 
wrot© Dr. Watorhouso — 

llic pAtkonti arc wuhoJ tU or«r in <o»p muiI*. tl3«n mUh^d wL& 
briLiiity, mill liutly welhIioiI in TicivKJ^Tt tlioy jnit uti fnvih ntotfiu, 
Aud tiitry tliof* llity vor« iluTinj^ tli«if «Iaj Ln tho hc^iipitnJ. B| ~ 
OTtn Uioa th«y mr* HnAlcaiL htul ItamlgHtod villi tulphtir In 
nnobftOioiwn, whieh Sfi nboiit twien Ihfl iri» of a eomiiion voi 
boi. ThJK imako'lmiii-o lina a bclo in it« ntcla fur Ihe iDitiimt'S 

init 111" bend oat of dnring tbo op*riitioT». AJtliongli ifiin 
[iimu1jibl» run jtaper* ytl pAtienli «Qbmit frh«urf\i11y, anil wlili no 
idlght tn^rrlriitnU 

* Htcm lotton of BcnJanLlr^ Wotei-liiiiiw, M.D.. pTutvmoT tit Pbydo 
ftt CiuiLtiHil». Mjfci«,, npfriuu' ill TlAjrgiu tiftf PiiiH tv Ejta^twtatt StiaS' 
pw< I^uatlvu, 1703, 



Tlion ttr* p*rliApi 16u unJor iuociUation Bt [>Mtoiit at SdWoITi 
Poui.oot Ofia of tbDiD u^qparv. lh«y uo prmripalJ; vhildrao. 
pariiAM Uur^ or fatty of thorn Oi tli* Lrnt f ooplo In tho common* 
WMllfi. !%• «faftT^' /rir llto whcito jirnMwt U 8 ilolUn, or fUto. 
rtwihin Irolarljnj; »i«<ry »-i[n*hiiif< fiMiii inr^thirkn Li diJirniHtfnn, In 
Miuik ufeMiL lh«y tnivimu Tivr hn1f timf. inn). Yon mriat ponrAin 
lL««aIa bofiinau Amdiictoit wUh ft >?ocv| dftlil of gftlatv, wharo A 
IMitknt. whon 111. jflw D^it to bo mtidJ ej it ^fta-ide^ TiUi « ttilin^ 
MTtjr. Tli« «stabUili*d tPj/ttUra of mirtli uiil good liiunour contrt' 
battTK not ft liitlfl tL> tbfl wfllALn* of tlio paliaats. 

It ii« & curioiiH ntory, miJ stftnds in hrtyad conbra-st W 
Uw roagh aiiil n^ily pnictiun of TuikoVt ^^^^ ^ maay 
utoctila^rB in Hiigl;ii)d and t'Enewbcn^. l)r. AV&terliouM 
luJds — 

T^KLrci «wa Ik pviiiilcratloDiicnborof penoni in Bo*ton to whom 
nriAlIjiox nciLiM not 1m> «f»niiiiiinic]Lti<Ll ]iy iiToOttlittiOTi, tti xotikA tho 
npnrHllon vm ivjH*n,Ur! tvm, llmwi, mhJ Tour liirknt with fmiU 
iBftttv. 8«faml iit tb<wA havM hwl tliA illiicrjufi wramly tmco la 
dio udtiind v-jy. uifl Kiimn linv# [llt^it of It. 

France was alow to nM^^pt tnoeulfttion. Aftor iu in- 
troduction in 17S9, about thirty yvtiv* ekpsod Tcithout 
uiy mrnrnin inc>vi-irii<iit In it.s riiv<>iir, ixh^^n Vo\intTtu 
DiJorot. an*i th<-ir ©et bt^gan ti) ri?ci;>n»noiid tho prftctioc>, 
which hii'l tbo rncrit of bti^ijw Enf^lKh ami ilih|ihr<l by 
cJmm wlio bold chongv ortl impirovcniMit in avL^riiou. 
lift Coodauiino n-a/l an ulo^uctit ua^x^ >jii tin? advaiito^'cs 
of inoculation Wf(>n> tb^ Acftd^my of Sciencw; and 
Tursoi. tbv anient ami naj^aciou.^ lovor of hi^ Icind, pro- 
cureti thoi inocnlalion of & ^liiM \n Parln, !»L A|inl. I7'>'^; 
wtiie^k wii« followed on IM\ May by a yoiin^ man, 
uauii^I CWnltflldi, Hu1>inUtiag liitiiHcdf icj tli<? kHjrmUon 
la ihe inc^re^t of the common Wi>lfare. Then Dr. Hosty 
wan ivcnt to London to invc.-stij^tc and roporb, and on hu 
relom iaauod the«e alatemonU— 

1. Thftt ool <>f 45^1 eiin^ {r)ooul&t«il tn iI^a LoDilfin Hoiifiltnl. nnly 
Mw hfMt h«hT) imi'inr^iKf^fiil ; whfiroaji in tXi« iSmallpoi OniipEtal 
naariy (ma in four htkA illnL 

^ That Ur- BAuby, rriiidpnl tiir^coTi to |ji» mnjersLy. liivl uilkju- 
Iftbed I0i» pifnujELH, ftTid Mr. bflU Vi)«^. without tlir.^ Itw-i of onf>. 

a. Thut 10 fconiKjiihi Poiti[ian-nn JitNiiAfeii iTm fijlnllfjr" of lutunil 
l and ut^HtfU imolljrri. it U oiilj^ iifirbhK»ry to vMt tlk» Lojiitou 


bdwwu l]|« two U so muu'l^abW t^Al Ibo pjust morediilimB nuvl 

4. Lutly. witU rvi|>vot li:» llie ueerUiil mftrmmftUou (if 0tJi4r 
dUeiMC* vltb inociiUUil wiiall^iCii : iio {uaUilcvof tlie kind lia»«r«e 
beau )n<tduci«i], rcj?Kiiui Lnvo huva iit^calatvi] with ranuloiu 
miLtlor token fhun p^tiouU »:^c(oI nith vcucro&l diaf>iac, TctUi«f 
h&ve rMeiTied O^ jmbclian r^iv th&t of bida1?pciX v^uly. 

It vornld bo aupcrllucus to iJcal with iho falWkvi t&- 
volvt'd In iWio HtaUjiMiiU : Ibty i<TVc<i t^ wttiify thoao 
who were di«p03od to be aaliAtied, aud iiicjculatJoii bccamo 
tht- f«Ahion ninong Lh«i HCit-ntific itn<l «n]i^UtoTi4!(L Dr. 
Ttoiieliin, n wcU-kno^rn inocaLalor, wtu JsuiniaoiK^il from 
Oent-va to Pai'ia in 17-'0 io o[i>-rate upon tho cTiililTun of 
tho Uuko of UrkAtiK, And hii? miccom vtu protioimcod 
Jtcirtivi?. Ntiviirllielexi tiKicuULujn i3ul uot exU^ml Iwy jjul 
p(?op1« of loisure &ad ouIUitc, ami in 1763 &n outbreak of 
Mii;i[]£>ox in Purin jno/lt; on end of tlin procUce. An in- 
quiry M^u SnatiiuU-vl by tho authorlUL-n, anil iha eviJoiic« 
left' no doubt tbat lUt> L-tii<Ii.-tnic bad heea tliWuKd, if it 
Jul iir»t nnginntp, with tht? nrtilii'mily poxcd; mni inucu- 
lativn WIL3 UKiiLvfurtLi probibiled iu FarU» Any citiseD 
who WA4 Involved to have Iho induced tiis^ctL-io hnd to 
retire to country (juartor^. 

Hero wu uiuy oUerve that tlie confidence of the m- 
oculator waa ;,'rouni:I«d on th9 a^i^iiniption that whoever 
bad ijncc^ |»vv(i:t! through nmcillpox, vrhi^tUiTr natural or 
artitV'LU, couki ni*ver a^dn oontmct tbi? lib^^^nw. Ni^ver- 
thck-^s tJic inoculated did contract the dim-a^o.nnd tho 
i]is.i.Ht*T wn* iiniformly atwiuiitiTj for aa ilufj to houid 
iuip^irfection in tbo inoculation, Thoro Avcro al^) lUr 
stiULcr^ of AEnnllpQX nftct rvujnlljHJX, \mi Hiwv, too. won 
ducioditrd; the lirst ujiallpox could not bavo been sr«all- 
poXp but eljickenpox, mcaalcs, or nonjc other cniptivo 
disoTfl^r. llipr^j was a conspitiicnifi tiuiiftilatiCTn of theaa 
craaiond iu Uif» ca^ of Louie XV. Uc Had amallpos 
unfjup^tirmably in bk I4tb yrnr. and nf ujifjiu-^Uonabtv 
ntnallpox he died in I77i in bin G*Ui yoar. Notwith- 
Btajidiu^. ihiT axrti-rtiim waa purptrtuattd that there was 
no possibility of fin^allpox after KinaltpoXt and it wtf 
only wbp.^n it- U-cjuuh ii*-c<-»ary to uiainiain the credit of 

ntocruTWir AimnAh 

fofeu— Sui4lliK«cafl«r»WTi«i»^ 

OD tho 1)a«k of A lofww l*WW*l 

liVc huTo acea m>l«r wka ' li*fiiniliiMriii WM 

practiwl In 'BtmUm^mnd rtam --i .if.Pi i Itirn 1** fhmA^ 

St luuighi m iW Ctt/ <riU» nfntfu^-rtt iinMinlty. IV 

tMt Thxntaha, 1701. *Un»ftl U> fir- Hnj^^jArtl^ In 
uoswtr U> Ilk htmitim wnd mif/if^^tl'M, 1/m Utfuita^ 
BseroUiy to iSe Cfcf»^ Sjm-J. 

•*■">••• _ _ , , „,_ 

Uivw» II V «*TBMl*4. Th*** ■«» Am* Mnn Otfii m 
l»Bfc»dty.»****wfcNllfafciniiyifaNf<rf«i,Mf jaiff. 


wratrnvniot^km of muHpoa mro l»r« pnuUcgtbT*; iinil w« b«lto*SV9 
Ouatt to licoil VCT RctioD Ui advice, kad La »imp1o pracaotiCQIk flf' 
^00, vHoh muvt iu>t» nor sroa aoctn to be, opproNiro bo fi^ 

ThU ^limTKc iiitji i)M Onu^vn U not ntily inKtruHiv© 
oEt (^:krc<]m» iiioGuUtion. Lut it ib onotbL-i- cTxpoauru oi thu 
uiiJii&trouft fabitf iliflt reprc^oQtft Europeau citi^ w* <le- 
cimntiTil witli «mAll[>ox uniil Jcnnor'n ailvont ui snvioiir 
— 31 lubX-i thaT. vajiialits Ilk*? imoke wlicaevcr bi\>uglib 
into cortact with m*tt*?r'<^f-fa(Tt 

fnnctilntion w^la intnNLut,<i^4 to Rome and PJorcnco 
(luriiigA wviT*! e)>iJi*:nic in 17-14; &iir] aitt-TiLtoik Iwmg 
dm^Ti to the rcniody, it wiw (Jiscovori?".! that llio Ilidiail 
jHifLstLutry }\tif\ long iinii?tiHrit voluntary siiialljiox just tut 
did tb« peosnntiT oi Walea and tli^ Hii;hlfl,ndg of Scot- 
land. In SjiFiin inoculntioa in&do Hbtlc lki?ad>vay : in the 
words cf Mot>ro — 

heU cciiiuuuiiiojiLiDQ ^ith Kn^l»ud ; l^ut thtw^i 4<trDrtA worn nf nhort 
ilunhtiou* iLtid C[\>m the ^iutiuijiiikhud ioutiou of tlia SfKLriiuxln, 
iii4culati<in wftB toon rcJmquuihcd ^ unH no oUior eountiy la Kuropft 

In Holland and Di^mitmrk iuoculatiuri flC4uired a cer- 
tnin vogue among tho uppi^r c1aui<-.s, nnd in Uermany 
the like ytes tru<! to a Ji^*iei extent. In Swt'dcn inticuUtion 
wa« pnj^rniTngf^H by the Court, anH Dr. Schnltz waa 
dcput'^d to vi.-Jtt the Lomlon HospilAL His report wmao 
r^vouralrlt^ that in 1755 intx^iilntjoii hinjwt* wrtre DpniiHl 
in M)VQTn) part« of the lci]ig(1oin, and the honofit^ of Uio 
junctic'? wtTiT aoiumciuiinited hy a i[jc<da1 in l7-57-«Hi 
GOTious troipby of illusion under preposaoseion, 

I'crhftpa the most notable event in the story of iuocu- 
laUon waM 1(6 introducdorL into Rti<wiii^ how it wm 
brought about ia thus described by Mr^ Morley — 

A« Mou iHCatUariuc cuooioU) poncr llTCSi. alio al unaa iipplUd 
UerMlf to nmko friooda in tbid pgiwcFfnI nTEloQ IFecdcIi bclt^n pjid 
pbi3o«0ldi>] . It WAR n mattor of ooune that i^ht should l^ciu with 
thaomnipotml inonbich at FmiMj. Oncefiil iretv«B fjom Vulliun 

'TMlhMVr^qftJuSmaiiipGr^ Bj Jurn Moor*. Lowlon. UalCk RSW 


werA M iuLt^ii>iiha1i1a an omujaont to & crowned hond m n ilitnlcm, 
ftQil CiithrtriTic ii!i)<ffcrod with oouipUniouU that norc porhaiit mote 
dnecru Uum lius vcrsod. Sbo fttniflerH bow tdiv o*u it|nij Liio for 
n bLindlo of Loukd tLat Lc kiul atut to Ln*. iLtiil nt \ati Lut^iinlu 
bendf Lhut uotLlu;; >^i]l |i]iniau Hit luvvr vt twmlwid m t^iui^li u 
the JUlroJufrfii'ii vi lm>i'iLlEtLU]iL into Uj*i kiuut KmijJiv; t^j fJii' ih^Ja 

Ooe d&y III tliw fiiiiiimer of 17*iR, at hin honst? in Hert- 
ford, Dinu^dAlc received lui unQXptictcil m*j,via^? From 
P^mHcliin, Ilii< RuKNiMi mmiHltr in Lofidoii, to wall iipuii 
Mm ; m^d in liia prcaonco he loomt that ho wn« rctrjuivi^d 
to |»rocf:f^J lit onci^ in St. Prtcit^hurg to imfCLilnLi; tho 
Empre^K. Tbi-Tti w&£ of course som^ hesitation about 
uiiderlakLk^ &o long & ji>iirnej, but Tou^chin tiad been 
ftiithoriHorl to ovoreonie all obfetacl^B. W)iat would thu 
Poctgr rcqHite in the way of ©xpensea ? The Doctor 
dbcreetly answererl that h^ wonld \^f^\i\ that to h-^r 
InipcriarMBJcsty^ wboroofi Fou.nchiiv haiidcJ him £10CO 
to jiity hU way to St Peter4bur|f. DlatMlale 6ui»iitonviI 
bU bon fforu nia modical stuclioa in Cdmburiicb, and Iho 
two wt ofT' for the North ati this 2rtth of July. 

At St, Pyti^f-iljiiri^' Dimsdale waa rt'C*ivt-d with uvi-ry 
niark of ronpcct ^nd liberal hospitaUtv. Jle was intro- 
diioi^I to thti ETti|H-L-(», who was cUariuui^ and grocioujt; 
and lid wa24 inatructed to make the requisato prc<paraUunn 
for th^ )iPrioiiK duty l>pif«r(i him. H« !miJ to find pns, 
and to olitain pUEi he liad to lay handn on a Miit^blc 
jiii^ri^r fruzti biiiallpux^^a t^i^k vbhich piuvud b^ iiu liicviiiH 
aa«y> Having diNcov«rod a cwo to hi^ mind, be hud chon 
to ovi*rcfimo lut oliAtinale oljdctiou tij i\\v alkttnLcliuii of 
virus, no hiid. at the some tuno, to lind a couplo of 
healthy yoimg mi,n,who had not bod «maltpox, on whom 
to raifte -uM^oiidary vlenH, fcr the Emprefts could not be- 
<txpcctcci to run tikc mk of umallpox withmit tiiiti'^ationn 
HiN HrHt mttjnii[}t wari a coiMplfrle Faibirt^aikd br- had Ui 
report acoordii];fIy to his oxpootaDt patic^nt. Catharinv 
heard bis report witb pbilooopbioLl c((»aDiijiity, and left 

IMeni tia^ tJbf Mt^i^^tdiM. ^]r John Uorloj-, 



tuin to try ig«in. At luL bo vrtm ^ticoomfii], OBd At th& 
pnlaoe of CwBOoe Selo on 5&turiUv,ULb OcUiUrr, 1708, 
lJ]<? Eiupreas swallowed tiro grnin^ of niercutial povder, 
aiitl JaU^ on Simclny cvcnin;^ Dunndnlo iDoculAte-i h^r 
with fluid matter hy one pitnctiire In eath arm. SJio did 
wd&L (Vom tho tiiDo of tnc inoculation to the commeiioe- 
mpnt of tlm rruptjiJH, tOw wulkf^l nvrrj' lUy f*>r two op 
three houTtt in the opon air, and, on th« Ut Novooubct^ 
ahe n^tunieil to SU n^U^rsliurt' " in iwrf^'ct cooi) licalth, 
bo tho giTftt joy of the whotu Qtiy." • Tlni (t»(vn1 l>iik« 
was inoculaltd on the iJOth Octcbi*r, aiiil l»y Ui« 22iid 
NoveinVer had " porfeetly recovflrrd," 

Tbv Bmprcfw havinir played, tLv not>ility tiad to follow 
anit, and Dlnwdal** wiw Trri|]j(^t^>d to proceorl to Moscom* 
to iakti tbcm m hanJ ; but at tblt time thorn wu & new 
dliBcuIir TIh-tp waa nair! to be no Mimllpox In MtJNcow, 
and fti I>in;-MUli- could nat inoculat*.* without (rtmh viruH, 
b^ hml U» t]ii?culat?v two givU in SU Pcbi^r»>l>uL^.dc?»igiun^ 
»o to timo thmr dUotdtrr that h^ nhould arrivt^ with thvm 
in Moiscovi- m [irinu* com lition for biiainesM. Oue ;;irl waa 
a faiUiTO, and mwhap* ami dHnyn on thit Alt^djo joiimay 
alnKifHt made a faiJun: of tho other. He did. Luvrcvcr, 
reach Munrow in tiine cnongh b^ t?oniiminicat<* the re* 
quisitc infoction Uj tifty patianti, ami in Morrow ho 
tc-malni>d for Iwn motitlis oijoratbi;^ aud playiny tln» linn. 
Thvn he HCrt off for honw, and on hU routo tliron;;h St. 
?rt*^rshni>j found (JattiarincMilFMi'ing from plciirif^y, for 
wbiebhehlt*d!Kr,drawJ?i^eifthtoiinc»?ii.>f iiin>t.-Hal hlooU. 
Then cun^c lh<7 1'cckoning. Jo AubrttantiaU be had — 

XS.UOO for UnWJiog t xpoDMS ; 

MltiO ayonj fiv blb^ 1« fc« nid ia act ETijflinlt cub, ^al 

AMporasoUtsuir-boicoETiUi JiaiiioriilRlJ.-i[-Mr. Ukui^lc. 

In hononTA ho had lli« a(j[x>mtinoni?4 of— 

OomiMlbir tifBlstu; 

[iijiddaii to b«r luii^hil Ma;>«h£j ; aud 

BiiTDti <4 Uio !huw^ Ejapire wHb d&«t^u1 uf titlv to bi* 

•DiaudAl*; 7Vttctt on /KMnfuCJOfL 


11 WAS a barbarLOu'd iiyla of rccoinptmao* pai<i iindor 
tl«j ay-ii of Ei]rcip»\ Itcohl Cathaniic notbint^. for it is 
sut^ecU wlio suU«r for th« exirava^:&iio& of d^|JOt«;* 

DiuitfJalo had plans Fcr the AYAtQoi&ttc mocuUtion of 
RuiiEiuiH but th*fy n-jJulUM] in Ij'.Uv. CEtUmimtr'^ |>urpO!ti> 
vaa HunicirDtly Aent^d m the iHripl&y ahe Imd made ; and 
ji(i?*^il)ly hfic raiiif.* to coiisidrr HTrnwIal^ ftn npptinciAgn of 
that dodaivor VolLfiiru, whcrtc butitrK Hint h&'i a'li>riioii 
htrr MLlonrw atid cr^rnilur^, wer« by lif^r urJeri (Itrowu into 
the Dcllant wlion the t'rcncli rovolution opcripd hijr cjon 
to the coiisiHiOf^msim uf FrciicU philoMOijliy. 

In pBHiain^ tlL»> litcrfltiire of inoculation, nothing tm- 
prcTGii^i a rcacVcr, cnti^hicncd by sonitary sdoncc, aio much 
as the manner in which smallpox waa ivganted a^ ^oiue- 
thin^ like hwl or lightning timt TJii^^ht bi? ivvovt<i"i, hxn 
fiiMilii not- Im priivi'.iit<(rl. Si fnr, T }mvi> not tnoT, with 
erven a hint iu thut liU.-Taturc that ^nallpox waa uitli^^r 
induced by unwliulc^oiut? mude^ of Ute^ oi tlifl't it could 
be av<>iduL) by wliolu^otnu modvu. In corijunction vrith 
thia bliDdneea wna the ajnaiiny aaaumptftou of Llie inocu- 
latorK, t^t avery od« inoculatod wa« to be plac^^l to th<4r 
^ro'^Ut ns .^nval ivimi .imnllpox ; aa if (panting uiixMtbtiooi 
to be |>ro|i!)ylHi.-tic) '4ijm]1|Fux wah i^vvr a uiilverHH,? epi- 
demic, And iij if multitiidc-s did n»t piui^ thri^Tigh life 
wilhouL KiiiiLtl|HJX hirfurti biucatatloiL wa^ lienrd of. The 
trao probl«m to bo set ADd aolved in $.\\ epidotoloa, 
whether o( InfiLicaixa or ^tnallpox. w why souk arr mja* 
Wptihl« find *ame indLbtc«>|>tlbh>, and whvihL-r It is not 
practicable *o to modify coiidjiions aa lo carry over thu 
Miaui>]>tibl« to tbt) rauk-H of the iuHtiKCL!ptt]>lu- 





Iffi^ ^ iim owo of InoctdAtioQ. SuppOM nn tn- 

f, A^ '""wM *w cniiijilet«Iy U^wllii^rvd. We bavo 
'^iMsluui wrote — 

»*jp AHA in fiMiT or fivB gwnfpyAa< of vaall- 

i./t DiJt onfr cf • IhniMMiiL i^fty. ■oibf Mil 

;IilIa1 lee Uioiuthnd idUkonC tbi 1a« of ^ 


inont London aiugvon, aoid — 

jfkilraiL dW oi inoniTfttBOa io Ik* goDMml 

' 'f^iiif^, juid net on* fit ft IboiiMiid amfM 

iLH^l if tlis IooaitAt#4 ptiifeDl die, Lo Jim 

JJMJffA ? *fW -'-* J^^Wiiiff *nit vniAllfciiat.* 

^ *, H'it^t^nfh Rtnnew. Oetober, 1806, we read— 

uIliKiK tut(ijm%, ooo is CmumI to ^ in iiz. 
'^nfv OD4 if** in two JrasJivd 4Dd fiAy. 
1 4ii ' otlcnJihofl ; and ir« u« rtmiMil>i 
'-rtlr. In L(?edoa. vb«r«ii ovuftl to W 

H ,„_, ^ r.i m tb« hiiJidrt<J. U* bmIouh ftnti* 

4mM M t« ^ gTC«««r> Qfidn Jvaiolov* lnftla«ttt 

.'i^.-imM^r fl Mttoot b* dooiod, lko««vQt. tiuU bo- 

> iL^ diAvvo- ovon *iQdir tho na'tijiprfoi (awta, 

■ /M Ml ««*iLiUfi c»Oft* of MOofiiU lAd oUmt 

/i^ IhM oil*a bono KtUolM viUt htiiitnow 

f'4f> 0fftlmii of Mfidicine. it b ,ttatod b^ 

t /*jjiy|of^*r HotpfUl u«b fqQQdcit In T^ii4on 
,m)^ ar«a conliTiUoi) Uiuc unlil 102^ Dfv 

/iw^y Mull Ccnui (tint ivaly Uinw in > Utouniid 

/, 'jtt'^t'nff fe lA* /Vttrtic* <ir>'flftfnt*rtjn. 

Soorw of BUeh tcKtimoniw mighL Wftddticeil, twh^h^ 
tha niftdar fiom concluaaoa to ooDdiiai>on; and ia Um 
cpnllict of niillt^intH^wfaatHto bondd? It is tri» thftt 
if -K^ fielt>ct what evidence we like, vid call it aound, and 
Kjectwhu we di?*likeH »unl call it imsoood, we may prove 
anjtliiDg; bat H h aUo tnj<^, that if W9 are to bo fotUind 
by evid«ciu we aIuUI .tUnJ j^karaly?ie<l mtiid cODtiadktioox 
Whtm Qi«n wlio are compel^nt^ and obvfoualy faonaat, 
deliver raiding testimony, we are cinvcii to 9oA aoma 
Bwtbod of reootirilUtlon ; and in UiLh matter ot ItiocD* 
laUon whonirin our n^eort ia to books, and about which 
we can iiavo no iniim^liatc exiH^Tionce, wc may derive 
iriHch light from th« correepon'iinK practice cf va^ni^ 
lion. Tliuif, what is conimoiivi ilt^n for VAccinatoni to 
aisert, tbat uevar within tbeir «phar« of obtarvation bava 
they wittiea»ed a Hin^i^ caoe of injury naulttn^ from 
ViuTririition — not one! Snhjort any down ordmary 
practitiunon to jtidicial cxomiiuLtion, and tUcy would 
thiH teUify with f^can^ly a notQ of vai-IatloiL On Ut& 
othirr hand, tako any do2«n mcthora of f amilioe, cepoctaJly 
from aniune tJic; poor, mid ttiry wotild t«)l of lUnavi, ^titi* 
oa^o, and death loUowin;; tho vaccinators' ]acc«1^ The 
men are idot« or baa conipctcnt and hoit^^t, and the 
woiDca IlV-^wiiic, ami How iKall wo ati^uui ihAr vari- 
ance? In the Grat place, the men have boen drilled from 
ihni ouiwt i>r thrir |irofrxKiorj int^i thiv conviction tJuit 
Vaccination U abtclutoly harmletta, and if any disaster 
folIowiK it i& cotucldtuce. not con^equeRce^ Occa^^ii^nally 
a practiiL'>nrr of more vigi>rouf; int^lliffciiee than tbc 
avora^e, lik(.< Mr, IlL-ury May of Bimiin^faain, eeea what 
iiw mothers s^, but doe« he report accordingly ? Not 
at alL In Mr. hlay « own worda — 

A iloftih fr^m VtcciimUon occujinl not long «tfO ia aay mtrtla*, 
and nitbouub I hsA uvl ytu^intiiwl ilie cbilJ, >Dt Lu my dt^ro to 
prooM-vc VficciiiAtfou froiu roiiriincb, 1 <^ttol nil raoatioa of it 
Itoux my ctrztS&emU of d^th.* 

Mr, May recognised llie fact and coDCMJod it? & ilidlur 
' Mrminshnn It^^ad £Mw, JaauMy. 1871. 

r • 

_ , \ 



,, :; I'^i'-- (■l■r^^!i^'■^^' 
^,-\\. \';:r''iii:ai"TJ 

■ if (iTi:\ I \\>:\ Wi'Vi' 

. ^lif. 1! ■ \ \Voisl4 

>^■ll \ W\\ fiiri; Tin- 

^_ i".i"l J V ■!»■ \v,fs iiu 
lln' i'Vl)'>.y !'-.''inn'il 

,. 'I'll ' i i"" ii( ws-^ 

.„,! -:ri mTI. T]|I'Vi' I'r- 

1' hi'>""l-''i"" v-'i!''b 

/,-«»■ -J:'-'''' ' ''Ml-vrl> 

''.,!,. |,mijI'<'-! i1|.- IiI.kmI 

i^..| i( ^||m:i1.| cxlifnisl 

,^,._ \Vi ;;1! V. Mi'liiluT 

^.,miTtLMlLi<al>' SyjiliLli> 

^^ ik> 1 li- [imi [Jii y ui-ri" 

H-^.,. : y- : \\v ■ ■■ tliat 

,^, i-, ii'iv. ;-'■(. ii*--! ii> 

/j., :.(■., iii'i-m ^ \ ;si I'll! 

rvr.'.N- H. ,:. 


IKOCULA-riOK «l7PfiEEg£I>gD AKD SUPPB£&dEI>. (9 

Among pbyakiAoa; for wh«Q6vet Uifly prolyl looet* 

'iUi ibu ckMc of th« ISbh Ce&tury, I&oculaUon vrltik 
Anmllpikx to avert auuilIiMX vrtm fkCcepM iia aonad pTEC- 
utrougbout BngUnd. It^ Knft^.y at\*\ otlici^ncy wvrn 
iQod bj lucdioal vrriten m Utiii--^ cunmiAly LUL^ntii:^ 
with tbmo applied to Vaocmation Tlio objectHois woro 
Four, iknd for pioua n&tlier Umn p]i^iclcJS[iua1 rofL^oiis; onJ 
tiw i|ui9ttioi] Lliat (.«K«iieiHuil practioAr aii<l beruevulent 
miodiL wflA hi>w to univoraalUo tho romody, which, on 
ACCOUiiLof iLi UuiiIjK^^cmiiij iu:c<>irpAJiiiiivuL% W2L1 cliif-fly 
orm(ine<J to the utjpur and lukMl^ clawaA. On this 
pOLut iL may be well to cit^ tlic wurda of Dr. lUy^&ith 
nf Cl*est€r, who, \t\ a lotur to lhi> Council of Health of 
Qcncrft, datoil 10th KcUuwry. 1792, thua acta forth the 
IKnJlioti (jf AtTiitm-^ 

I« flrf*<*r, \n^. T halinTit, in mft^t ofiha kTge u>vim»*f KriKlmd, 
tlv i^iJiiiAi MrriJk^IjinT lh Alirtnii f/iiiMfJinUy pt«i4ari1. Alt flu- rAi'i- 

liiiAempfT u lTiifvitAbl4. ncithiM* fxtr nor <tnn k : hut tnu^h m.^ro 
frai{iunl1jr by volfintnrr ftiiil lnt«nt1aD«l nitcrooanv, vadnrmtr to 
MUb lli« cmifual iiiTtetiou, All tba dlffiouUieM of our flui^illpot 
Sifdvty in CT^MtM- i^nxvw- Ji*4l from this qUwujtH Ma«lon aiul yvr- 
Ttnoty <if tliripnsltfiin. With nn tUv nmhWyt^i 1» haIiIoiu or never 
taudof cxcait In thn BIUk of UnrUlit; ; liuttbnr«lM dovutAllan 
appeuft ibcndfiil a^decd. 

The Mnrotig olywitbn to Tnociilation w?h, Utat ildifTuMd 
the (liMUO ^f«nvmU3' wliich it vmst bUppoHcd to avi^t 
iodividually. Inotulau^ri tried t^* loiiuinlsB aiid Jeiiy 
tbo danger, but Iti vain; and notliin^ ao contribAtt"*) to 
lUe auper»e«^oii of the practice by Tacclrmticni |L^ the 
fxpeetatioii of esc^tp** from the ftrt.ifipinlly propa^^ted 
diaciuio. hlovr cxtviiiuv^} wa,& ttiat proportion, wo Icava 
lie writer iu 4bi' AWn^/y/tfy* /ffTL^w^ uTlSOC ti>d«cTib*»-— 

T)in iiwciiUt«(l HAjLllpoi it ui ioff^rtlniiH diiu»uif, m& tJudw who 
loko It nnCiirmI!y frnm mi itioi-TiI&lod |HLticDt Iiavo it u TioIimlJj he 
if tfairy had be«zi icfurrifid fmin aouu of «pootniiooiift durAOAi; il is 
lodi inlvnln atui piii>i-wii< ilie fiihiTal (Uisnltiicit ajfa^i} in iJiMn. 
Vomt it (I b« ocuiil4'>r^<t lliHt Ar<r*n4l Luttdri^a ttifiuihn»d |wrHODit 
Ian Imwu uuinall^ liimnilnluil In tl^t^hx KIjj^Juuja fur tJii> \nni My 


,, rl.i jijiiijrii I- iKi'Jiiiifii tliat i_".i; 

\].:.\ may ]»'■ ^ii|>jmp!^,| {., ha.-^ 
..i(")iT..'ii ot llur ' 'flue* -- :jT]iI ci;Ti",'-:i 

-. }, tra!^tc in sriialI|Ki\ Uivim^h' 

. "_. \Vln'(j vv- Hi'- li;ijjt-*ir;i]. 
.-:>'' ''^ ri']i<r : ;iii'l it wa.'? u* 

,.■ ' ^,- lrr<|.fi\H |f,,,f .ir-Tificr in 
— UXi.' Willi ll|;^f|j,lJ^. Sljh- 

^- -t will i>rr4.- (T fi ^'lfi.'i?tiinlh\ 
.--,i ifiti'llvi- uf. 'lufi-riinu. Tho 
,^:|li m-Hirlii:iriM,, /jf^ij willijn 

■ A.rv ;^Wi[lj'-iiL 'iw- *'>:|rf."iiiHc-, 

^ : tUtit C'i"]-\ |,:i. , jiMlstir ill 

., , ^ Hio Iviuliri/ fJ.y-irian> uiu\ 

' ,~',,'^»l*i'rs of J V/'i 

.,., . nii^) Mnv .:. , •].::,l U Mir -luty 

■ 1 ' ■ 11 'im . 

* .. , ., |n ri'iis w.,.r J::.;, |;,i! lijt tW- 
■ ^^ ,l„. iiirrii"ii ' f iL-: -'rij,,|]pr,jt^ |,ru- 

■ . "ii |'"Vit>ll-ly C .TiJ!!ir|; fr-.'j„|. 

. ,', i| , ";" '^^•■■•■^- t.k-r.f 

- '\\;.,,,, ..ill. Mun'lr.v. Jn.;...i,T 

'*' ,JiilrH'H if" Ifrr.f';:*-- w;*-, i-vcr 

' Y'/jif , U'iiliJFi ri-lit ycar-i of 

'' '^ , pIiMmil [111' wrili.r iti tht 

..,»- 1 ' * I. :, 1 ,.. .11. 

..i <■:"'■ 

;"'■. '' 

Iji .iif\ <-'\ti'}. ^\:.- rililr to 

I,. ,4, '^]ll jn'f .!■.;:;..:..:[! uiuro 

, ,p ■' ^"Y ^,r.r or pl< »iai .[ly :i:-'i ,rtjli>u^ly 

,i<- '''" i ri;'i("ii"''ni.- iKiLi^vr-aiiJ 

, ,i...i .>'l '*"" J fiM'h.H.fjl.iJ'lrEili- 

' liti' '■"'*" ■" ,. „ Im M V. 'ri-:;ui^'L!t.-. i: 
Jjl. ■■■'■' 


lie SaIiU f^OUld b« »tf£h.fcl 1^^ i^ . 4xji1 (q Oils 

MpTtrt Ibo TAccttuitan* w* u* abvld. ^i ^rUi^did and 

iDdjfpulAhle triumph- W« git« Uio vttJ-Tiic-jLu;!;:: iJi Ibewlvift- 
Uffv iu onr puwtr «1m« liv t^^t^ to Ibciu a f<Tv memWs of 4b* 

CfivAJvn ui Lod6od : far iq lb* oovnlry &! (jove, wo l«lMT«k tbn 
V atfbuu* ra ei ^tc W bto pr » c 4 ili ut j qu IbvtrBide in flte boudnX 
Id Uua gnU oi|y vul «cuoul of ttisdictat [£iLubiuvli] w« am u> 
anrvdi lEej us wilboul * «fai^ puUie mILbiwI. 

The roflbUnee Ui Vaednation n-ti^ almost, entirely oon- 
flncd to tlie mutaficc of looculator^* who were too atx^y 
catnpnnnbeyl by their own UiEiluy&ltj to Natun?, to make 
«£K»tivo ToautAnceL They vera at^^ily bonie down by 
the Tucinftt^^m, nuuiy of vrliom hvl W-n r^iorgotic in' 
ocutAtoR. Asd ctJdphtyed cUe utfual &nlour of «po^tAt«s in 
covidntniun^ what i;biey Lad formerly ftpproreX Indcod* 
wliOD Vft coTuider ho«r fiioGObitioa wu oomiDendwl to 
its officifincy an<l hArmluoaness bj the sune medical 
&»tlioriti9s who, within a year or two afl^r Jenn»r'* 
appu&Tuicc. dcnooxiccd the practice for >U ditHcidtin^ 
and dang«ni, theU t4>Tgivnriatioii apprntr* Httla sliort of 
fthnm(?.lo«e. Dt* Lettfiom had boon ad Lnocul&tor, yet on 
2nd -Ttily, iSO.^, hu felt wiwTiuit(«l in writing— 

What h^ro not Uio bWttort of VdnoIoiL* l(i'>r*»Uii->n to ftnitfor 
for? Tfi ahaM & dataQ <^r Iwo fTtnoflPiit jk4i^pl» in tlin piihho 
■Cnotj ot LoTuloD wodM nat ba half if* injuTi^iia lu all<iwmp It* 
CiuuidorcL-t Eo kUi tbo ruuxg ganorutLou, tiu faturo hopa o^ tixt 

»^.8HkU. Sotbiug on ibow Ibo npiiioDHB ckod igoorKUOii of 111* 
f ttflrrnmniont icon llioii lagmHcing Uimv Vunolotu Munlsn. 

IIow fnr the conquest of tho inoculator^ by the tao- 
dnatont h^Li] aJvaiiecd, apiTearcd la a debato In the 
House of Uijnimona m 180C, wh^n Wilbcrforcc urged 
Umt Iiiucid.ition Khoiild Ijc K;i{Tprf's?UHE^ or itt li^iut iTiat 
thOHt? vhi} innintcd on Inocukliou aliuuU iju vcitupolled 
to place thuir patieat^ in qnaraiiUnOp Mr Windham 
admitted the acantlal of wrctchfxi and miscrablu »ubjvcU 
of Inutrulaljun bniii^; cArriot! aWut iu ihtf slrveta, but 
he hwiutod to r^ooioaiend coorcivo lomrtlaticn until 
nertuiL%Icn hod Icon fnlly tried anri Irnii failod. Dr. 
Matthews. JI.P. for HtrefotJ, took ocra^iDn at t)iw Mime 
Ume to run with th« booiids. Inoculation, hu muiJ, waae 



frequent caimci of ilUflgiircm^nt AnH of d«tAtb in ito mo«t 
awful Scam; M wiLi u m&gimiic of the Dcrnt drcftdfnl 
avib- a fua^liler of mortality ; muX & mefti^a of intro* 
dudn^tcrcfuid, & move dangfiroufl and pernicious d»oidw 
ihtai Knia^lpox itfutM — fucta wliidi iL vrouM 1ia\« bmit 
moncrc'JiUbble to have proclaimed wh<^n Inoculation vtBs 
in fftflhioa It i^ so cfl^y to kick vrhcn a foo [ii» fnllern, 
and whcTOftll &r« kicking, HuiuniE iiaturo U iK'Vcrv> 
dtmcable oh w1ii-ti tliua ^ngaj^od. 

^« question of rc-AiriLining Inncitljition oltho ngiUii 
before inc Houao of CominoaH in 18D7. when Uio prftct^M 
of InoculatJiig out-patiente ftt thtr London ili^penii^ Aries 
and bo«pitals wm cnorjpJticalLy condomnod. " i iliink 
thai lliff If-^ftlnttim," .viu\ Mr. Sturgcd Bourne, "would 
be u mudi jufititic^d in taking' a lueoimTe to pr«vi>nt th» 
evil by rcstrunt* as a man would h*^ in nn/itchin^' a firft* 
brand out of the hamU of a uiuuiacjuKl as be was going 
to «ei lire lo a dty." 

No one wm more ea^r to mippn^^is ItifMrtilntinn by 
force than Jcnncr himself, and in July 1H07. be ^Ufllt 
an IntvrvU-w with tb<^ Pri>nilt-r fur tlif^ purpose. In a 
let^r to Dr. LftUock ho thua dtwcribon Win mortiticntion — 

Yon will h« tniry ta hrar thn rottilt of Tiiy iut^trvtew vtilh Ctt4 
UlniiitfT, Me. FftocvaL T *o]i(*Jli?cl i}m hniinLir with Um u>1e view 
of ioqniriDii «hath«r it w%$ th» inlAntinn i>T nrrvanimcnt If) ^T*a 
6ta«DKln lh« nr«intl<iiiia mannprin vhlnh SmA]l[ioT Inociilntloa bat 
llib( UraA ccndneU*! in thA inAtrvpnlU. F InsUnmiL thu oiortsUtj 
(1 aocwUinul tn luigriAc* n^ forclcla lu T ocvnlU iitiru'. amt bljovrei 
blui Flfljkrty Uiftt II wan cba ^aI fonroo (rout whirrh tb« iivtt of 
Btiullpi»x WM dhMmfnatad tfanngh thv ccuulry u mvII im uirviL^h 
ihtfknm. Biil» ilu! ftH I mid nraUod uiit1iiti»:. )iiiil Ltui ftiu^kUil 
iBOMley b itjli U> hmc tht lihrrty Ihht Ujh tiifLEilijici Ili^^jUh th* 
MqdDiB of M^iulujr, &nd th« omi^H itml im^juJLCCi of tho iiu» 
9lild«d pMr, cui pottdblj iflri bim. I caum't ciprcFs to you Uw 
ohagiin uid lUuppoinliavnt I TbII bl Lh^ iulorrifW. 

We are not accusLomc^l to rcf^ard polttidanf< of I'crroa- 
vafa oidpr jw favourable to lihrf ty ; nrn} yvt iL In ri-rnyili* 
ing to remark in cvon the Torio* of tiie tIt*ori;ian a;^o a 
je^ou?! ri<giml for the penujoal fr«edoiii oF RTiglinhmon, 
and a bvarty contempt for Um plaimible f]uac>kH who 
vr^re always contriving to circuuiacribe it. Percoval waa 


not 0[)p0fl6c*:J to V.vOTTuitton, but \\c u-ould not conin'ot to 
give It wi Ulicil a^lvftnUfjc over Imocalalion. U it were 
the gooil thing it wiw nwrrtcd t^ bo, it might lie Inft to 
pwrvail t>y rcAMni of iLi own i|uality. 

Un^w rneilical ami aocUl pressure, the practice nf Ino- 
cuUtpion nt piiMic inhtit^itioiin wn,- gmdnnlly nWn'ionod. 
On -"ill May, If^OS. tlie tn*«MlttUiT:i I'f utiL-j^JiUi-'iiU waa 
Htrionntinii^^l at ihi* l/>nrJon i^tnfiMpox H'>4TiitAl, but not 
until 20t)t iif JlJll[^ lh!£S, lUd tfii; inoinilati^ii <rf in- 

CtientH CL^a^o. In ISIG the OoUcf^ cf Surgeons of 
rndon fin<] i.>ublin pl^-dgcd thenis«lY«a a^ninAt the pn&- 
tlce. A formal atlJ?tih[iL at rf>crciviT ii^^Ulailon. uften 
Gflil1<]d foTi vSA at la^l inadi; by tlio directors of tho 
NntJiinnl Viu-rmi- i-^ilahlEiilini4>nt Thj*y frttmcd and pm- 
mot^ A bill. whi4:h wjvi intioducoU to thi; Houbc of 
LonU in 1813 by LurJ Bonii^lon, but it wna ij'nominU 
ooslv withdrawn in ISH^^-n ch^tc^ example of graiid- 
aiobnorly Ict^i^bitinn. Among lit pn>visioii?« vsa-a tli« 
en&cttnieiit that whenever an inoctilaiion tor>k placid, the 
clcTgymttn cf the pari*h should rca-ivi? nctic*"* and tbat 
red Ii4(^ ilnmbl hv displays! frorii tln' houw wlien.' the 
iHltidDt lay I A^ Karl Stauhopo obadrvt<i» iu^ioftd of 
bcon^ JL uiflwiiai of humanity, it would, ii p/L*sn<l into 
]aw, t)Q cut of tho ino4t troubl<MOmo, LnconvL^uiL^nt, imd 
mischicvoas «vor enacted. 

In ttic dificuHKJon on thiA fooltah prqjoctj Lord Eldon 
pointed out t>)at ihv oDinmon law vtah alru&^ly ^uflidunt 
to attpst thn rvpostirp cf sufferers from inffTtii'»Ms '\iv* 
C48ti ; and acting; on th^ hint tlic Vaccine tlr^tallialunent 

Erospciiie"! a ^oinan, 27tli At>ril, IS15, for carrying her 
locuUtorJ child covered with pn^tulea througli tho 
atioel^ of brr nri^bbiiurhutjd. Evidi*rc4T xvhA mlduc^ 
that sho hn<l tbiis mfecteil oWeo p^rAOiiA with tiuiallpoic 
u of whom i^ight liad died. The Court of King's Bench 
I pronounce ner condtict Illoj^l and criToinal, tint as it 
I wna tho limt prrwcciition fnr eoch an oiFcnco, »hp wa.i let 
I ciff with a M-nti'nn^ of tbri^n moiilh^" impriMmtiu'nt. 
F A prsctico tbuu baunt^d could not lon^ nurviro in 

1 England, uiid by and by a modical man who would con* 

J ,1 

f r. 

- Z ^n "s^i.: 

'--.-■ MZ. 

■ ■■ '-T-.f:in 


- ; ,...:» rTtr 

- ...-. -■_ ".. 'i^"i;e^. 
■ . -iTi'^cio:; for 

( . ■ -■ V :i.^:-t. I ihe 

■ } '''.^- \i -hi -h. Xor 

'■ '' '-'''ini i\]rv'»t'd >ome 

1 1 . ■ ■ ' ■ 'iifai.y ii!iu:i:iii.ins. 
I .. r' ■' V.I ^- . \]hu-^^..-,]. Dr. 

.,'■-■ >^\i'.:i]\l'-K H.i:-].ila] at 

. ; T Li\ mT i-liiicp-^ -i^liic turn, 
,, It .■ ' : 'n-^i 'Iwwn imiiiLjvc'<l- 

I . ' ' '_ ii:o-Ui f ir.i i'"Lt],i]i, the 

, , ■■ ■'- -- ijiiJiiLiii.iiiiT,- v)\ till" Tinuie of 

■/ /' I- !.[L i^:n, ]i. -Am. 

■ . -r. ■J(lt^l An^n^t, iS40. 

; ' "iM^y '^' >iii.-i:;p,js 

■=".'■ »■■■'■'■ 1 ih v:ru- 

\ n ■.:\. 

I I ' li . 

u r 

.' nil 

I ; * 

I ''/ ^ , 

' ri'::io 


cinuttion from smallpox f" iuiIca Dr. Granville. "^SmAll- 
iMJX lU-oiuiaU-O UiH oijuiitrj' m olUeii times," sayt Dr. 
vhnv4iJiw; '*it mvfi^^l liku a plngu^, vhiU-l IiioctiUcioa 

serjiiencv\ " Vflcnnation M an imporUnt. caiiii* of onr 
iDcrfti»in^ popufntion." In tho *Mnc temper, I^nl Chief 
Juhttot^ OiMrkljtirii ilcscrll^ed ari iiEivuochiat^^i] infant, om 
" m c>!intTo of eantn^ion ; " and n« the folly of Uio gr«at is 
mti^ii^ilwi] in tlic litili;. Mr. BoiiLpn.\ QO,. infonncJ tliu 
elecuxs of Mflrylcbone, thfit "a pi>racin not vaccinated la 
bke a Haniir^ firr-VrRn'J nmon™ tho jH>5pla." "rhii» tho 

lofAnU of IjL^t (^nitriry woiv '"(iPiitres nf coiitagiim/* Oie 

4diiJt« ^'or« " tiamtn-; flro-braDda;" vliUst En^^l&nd vaa 
"dwimiitnir* Vp'ith snmlljjfix rlifru^f^l likr wiM-lin' liy 
inocqlatioQ. Wmt a piciui-ft of isth Ci-Titiiry Eii;c^ani 
palaUHt hj Tdint And illuminndxl by l>«liiium 1 

Th«i toruUincy of t'xco** on ode &ide U to prouoko to ox* 
ocflo OD th^ otliLT, but th« cxtrftvui^nce of tbv«c populnt 
bblcs on^t to pnt ih in love wlLb homol^' matt^r-of- 
foet whcl^^in ind*xid U Uio true extreme of th^M' fmntic 

UBreiiliimx WHikI v/oa tlit- c^\tmL i>rTii[ia!]|Jux In Eii^Untl 

tart ooottjrj is tho qao^tioiL With accuracy, wu do 
noi knt>vr. The ctmimon e;4tiiniiti^ (when not «voIvod 
from inner conaoionHne^si) ar^ baaed on tho Lotidon 
Billfl of Mortality, and when the^c i3ill£ ate scrt^Uniacd 
wtf find nothlnj{ t« jiLitify the? opimon tlmt thr* com- 
munity waa hara^cic] and dcvaatatod by amallpox ov^r 
oUuT ftihnonts. In Ihi' [in*t plsci?, we nave to remark 
tlial thti exact populalicn if tho intaTopolia woa unknown. 
Some «a/ it vtaa oOO^OOO hi 170t, and uUictn 700.000. 
In 1751 it wnn gonwidly rockonnd %t 750^000, and in 
1801 it wa« «yid lo be 058.8(15, Then wt; havu to con- 
udpr r-hnf thn increnso. whatever tt lotgbt be, Uy only 
partially within tho Hills tif Mortality, fcff wcvcml rifling 
qi)aTt«r& Hciu oiitfliik" tlji- bfimuUrii^. and thi-n- VKvn 4--x- 
t^twivo (jx^^Eipti^riH within, Thoe, ao Uto ae 1818, we 
linil Dr. Borrow A writlnij — 

TU« iwrialiM of M»i>lMlHiii>t, pHzicrnM. Ch'>lA««t K^Klnj-tiuj, ami 


1 iit^lriionof lfllKOtt>M»ftfli^waifciii* nai^ -j 
■ mn ntmu. KMmt b* ibw* m* niitM 

li/> Iqu Clifdl. te CfcafUr Bom*, lbs 


'■ h irtH«iilafM,P>pi4iorla«««fao^n«Wf 
1- liidiuM is A* BUb. Ifim of tW i 
I > 4i(t»rv recDOTvd te ImDmumoI ato A* 
, , , -< m ll..f liilU 

ritlAfiionii x> Mrious, tin KUs m obviously 

4 r>i 110 r<»iitfit«rs of tli« Qomber of dtNUhs i&aw 

ihlcn; «Ji<l when ve iaquin bow ^Umom 

K, < ijiiUc^tiiv i)irvroUtivemTAlo&e6of c«rtuQ 
ji ,. .%>iv. wo find iLijn raoftUy qventicMttUo^ Dt 

meUiod bjr wldeb Ui« 

,.lA«.1 in tM BiDiu* ^ 4fi|jii< UUWtac4ic«| 

nqj ftfbMfiva T«foiT3 Ukc dImv wbiJa tfa« 
II Ik *re BO %iiamil auJ v^au m mI e 
. * to iJi« dl « w> of «tiioJi uiT p*rvott dw iri 
t ill U^o roQovlQg v«j._Tb* Ctisrahwu 

,.rhnnt. TliesBvom«Mioon«illifrJiM«|^ 

, . / i*1r totiMMUcmof tb* wukhto iMTft Aa 

, rL Tb074flmandftilinn£Mieftiiitol|i«~ 

,, jiM>rTlprthftlUiejnuj»Mt^UKf«i«Bo. 
Kfifl yu'ijjr of vbu diMu« th* ptam JM; 

KirjtJt ciWk. nie npittf ttep ibrtL* 
fff li 4<L to nufe S«iuQb«r; but if mi «itn 

t ilifv M'Moiiii pvBi tb^iliiMliAUtor tuUof flw 
<.if.]i TOlmL-TprtJ^ffliftt i* 17*"-; tTtbfija 
> i<n^><r> it k oAE^io inugiii* wbal av*£Afa 
.,* Mi^y prouounco.* 

, If J(T<i(« ■<> K"^ve B« to Ui€ number oF Uko 
,jr4i'Aii AO ^;rotcBqii« ad to the caii-«n of 
iwUci to higno with &ii^' L-unf^Htnot 
MiJN; ydt^.Huchiui thcjon-Mix- b^n 
111 I<F, Tlie ^'»rmii[in-^j vf mort^dity 
,„ y.ii. uf wjJ..^ iiio;;iihmty; and wbftt- 
uirirtJI|>i^^ iiii^'ht have had, it clo^ not 


^.\i 1«V"UJW .Wr.**-' flT«"«'/- f"- '*. O'^toO''-. '*■»• 



nppmr to bave Wl murli in mflgcifying Uieuiimi] toUU. 
Lot uft take & dooMA y«ftrs when nmftOpox wfti Ihuviott 
from Ui« Uat M^veal^ j<^ira of iha amixiry, and obeerv« 
iu rsUtion to tbo entira tnoruility, uid to tbtt froia 

T«Pi •IKhscMn Bmui[iuL rrnPtv 

ITM. 37.A»i »II4 .«8«l 

1T*0 ftrWl «71tA 4«B 

17*6^ "iMS? saao ^lOT 

17tf. -AA16 .Sflfifi» .4408 

imsL *X4»a ,8&8a .2070 

mr. aL8iB »296 raaw 

1T6&. 2i&.hm ^74« Jtn4^ 

ITSa £0,148 h:m 5414 

11m, 23,*sfl jtoae,-- aM6 

iTra. «2A,nflfl »,flflM. aso? 

iTfll „.., 20,701?-. :*.10fi "iMO 

17M 19>3AM «.Sfi4K... 1347 




Again, lot U4 tok*) tw^lv* yenrs when thd rl«(ilh-rat« 
frotu siDivllpox wen at tt^ lowr^ Here they Arc — 

T«v. fell l^BMMft tiiitUt^iL Fnai ri>vr& 

174J.».^. ai,Wl ISOfl SflOO 

1750 M.7a7 « 1^20 ,...,42M 

1731 ainOift Bflfl « H2in 

1735 „,„I&,^fl 774 ffiiOi 

ma.M S1.M6 um wscw 

naO 30.filT 871 !U*10 

1732. 1T.PI8 680 aUS 

178&.» 20.4fl4 1210 .2M1 

ITS* lfl,flW7 110) «T90 

17*> 21,179 1040 10*7 

1797 17,014 oaa Ifl2n 

1T9&.„.M 184B4 1111 17M 




Wl: thuK «(»o ihftt in twelve ycjim when tlie dcatli rote 
from »iii&Uj:>ox waa highest, an itiany difii! of fi^vurs n* of 
ttn&llpox ; nnd in twolvo yearn when Ih^ di^athrato from 
annllpox wili lowcflt, thcro dic^l thrice lis riiatiy of fcrora 
8S of smallpox. Again, wq liavc to reiuark. Uiat, on an 


\-jamuK9 iKonjuTiDK. 

ftV«Tih«£R cf dl U)o jw«, mnatlpox «»• ftcooonuble for 
BijiDi'itirii;; Umt tbaii « tanUi of Uw tot«l laortaUtjr. Abo 
W4T luLvo u> iiot0. that Uw movtaliij &oa aovUlpox ww 
hi ^nat fmrt infjuil iiMntality. mid Uiai ibofi^ m remoo to 
b«ilievo lo^^aatAi waa exl^Mii-nvty ooofovnidMl with omJI- 
ftox. The infaDt ntoitAliCjr waa prodigious. Rttrdj 


jreiLr pftMud in wbkh a fourtb ol Umi iMtlu waa not wt 
JOVru t4) I'onvQlakMia — Ll»t b. to b^btt killt:d by im* 

EriipiT fHLHling. In 1772 ^ch^ vivrai ooftlteox ye«r of 
ic <KNlury wlicxi :t^^2 <li. J) ibrro irere« 6.60$ uc^)ed 
to Ci>nvitlHioii<3, tliff t4>4Al inurtAUl^ 1>e^ £€,033, 

Now i havo no n'lali to uuuiium th« Lodijoo amall- 
ia% of [u^L L^'titury, nor ovcq to aefc 1797, vrbco SB 
io-l, jkf,-nlnHt ITtW^wboia 3d4S dkid. 1 ybdd tononoin 
flifkntJiLiirn iif hiniLll|>ai aa» a preTeotibk uui tberefon 

but It not K'L 114 ill any OiOOOMof MLQltuyfury iai« 

cy^ iin<l njwton util mvi^ Uk« mmiifii If 

ml, f<iv<ini VTvro vrx^mciuid as bctli bftd ftcoaamoD 

why «bouJ') wo uiAk« a vuiton utd ui»denUfic ilutuie* 

ti'jii Iwtntm lb«iuT 

TbHL Hfttflllpnv vhotibl bave been constantly pcmsDini 
LoU'U^n tlirovi^fhout loAtoonlury wn^in iiow&Mnir|tfkii^ 
lliti t'iii/-ik« IUmI in a fiwmcr Ui invito Mid maiTtf,aitt 
h\t.<m. I xbnIJ t*rf<Tr to their food wid tlrink MMciitJj, 
Mtid nndld riov mil AlUiiitiou to the fact tbat tboy wtve 
A Htftv At liOTiH* KcfiiiraUoQ ftluoAi beyond pnamt-day 
Lrliu^ <!ovrj)ur did not violate cmibiluy iHica ha 

Jubn QUp{ii*ft tpouM Hid to Imt daar, 

"Tbotigh woddfd wo luT« bMa 
TIjm* iw^o* IM MUlii y«AM, jvl V* 

No Ijoililaj hwn w«a. 

Tbtry litil nti rufuly nioonN of locomotion, and indead 
did iioi think ijf fruftb atrimd oxt-rofle. An Appreotiee 
or irald fnni thtt country (tntitnNi Ix^udon and was aa- 
mntrti<\ M In u j^*r)ii, Wir kn^w bow tiw lowor otdm 
In uur HMjt liiiiH hiiddio to^otbt^ bkv pi^ vd1m» so fiir 
an n«Ualri»l by lolginji^botui^ law. bat miildlp<la»a 


LoDdodcn n er^ntiJiy oj^ utitb^'xl tli'^ir apartiDDnts, with 
iDore decency perlmtia. luc wUlt vqiial I^or&ncd of tbo 
virtu« of oxyg^Tx. Tho fjoniJciJiiorfi wpre a dt^nsely com- 
pftCtod commiinity. and «l ni^^hb tht Ktre4*t<i und lanea ol 
the city were almost a^ thkkly tenanteri nn a man-of-wftr, 
l>ub without bcnctit of ^^oanin A (Quaker told mo that 
ho aervr^l liin a|)]irrjitiivHhjp Ui n gniuiTr in nhiiajmiilti 
botvreon 179{^ and 17(^3, that the dhop waa opened at 
nevtrn in the innrniii^' and dwo^l at Urn at niglit, tluit htt 
slept under thu cvuni«r. that hU ablutiotL^ vqt^ limited 
to W count'i^naiicc, aucl that ho u^vat w>;nt out except to 
Itieetiiiif OH Firvt DiLys ; BfUing, that lui \md no Mcnsii uf 
boinj^ Earflly duilt with; it wa^ tht- cufat^^iu ot the time, 
and lu! wan u hk fnllown. M<^nic>in of Iho ISth rnnttiry 
prove that he nf^oku the siiuplu truth. Biiihop WiIeioii of 
Calcutta it'curUa ihat be a«rved in Lhe houae i>r a ttilk 
merchant in Milk Street fTom 1792 to 1797, that be was 
uccapiflil from ;tix or eleven in the mgrning tjtl eight at 
Aight: lliaL tht-re waa ajj^per at tiSO, fallo^A^d hy prayera, 

that all wont to bca at ten. An arprentic<v in the 
hoiiHL> ftaiil that h*s unver put ou his }int f«r wpuka 

Cher, and that more thai) three yeafi) c^lap&<3fl bcForo 
Litt fiTs't hoii'lay wa** ^jrAntcMl, Willin-iu Ct»l>ljcU in 178fJ 
got iLlo a lav.-yoi'B ortmc in Gray'n Inn wht-rt, ho rulat«&, 
" I workud HUv n ^alluv &}avo bom iivc- id tlm morning 
tUl eight or li'mti at nighty uitd loai'^tim*^'^ oJI night long, 
I nuvtr quitted thU jfJumiy zac^n ijxctiit on Sundays 
whrn I u^imlly tuok n walk Ij> Hx. Jiunfs'w Park/" Such 
inatancca tnigtit be inulUpliL^d to any extent; and in 
short it coiaeH to this, that the Londonurh uf Wt t^i^iitury 
lived from ^oar to year in thoir h^iiaos, and had no out* 
door i*AcrciM^ If tht?y wcro car^lcM about air, thfiy 
Vfere ecjually careless about ]i^rht,and, but for the coat of 
autdLc»» iiti<*tu have disregarded it alC'G^cther. Water 
Wii ohlofly brought fr^tn weMi or conduits, and was 
Q&od sparingly ; and it la nccdlcaa to odd, thi^ro vtt^ no 
wali^-r!or4i*tjii, Rvi^n in widl-nrdcrnHl hoir^i-^hoIiiH, fr-b^nclitvt 
weru drtiaUful : and where thert> wore slattern*!, the con- 
dition of affairs may be faintly ima^ned. Horrible 






l^y tiiiV*ltul or LeneaUi moftl of tbe buuMei, 

lH<>fi>^>^ 4»flliivia. Oiit of 4oon, th« >trodte 

JW* noMO«nc Rain itha the cbiof vcavao^cff. 

niMripUuii of & Ciiv Sbo««r, Mte befo» oa 

J «■ Uog&rth> the ofaccA of U» wn— 

. ti.f'.jiiid i1rop< tb* flood ««BiBi d»w 

.t ifn)^iv wah th«Ea u lh«j f*; 

, h hk#f ncd odouta H«izl 1o UU 

i- l>>rr*Dl drivH vntH mpiil fortv. 
jii.M«r BL 'Purohn* ^hap* tlioir cobtm. 

„ili taimrs' ftolb, dnog, fate, «aad bltod, 
, j.jaf, atf oking vprmli, alTdnDeiwd ill ii»»J. 
,i1 lurnlp-f'^r** ff^out ttimblicg dovn ti» flood- 

I .. 5 rbc BAniUry eonditioQ of 18tli Oen- 

. I, .iiilacncc oF tlio dtad oo tbo living lO 

Mi>r twi>ntv LhrjuJAitfl wli4i died aunimlljf 

..I, iUr. i^urvivor* Th« city cr&ve-yavdfl 

. iri|iiwiioii mtlirr llimi of mtorauotk 

r t .,1 1^408 pcrraJidU coaDy uvlj^hbooriioodi: 

I wft,u^ ill 1736— 

4,4 ftf St. r«i;U Coreat Oftrden, tbo bomli uo 

'hi' |rlkPO 1' act CftpttfiiouA cnoujEb to f«ilAiii 

■ fntfJ. Bomo oi whoo) »rc uot Uid 4^ot* « 

■b. Thp ccnaetcrj ii ■urrtni&dwt vvoryviv 

, ml all AOqluiaUaoo of ouu*. irlioi* »pu^ 

M hv*nt>liKlb*t«9rTodtoaoUut tbofamUy 

, ,uhi<liiti# ftod boon loTDsd kt bam frmaJtiB* 

, ,„i4 to diMlpalo acid hrodttho t«»oli«ai 

*4nc« of ill* dbngov of inliMrtaon proocMBf 


. , oDlijootod to Ctdft^'CTOUA lAflVOQMi 

. ytkx<\ vrithout and from ili» dead la 

, , A4,jt fiioHii thoHphtrt acquired An in- 

, f . »r t lut »*>f ndchre. ^M^^y i Ihinwiw 

I. aikI fwaUiofl who U'd irlioI«onio 

I iittllHil /*M"*»*" '^ ' *"™'* '"*^^ *<J, iY. p. m 

Uimcd a«lfi« 


for t^ -^^ 

» fanra nf m 

mIj hro «r Om of iftr 

iitlttCMiftite^. la 

tioBs of Bofal, Sorvkk. V Y«A i Mil Omt of 

IJMdmk, ihm mMmky b«t«wi Om hM giiod; tM to 
Mimi ikm Loodn nte of mwE^ nto lbs oos- 
moB Tste «f Engli^. «f Eonp«, ud ol Am wbvU, 
Uhd to «o tibe ii^Kf na«k as • vhip of tonor 

«ltcff««illi to cafbfbmwMl = ■-'— , Md aflcfv 



Whikt «^J^os WW alnjft pgMtnt In Lottdoo. its 
iMeunoe in tbe caontn- wm inee»Ur nd on»Ur 
yVinfe TW Bnk of XofftoH^ of tovm w kr^ M 
NorthiiB|4«a ii«f« MOtttiiM* dctf of nntUpox Cot rcA»L 
Sir GiUwTt Blane, 1q hli ftdi^otsejr f^ VKmnstkn ivmtf 
iDoetiiatioQ. lud, thftt prvvioQi to iha praHioe of taocv- 
lationtfaenfvnttBnnjputoQf the couaut wlu^rr amdl- 
pox W14 atoowB lor periods of twvffltr, tMrtj. uid «v«« 

tony jean. Vr. Coomb. » raigeon of S«»foid, S<unex. 
»)tk A poitoktun of 700, iafovtood Dr. HamnK io ITSl 
that ot)o peraoo bad died cf tuallpox in S»fa«d aS-^ut 
elfTveii yrm Wort, and bo cocUd mH mjcMtun tliat anj 
other d(«th &0K tho dkcve h»d ooewnd wlveqimitljr ; 
aod thai then «rafliQ»vm to brHen! Uiai > liko immn n Uy 
pr^vaOed Utrooghout the sni&Uer town lod ^Uic* <» 
tbe MMthoTQ coimtkK WLertver we iw)uir«^ m aio 
Mten to thm coodotion Ui>t tho premlonev and talaSl 
of liinaDpox in tfcc IStb oenttirj wen P^'^ 
by ijuacka and puiicmon^en. Nor uoatd 





^^ «rd«nt inocoUtor, had to write in 1787 — 

^H tBdlpoxinalltlifl fern- TH^ h^ami QomnmrnOti ihMKatI' 

1^^ What w« haT« tp nj of I>»Joo fnuDpos dirojE 

wtiliiry 19, that prermkDt u it itam, onr woodn is tfaai 
il wi^ not TDore pNvalMit; that the dlpcttie wai U«4iii 
tTiti ('ircuiusUoco aod l»Uto of tiw cttnoBoa : a&d tJb«l if 
U vrtre powlble to r«|icDd«i?e tlie same coviditiofn, w« 
abniild n?prodQo» tlM mmt smallpox. Ua the oontnnr. 
any mtr vAliant vacciMfttan, tli« aaaw eoaditaacw inignt 
bn rcpn>'h]c<>il, \mi if tiM dtlceofl wvk aBivenally aod 
idf|«i4rntlv viLL^-irkat«?ii an'l n^-raccuiated, tlure WuuH W 
AO*n«Ailnox< Thu* wn arc t&ti;^ht tW pocplomj^ftt 
Af./I ^frirk aa th^y Hkc, Hve in ilvkni^^. iK»^'t«t p«reoMl 
,, s t4tkc^ 1itUi> exerdw, bfoatbe sir [K>lliit«d bf 

ffmf,'f-^i''i^. fJltli, and patrefiwtioii, and tliai vhaleror 
4^MA4fl r^voflakM th^io. thvy will he proof agauut kbsII- 
M . . |troml;fc bi fleofrntivi\ btit it waA the proniiae 

^_f , ,l,\U}T,Hit*\ iliaui«> promlt^of tlw v&cdnator; 

f^ J if' </f>**UI<\ ^icscribaa tlw ptmcticc wbiiih ya wMrt a 
. . . ^' M " tlio QTmtc&t triucnph of hjgi«aio Adenaa 
'. Ir^ ffir ih^ ;.'re«t««t trixunph of poeittVi» 
fffm v(L««i4w ovtr made"* 

In tii4* fatality of 18th wntfliy smallpox 

I U' the tivaLmoDt of the d u « w . WtM 

JM th<* coot re^mnn w&^ do fcftn(, ynt tU 

Mf««#i I" l»^vo bci-n LimJled to fcw^ whilst 

T^tiJut^U'. iJfltionL* weiv mulimHi U> cl-x- and 

f IjiTikvy Iwd-dolhos pli«'i vith hoi 

»tf i aJi^uhol.atuI kept in loul lineu tmtAl 

r*«"|<HHitiy. when aynijrtoma of amallpox 

,, , . j; ft fftiiiliy of chiUli^'u wereafe««d, 
f^jf mWnril auu>- ill ouu bod« aikd thttr 
h^,ji-ih»r with fniB an*! *wi*l, *' 

^#, fr^,^ .^t^ II- I M,J lU 11^-, lO. 


SMAU.rOX !K THIC 14ni CK3?TUnY. 

iniich the Httnw Ut hn\AU\ti atjd vrorkliouBuji. " I Jiave 
Mtn above forty dtiliirotn/ sa^ Dr. Buchan. "cdopod up 
IflLfiOA tiparLnionU nil tlu^ vrhlln tln-y lijkf) tlim diM^fuir, 
wiUiotit any of theoi ln^iu^j aJmittu<i to bn^thu tUy frc*ih 
air." The siuiic couiso wa* putiiucd with ol)vsr f'jvtrs. 
ftnd the oflluvia of liu stck-moni wm ov*rjiowiTriiig, 
Take th» muUiuci^ froia Jctmur'a own housubold Hia 
neplicw, Hi-nry, ntid & nijiid-wervftnt, were e^ized with 
typhus, ami J^niicr wroto — 

The «tuuc1] fn:ijji Uio nmir girl ba Mt grMLtAH to All Ilia hanm wltli 
|iutdd TmiKnu ; and I «u*II TiT(n<>viT Uciitjf thia mijmitig, b^ muuui 

Tnd<?«d, the cloanlinaes uid vontilAtloQ v^o coTvdd^ so 
Aoliit^' were 4aduTou.«JjriLroi<tcd, ColdfLtr wiL-nnccouDt- 
ed flpecially peraicious. and occasionally wliua th^? |>oor. 
iitHictcd with sma-llpox, were cspo^yj to thtf wuither, 
ftntiifiiAliiiiPZit witJ r''rl t.hiit rrrovcry itistHnjI nf <i«iith 
waa the iaaue. It ih mlaled in Hutchiiw'rt Hitlor^ of 
DvT^i that UlanrlfonJ wa^ l^iinit down in 17S1, and 
Mveral patif^nbt in Etmailpox vrax^ Laid tindor tli9 archcM 
of Uie brid^ aa a iilace of i^Afu^^v. and, to the >,'t?nt?ra] 
MUrpmc, all got w^ll, although rnnny hatl died in thoir 
bedri btfure Uu^ fire. John Bircli a Lgntton »nrgcon of 
hi^h r^piiti?^ writing in ISli. sums up the case for na on 
thiA ht-Ad in ML}'ing — 

louQudi^tb^ [iHtciniUitjiitI]ioi AiuilddiMBMiUdootynmilttwl 
nukUgnout bj niutUkkqii in iiurhiLJif h lu di«t and lu lovdkuM, mnI br 
WHit of cIouiUdow. wUdi lunbu tljct fomoa of hospltAl fov«n, and 
all Quap ftod tiuDipEiaiui dioordon. 

It -vtoTLld hudly bo Unt Wld to sii.y, thai Uic fatal trealiuaal of 
Ihl* d»OHW| for two oontorimt bj vajioiutf cUe oliaiulKir, and fay 
fttimakfcLnjt and hsatJAr cordiala, nu tho owiM of twu^thitda of ths 
morUktil^ which ccnud.f 

Wei now conie to an intert-^ting qneation. If the 
reader rofora to the list of iwuivc ycara of grcatMt email- 
piw, and to the liat of twelve jrears of least ahikIIjkix in 

• htttfXi:^ L^t <>/ Jmiter, Tt>l, i. p. 107, 

•\ A% Appndtoths PvhAKcnt KmyworrM. Hy John Bink, 




LoDdoD, it yriW be oljAcn-cd tha.t tlie jcarf of lc«»t fltn^l- 
pox predomln&te Sn the laat ^|uarl«t of tlie cc-ntutr, and 
this in T^pitc of the ditTuiiion of tlic disease by iDocnlaticQ. 
Tlw inoniUtors wlirji dmrgi-'l willi inrrrJiHm^ F^nifUliiox 
ApPdJccI to th« London Bills of MorUlity. " Lot ua," twy 
fiftjd/'take thy IivaI. iiiri'Ly ^TJir>J of t.h'.' centiiry, wid we 
Eihalf tin<i thut tlivre diud in London of Miuallpox in thft 
tliiit^- ^-wti's — 

From I7n to 1740 tnclu^ve e^^S^ 

17*1 Wi770 G3^U8 

1771 tolHOO , CT^GS 

Han yfO bc^, that the number of deaths was greater Ul 
tbu itrat Uiirty ycntw by 207^ than la the second thirtjr 
YC41TS duriiijf which ItiocuIatJon htd fkcquired some §t«* 
bilitv. nnd i^cfttcr by 81 Ifj than in the I&^t thirty yeftn*^ 
durin^^ whir^i luiiriimtuni wiw ihv cstnhlTsht^l prHrricTcrif 
Qiofft pru'lrJit t'omiUi:.!,* Wc am thiTf^foru nnjiifltlj' ac- 
QUtttdn Tliew? ii^uri'ji k-ave no dcjubt thr^t Huiall}K>x ia 
decT<4ainj;, and wn claim tliat tho decrease i« duo to our 

llic decrease was certain, but I cannot aL1o« that it 
iraft due to JniKiilation; on the contrnry I oasumo that 
the d^TCAsc wtjuld have Xm^vu gn-iiU^r liul Fltt thi^Ciiltiin^ 
cf ^e ^908^ 1^ the iroGii]at'>ru. Hie fnct la extr-vmoEy 
dtftTMatog to In*? morn riLh\i\ vjic^inatora, nnd Or, Odf- 
g«]d Uie» to ctirae it out of i^xmU^uci* wt " the falf^t^ of 
faliichoodd ;" but tliore it abides. It ia hard for tIio«« 
whu n.-pr«i>«iit Jrnncr ib; the unvioiir of mimkiiKt From 
ftiDal1|>ux to havt- it shown that Londoners. nt l«Mt, vrem 
in proccaaof salvftiiim befori? hU interveniion ; hut fiu^ts, 
itloA^afe cTticily nnkind t^i thi?omt?T, ^nti men ta lists, and 
dotcka of all rviria. Ux the wtmln tif Dr. Farr — 

fli^npnT alteindJ lu mAXiumni mortnlifj nfi^r TniuntUtinn wm 
klrodne*!. Thaumuid dBatbin fram sinntlpai from 17iU tci 1770 
iNT* on aa ft^iM'ait* t>^- f" ^ho next tvL-nty yi^jtrtj. iTt^ La 171)V 
l|rt4Mtiaa4 to 1740. Tho Ji^ansu. tlii?r«fur{?, l>u^ti to gruv Ian 

- pt, A^*™* ii^ JfnffW Jowmd^ tSEO. ph SI. Dr, Grcgny t& hia 


fatal lufora YkcdiuitlMi vu i1i»ooT«tvd ; Eodle^Uugt lii|;bllier with 
thn diminulitui of £ev«jn»| lt<- ^uotkI iaiprovemtimt of hefdlh tben 

'Vhi} flprCTeajw of smallpox towania the close of the C^- 
tury, rjiri Dr* Ffor, waa due to '* the general improvcmcDt 
of IivaJUi tlieti tflkin^ place;" 1>ul Ui wliab wan bliat 
Irnprovotaea^t <]ue i >o mark^ improvement had been 
effected] in the &aiut&ry ornLri^i^iut^iiLn of T^iulon — 
why then thii* change for tho hett*r t My auHwer ih, 
that n great altcratioa wad in progress in ttc popular 

l>r. Goorgc Chi>yne, in hU £cuuou« £9^y of H&dth and 
Ltmrj Life, puhlUhed in 1724, wiys — 

TIjMi^Urio 0hrvnj«Mldi*ttiiipi>rw1iiiUo«v«Tmon aniranal. raore 
nbfttinjht«, i^nJ more t%Ul m Knliuu, tbau lb* Sourr; ttken in itB 

Anci more than fifty y«ar« afterwards, in 1763* we 
have l)r Bucliau beaiiiig nuuilar bMiimony — 

The (lUeksa moid common Iri tliia i^ouutry U tliH Sccrry. Oqh 
dud* a duih of ii iu afaootb every Cuiiilyt xmX in noiuo Uio ttinl 1# 
Tory i^wp. 

It i'^ KC»Tci?1y riece^aary to cite authority for what wafi 
so icen^ratly known an<l Donfoi^ed; but in thijv question 
of smallpos Aiiil itfl preveutioii we tu*ve Uj deal with 
many who appear to tx> drvtituCd of any historic nonw ^ 
vho ar£uc a^ if what Encliohmen arc t&'u&y* they alwaya 
were ; and who contend that aa there was wore ^n^atlpox 
in London before Jcnncr than »incc Jenncr. therefore 
Ji>niLf-F lEiuKt bi> Lb(< Ctttisi* of thi> dticiiriuLtoij. It Is 
noco9«ary to condo^eend to auch feoblo folk, 

Thu cniJ.ii; of the Rciicrnl .■MXirhiitic habit of the people 
was widely r^Offiuac^ by medical men, and Buchan 
merely rcpcabod ^ht;ir common opinion in saying — 

h. disouc BO Qvuflinl miut liaT« h fFDoral doum, uiil tborvu Qon« 
to ohWoa« as th« trreat oiuujIiEjr *A jmimal food diroored bj tha 
aatiTM of Ihu iiUudi As a ^voot tb&t Scorvj uin* flma Uiia 

* Article, *■ Vital StatiMioa i Epidemics' in M*Cu11mh'* SiafitHt^ 


vAJuotocft HfocrLAnoN. 

J«W|». »• B» m poamdOD of no Kmoiy for Uul diifu* mod to' 

Chevne saiJ nmch llip ^Hme at tin? civHier Uat<'- Ue 
ccrmplainetl Umt Uie upper r)iu^e8 goi^-d thcio£cl%-cis 
wrilh aiumftl food, and sl&kcd tbcif thfmt urith wjiw, 
"jrhich U now [172+] become coinutfini tm w^ter, and Uiv 
betb(Tr sort «aLrc<^ ovor dilute their foo-i witli any other 
liquor," Beer had the place of wine &riiun^ tJm middle 
ftod lowttT orders In the words of BacTjon— 

^i EngliUi UlMtirvr Uroe fihifHy «n brnd, whuli btdog momii- 
I^BCftiJ with <yUiar Arf, %nd often R^t food. ftrM fai« blood abJ •«- 
cc(cA «n uTi{]tiAtiDhabla iyr>t, aa tt«t bit fTBrp«tti«J 917 if for driak- 

Hu wMh— 

IT mou A-xIJ liTfi vu drr UfVttil. poor ob**v. mII btilter^ hvdM 
WOQ, nod tiioli Uks Mftrobiiig fcxu, lb«j u'l'/f ^nd ttior vny ia tha 
altho u n— tho bftuv <jj tbo bjver oideiv, aiuI iIjo t^iurvd uT lulf llit 
beggary in Uio i^utli>u. 

Wcro we to (wvy tliat the dici ol thu English for tbe 

C*»- part of tail ct'ntur>- consUted of Bk^ Beef, and 
t we should ULit ^'o far wrong. The Loodtm birttd 
wa8 th«n. UK now, poor sinfT; '* spoiled," jgiy.* Hnrfian, "to 
plrjuy the oyc. nrtiHcially whiUnod, \\!t wbat nioMt prt- 
for. Jind the pournr sort will ^at no otln^r/' VVIieDevrrit 
c<>iild bo obtaJDod, Utr wa* the bov<=m£v' tlmt w*>nt with 
oroftd, nnd wa^ dnitik liy ynnnif and old Salt TH^rriind 
inuttouH Wpcjn, *mi\1 #inJi, and l>titchor*' cttal oampltitod 
tho dietary of tli*.- fiudtitudtv The feeding of the poor In 
liarl Hi*iuniii» ri:<-rei8od the Unii'«icent severely, for Uw 
twkcr A MtJ iificn w( nt fnr ti> i:xiiaunt the workciiig-tuaa'i 

Jt WM Qoay to recommend the rich to gtt nd of their 
aopnry bv a nmort to v^^tn.hl'^ ftxjd, but to tJi* |>oor 
Wilh their obAtinato prcjutiicea. ehiftleflsnc*', and i;;*nor 
anoc, aijch a Tocofnm(<ndation wiu< a sort of iiu)c:kr>ry, 
Dallraianoo^ howovor, came in a form ri^oomiuendod by 
P****]*ta<wi tttid Ptjtmoniy, namdy. lu the potato^ It la 
true the tiihr^r had liwn known lor-r lK^ort\ but not as 

Llaii, hi' CpDHtDtng U)« 1>]<4 ol tb« Cm- 



on Artictt; of Ace And onlivmry eoiisLDii>tioiL Towiird 
tbo middle of thr century it \^its discovered timt potatoes 
could he grovri] rliiaiply in Urgp (jUA.nljU». and *upply 
and rlcmjind devoJi^ped lo;(ottieTp Women And children 
opcdaJIy ri:joaoi>l in the new food, whilst ihr ht:ncv<Acnt 
exiillf'd in the Hb*ral ftocei^on Co tlit- pacT timn^Ji fstr". 
It Ldooinf* a point of duty with Lord ond i-ad v t^untifiil 
tt> rfciiTit[iieiir) tb^ rultum wid conE«tiiii|iiiuti of [jotjitufh 
ev«fry wlior^ ; and to ^a how Far iiiG bubabituUon of 
potatoes for \}jvw\ hod estendeil early in tlif; nint^tri^ath 
GbnUity, we noijfl ordv ivf^r lf» th<> pat!'^*' of Coblxrlt, who 
denounced the chaJi^i? with uiiivoarkd vitulcnco «.% n do- 
griwIaUori of huinaiiity. Certainly poUtoM ari? iiilVrior 
to br-avl in uutritivt vaIiic, but in fgi^l wt- havij to look 
for iixvTc thsin mere nutriment; and the gen*»nd nsi- iif 
the potnto went far to punfy aod frmoliomto tho blood 
of thf> KtLglinh p«i>pl*\ 

Thtf appearanco of th^^ potato aa a oh«ap^ ocnstiUipnt of 
common imv, wa« an ar;^nni«?nb wlierowitli Ji^nncri' en- 
dwivoureti lo ttlfny Apprciipnsionifi, that, havUijc stoppod 
amallpox, there w-julci .-^ouu ho ui^ire mouths than foo<I to 
^\] tlitftiL To Dtninin^ lie wrote. 10th Fobniary, IS05 — 

I lifL** nfUr nrpfil the* folEoTinj »rgmn*nt wKati Iftn miniprouB 
ft pojk]|[i;tf4>n liAM thi^pii ilirovn in my t«Mbt tt ant* of lUn 111 tJt<(.'tH 
likolj to Ailnnil vnr"*iriftl]riTi. Who v^nH havn Uioughl ji c^iuliuj 
iMTWH Lliat iirovM^nrii hn.! In ai^m fi»r iia tlijvi nutrittcu* aud ticslltful 
V(*l(ulalilt. Uio potato— thftt rt<iiAy runrl^ loaf, dj il wetP, wIjicIj i* 
p£P|i]ittil Lti Li^or jwrfnctton b ihr ^;iin]Dti of tLa tutUt:<ir tUuk la 
the Lj|ch]^ Juru^uuHl noil of tho iiuut of o|fulvump 

And Again to Worthington, 2vHh April, 1810— 

WbfttB^ frota ncavea vrvsi tUia uitraofilinnry »*hhUU*— » 
ftadj nad* lo^f; rc»rvod, lixi.tlll tli* hour wIldii |ic<|iiiUtioD| in 
th«a« rcAloM at Uftftt, bc«au flral l« iacnw* ; aiMJ thca oc>inia£ w« 
Mvody know how. Away wrlU Mftlthiu and hi« dro«rj apaoiilb- 
tloiul The Mat a/h QIUU wltL IcDovolwoe. and l«t pojtuLUio& 
il^nonQ bcvr it miy, li?t ub uat dinlniBt oad fliivi^^ t^*^ '"^''^ 
^U orM ffick tbo btfOfti of ewh other." 

Nor vrnrj tbo diang^ in tho pccplc'ct diet limited to tho 
introdtictiiin uf thr potato ; witJi It came t«^ Of oourae 

* BAiTui'a i^t qr^dmer. vol. iL pp. UBttud 410. 


the fre* tiM (rf ' 

with «.!■■ 
*' which ' 


ftod low-. ■ 

Th. ■■■ . 

dtdu Hkij . 
Ho luJ ' 



flrlL ■ 
ur, ■ 

ViiU < 






vAi: I 


^ ©re Oeorg* 
__ tefl caii»<; ifil^ 
^ Buchao, wi»<' 
Htf wrotc^ — 

«iU:mriia otore to* 
^ "n»* higher raiUtff 
^-^^ ft di^t of il, Tbe 

^ ^^ Uad Um oliiliirBii 

jar""' ^'7 iB^ 'L^^ 

4^ tnil hnd I tini? to 

^.4d tliAJi ^n wrLiing 

^io'^e A total i^hFuiga 

itrT. TndQed, ill biia 


- i-t' vitMp<rTOtion 

111 Bacufi, Bread 

- >... ii the strimgth 

^« ami poLo^toea lio 

.itaLoes aoJ tea for 

"ft-v may justly al- 

^ habit of tbij people, 

n'Ji were cwncideat 

,*ore CL>ntiaued iato 

i vitnl Ktjitijstit^ has 

. , to be iilcntical to 

lUc iiLujoriLy gF the 

■ juiiAbly Ao in London, 

^ nhioh in tbe^^c timea 

, .'Hfjiditioc^ have bee:i 

Hic obactviLtion, that 

^ii,l smallpox not an- 

,l^^ltic victims. VVliere- 

, I^ntlonera uf the IStii 

ItJth in thu Jiiatter of 

,, in?f* hetw^reji them to 

i[(Ct tliAt is iuescua- 





fa^Bfty. M «11 a» nfifitebf" mI wiili hn mir. 
-Noch^ et»wft i MB i il toragwat ptftqfwfctt^ 

Btnnff tfemod; ilist xh^y idwiikl l«fi«v* « tie." 

E'lnril JdUieVftbe aoo of s ciet;CTiiit&. wu bom M 
Bcrkvlej. GloiKwtrwLlfi;, uo 17ih )U^. l7«, AftM 
the u^ual edwatfeoo of a youtik of Im cIam^ bo vm 
»prBoUc«<t to Hr. I/idknr, av^xm ukl tipotlmry, of 
Boihnry. nvti BmUtI; ud <» tbe oonptetka of kb 
time (1770) ^h.'i attii to Loti^ti, irhen* hv nytiil^ for 
(wo jretffi witli I>t^ Jobn Huaur, who jpcrwuwii to 




wc know tli&t I' :i 
III. wna King, in 
popuUr uae. Uonu 
wiLt strongly (]|irii:*j 

It ilk mid lti« k 
Uua All lh» tf>UL«r 
UM Uji Mfi A In _ 
lownt wnmiu la 

Phi"rt/ from Hi I 

IpOTD. T till 

150U11 n i^rf-ut nmy 

Wiflt lEacJm 
ly did. ami 
Weil? !»(i|ili 
ac.l B. 
of tic ! 
belli in 

To ti. 
f«iit»?»:l ani^: 
tribut/- ■ 1 
ati'i t.3i 
witli Ll 

yiolJ lu ■ , 
Wtrs: 1 . 

tliiiir ., 

f OtXJ t 
ci^rc t ' 1 

fliihrx. 1 1 

MJiCuitD into 

.%L L4l<r 

^gooBbT sill 
.(MpX 10 hifl 

.^i^M discrtUom 

-niortort of tnj] 
,i«doo«(l if he 

i^-uec mischief; 
i^U^ Wpinu in 

«j^<<ru) |trflctitioiirC' 

^-ihH MiiMttira SaHna, ' 

^V^ M** ttal Jirit of th««* 8ff« 
>^ Mli*nlA. f rio n^ hf»r- 
, I vAf* oTfii^rT^ thAt whlltj 
■■# fftn^D-llj "-^'^^ ^° 1^ ff^ 
,^^tu tl^<^ ^r-ntfr niimbv 

. J(vT[|iBpiUH of IjIUIu N| 
^jj 1^ A •orl of (!(^Tl■^-^c^^ltiO^^| 

''^ ,, , nunUr conlirm^" 

,. ,, r llkin^' for nntufL 

I ilin the' ctMrnUy, h«j 

I,',* ft.H uWi'ver nod; 



HaiTdK. lurftt, and 

HMiJ fry, fdf 

1 i>r the ana of ft 

rig tioniUo cxpoii- 

nott sarkwi pro* 
tliftl Jcnncr vbouM 

I jd with hatiuUoa, tli« 

..[.^jul being tOOO i^uitieaa 

ive'}, or *iuj>^osod & had 

ujT] tii tart&T MQciic, &Dtl Hunter 

^ETing Cliff j^or liLft^r ju Ui» taitAr of aQ 

n9 MCOtlhl or lAMT CaMMM. BW JTMl Mt 

liftvfl it in ull, M GImm of Oxiord did liii 

In 1703. and there U no «vitknoe iluU 
to bisjtid^ttnt th^ (jUf.>J9tion of Vftoctttfr^ 

allow thatprioi tc tJi&t UaU; tho projoct 
to J(>n:ieT himself. It U c^TUin tMt ho 
FJuntcr that country folk bcliovcd tbat to 

n^ftted tbo fact in his convor^tion aii'l lee- 
hvb Ui«ra Is no ttr^emacr to tlic tuattarr in ITiinber*B 
and corr«pond^nc^. 
V K^it of Jouncr's admir^ra to represent him a» 
pftUont inracUntor ta whom & ^«at Ui^xi^^fit dnvrned 
boyhood, whiui iras brought forth in the iimUirity of 
life. Jn conformity with ih'm I^vnd. it U rrhitf>id that 
when an iLpprcntJco at Sodbiin\ a young woman came to 
h.h DianU^fl Hur^vry. and ani&flpos b*;iDg Dkcntioaed. ahc 
Bftid, '' I Okn&ot uk« that dkeatst^, for I hav» had cowpoz f 



n»4 her oltscirt^Uon wia poodcrcd in hk hcsri; viMfrtoo 
Dr, Baron, hU bio^pher, MeUtmlly lumcbw torth — 

y«wton lukJimfoM^d hi#4««th»*«f Light 4n4 «aloan Ulor* 1m 
w*J twoatv : Uaaoa vroto hk r/m/oru ^«rfii« Ms ai mua b ifaw 
he attuoed tlut a^ : 3loftlOT-iii*» fai>d ifc ilalMd U« A^vif ^ 

■Ull y finn cor, Cell tomfitoUd Ui» pcanbttttyof waorlaf fcwa > fn o iM 
Ibo Uit oflamaan lii aM» eo* 4g tfa> nut mtMal HMt 0v^ KooMin 
ccr niM. Tb* bo|>« of doing thn gfiMt fMd »«rM d— mid bm, 
ttuiugh htnut with mftDj akBOang«n«ftU ; Ua noCkn* hAnog 
b««nti«Atod withBeMiiuidvtdlral*^*o«M,&»d vidiiadJT*n&«a 
liy ilicMt hIL 

AgAiOAb «uch A i>Ar«0YAjkh vc in&j write, Shen 
rononoo ! Jonncr wtm hy no mvuift reticent, and that Uie 

Crr«v^ntion of small]v>x vmn for anj kogih o£ tiiXM the 
kiirJ«n cf HSh tMul< rowh-^n? npp»r^ The romanoe cbbw 
into 1>ein^ aftct «Intc in order to make lanch of liUJe, 
and to uiHtify ]uiyt^K*riL in nui\ And rvpatalton. For, 
taking Vn^ciii^ttioD at th« uttuo!rt,it wb* a alight advAoco 
ijjHin iT:KiNLoiit kj^oiA-locI^^o and praoUm, In tl^ finl pkaa. 
It WW a tkotorioUH bi^ltol In hibji^ ^Jairy districU, that to 
o^ntract covrjiax waa equiFaleot to MnalI|jox in avRrtt&g 
a •ubaeqiiflfit attack or innallpcix. In the s«oond plac^ 
ifiocuUtion with Hi[inTlpi>:c vraii the OMtom of the time; 
and if 'ir.U'Huni vrJili i'r*wp«jx j>r^\-ent«d snialWx, whj 
hhouM Dot inoGuljitioii with eowiH>x do fo aa cffed^ultj 
8ft inociilatit^n villi nniiiUfiax t Tdo ml4Jligv^(v rtviuinte 
to r«ach a conchi^on ao obvious was not fc^^ttt, and 
tliiTrrfnir il najin<i CAMHfi for«urpnec thai wfit-n Ji?udi 
claitu tkn iiT\^ii\iiUir i>r Vocobiatlon yvnx Woti^ht f< _ 

hU prioril/ aUould bo disputed from M;\cni] *itiiLn«rFi ; as 
by B«n|amin Jwty of YiTtiDtnAti>r. who inocuUt^J his 
wife and aonnwitli wwpox in I77i; by Na*H of Shaftca* 
bury; Mm Rinilidl, and othont. Jenner vet,* ii[:il irufin* 
adblo to ilia foroti of IhtMo clainiK, but ovadod Iheni under 
tlw pToa tbat tbvnr wan oowpox uixi am-pox.and ibat be 
had duMVOTDd and d«flik»d the ttg\it sorL 

111 parU of tloljitr-in, toe, ocivrpox was r«r^ar)c<l &« j^tMxl 
a^^iLtjut amaJ]{>ox, aiul on mon than ono occaHJon waa 
doHUnitvly craployed fof tlic pitrpOBO. Plfitt, a vilU^ 


^^V ^xnnn K4IUB Tmua 

M ^^ 

tho diMAfffr ia 1791. «^ «m^ afterom creA«d wilb ■ 
resfating iviokm Mfltfkft ja ^mmxpme^ a# tfa«cr ^J 

How l^ar>yfc1y th^ aa^tii pcsfiijrlftzjr «r aMms 
vr&a kDovB. MOV Mawif *ra» ■oaai<oiBi to Mr 
iritiwM. H« «M ft bmbIm' td t«v ^V tlw M«>£c»- 
OooTivul vkk^ net «t BoA«[«agli, aad tte Coortiio- 
UedieaJ whicb mi-i mi Alir^ca ; and be imd lo brii^ 
cowpox JO pM^iat-Dll^ andir JiicuMwn, tlit,h»«tid,i» 
WMtlin&UnBdwiilivxpQlnMiif bedidaoCdcanl 'We 
know" ciid th« jorkl iloelan,- that m ttudc of oov- 

ao€0 Dot, ud Oftt dkooU •oil tb« raBttfiT."f 

Id pur>3Siioe of the Uid» that would rcfvtwsnt 
VftccinaUoii u the ovUoni^ of the lahiur of manj yejm:, ^H 
we bav« tJbe followiiv extnardmMty nmrruUrc 'from ^ 
Baron, Jptinrr'n Ik^ i^n|£i!r — 

It VTM &«« til 1780 IkK J«vaOT m* MAbM, bAm- tnotfa aladj 
ftoi t&«ab7, to w»T«4 iDABj of Cb* f«i|loiJuf nh—BJiUw ab4 
ommJoOoh wbfa vkM dw ^hmUm «f eottfox vm omiopod, 
Mi4 vfafali kod liiipi>o— d ibMo vho k&tv km tfttrthifgw oTlb* 
amitfjvtthlliA omiov thiUlt4iADddIftM«nloftadc«lirfft«tan 
ahifllJartfifi. In t&* montfa <4 Mh oT tho joftr jttit mwiliuuiJ, 
inO. ho flnt dw>4o««d bit bopM tad hai Utn, r«ip*«tiaf Ibo mM 
oI^mI of bia imivoil. to hit frwnl Edwnd Oudoar. Bj Ihto ttM 

ituaiUd hfoi, birl U was ttilL dooii^l by rImiJiU mnA •hMctilttm* 

H* lliMi Himad Uk fHl UiftI 11 rtff*!il. In (totl'o ftKul |ii^viJ»Q0O| ^^ 

A^ Ail li)t ic. jfurrj 5i?fuwm fA^ tii-fA^ and £ho jJaaJ, Muf iktU ^^H 

rAfOUfh Aim a pinrfw might be tfa^frf. Oo lb* oth«r ndo, (^ ^1 

^mod of iluftppofirtuwnt. uid tiie pmbiMUt}: of tatUnif to nofoia^ 

fiUib hin ;TaqM«Ot rMlimiiiwl Chat eAK«moB wUob ctiiarvi** ttumid 

iKTO |iniiaj4wl lilu iiroiufttur>^lv ir> ijubluth tlio ranilt or lik 

inantnoi. iiiJtherabT, prolifthl^', iif nonvvjini- iiurifBdent knoir> 

Ua|f«* bllglit CjrDV»7 m% fttvimnto hope, I 

Muiy l^rv tlie iiiarvt-Iluuri rt^Utimu hi aiiciont adU 
mod^ni hi)itorv, 1>ul in the rc<corils of ibc aupccrnAturAl 
ib is 4tic±tlciiuiblc if there be onything to umtdi tlio pr«- 

t Buon'i /^« ttfjennirf, taL I. pp. 46 ud 1% * /b, 

L js 197. ^H 

ccdin;;. i'^idU'iH <bpict ih^ run»vay fit>j>ri?nticc Jul 

on HiijIij^Mt^- FTill to tbij Wh iw thry ni^od, * Tttm 
tLi^Aia Whitlin^'toti, t^rict- Lord Itfayor of LonJoB," but 
tiioy t]\i^ht find it finer Mjbjtrct in Uie J^^ti^ QIoioqb- 
t^nibirv surgeon, a^d 31, Lftbil^d ° in bluo ooftt tad 
ycllon- buttons, buckskiDa, well polbhed jockey booto 
witb han^vitiifl Kih-r-r spciis, « lemnrt. whip vjib silirer 
handle, and Itiur <lono up in a cJxtt> under a broftd- 
lirimtiifvl but,"* with eye ijied in vmou. coutain|iUUng 
KiB ^lonoufl destiny, throv^ clouds of doubt uid dim- 
eulty. Ml twrnty yrjir% Mivnd ; sUanVing Yikv Anotlwr 
Amon, ooivter in lumd, between tbo livii^ uwl tbe dettd 
uhIj! t}ic? ^to^iv was stAycd ! Vcrilv. if vro do ooi 
BOO niimdo«, ii t» becftUMc we do not Aoate to look fov 

Tbo ebapUr of tbo wondctrTuI in not ^xhniiitiMl ; yet 
gRftter thfniiB nnaiii. Says Ban^m, And Tcoollect El» 
ymr w«* I7M Aod J**nn#r a^l SI — 

JtiHur WW rfiUuji Willi OjkHocr, <m llw tottl bi«w«Hi ff! 
IM- wul MrMol, DMT KffWpoTl, wliwi Um eoimnfttl 

(rTvdwpPv: riatrthi* opfaicnaM tolh* Anginorthuftn>dicofRni 
lb« 1m*I •/!]»# b«f««; ■p««lA*d tiao cHg^PMH «if1« of dbwi whhh 
AtlMkod Am UiI[|«*« wb«u they lundlM] tnfK^tml (inwb; ^wril 
OMtt llM f aiMy w kirfi tJIor^^ ^rdU^oiiou. Wi"'i ''^>»*f[p?* ^ «?* 
■ilb ibep Aii4 Miiioiu •motion mtniloadt! fal> bap» nf bdnf lU* 
U pntMla lli»l rftffoty from on* liamikii bdzxg to mctbw, tul In 
hill ifliMininiliil Uio pni«t£M> «U ovpir Hi* globe, b» ihtt total 
fillEHriftti </ •mallf ox ' — 

Which U to My, that in I7S0, Jenno-r, iig«! ."il. had 
arrivod at tho eoncUmbm which he otfvrrd to th* wodd 
in I7IJS nt Ih-- iiiaturc ajto of 4tf ; «id in die ramnwliilo 
allowGfi mafikliil U^ jwrwh from smallpox, b« having 

iboir nalvntion ui hi« hand^T 

TI»i niiracnloiiM cunvorHation, aays Ba«ti>TO COO- 
cludod by Jonncr in words to tho folhiwing cfloct-^ 

OttHtwr, I li«ro «EibiuM • Ttioul imiMrlam matter W 5«. 
wWjsh I flrmlv b*ll«t« wlO W»r» of a-eoliAl b*n*ftl to ti]« bucM 
nw«. 1 know yon, *nJ tb onia not wE»h ^bt 1 h »TC >t» ted to b* 



Inoa^t iufa) a^vonatinn ; for nliik.ij-l no vllihig nntavaTit tirrn np 
la my fip«rimeDta 1 nlimUd bs mndr. pkitieutiirly bj my niiMliJMl 
br^lfamit tlw latf^ecA of Jddieala — for J uu Qw uuu-k tbuy if] 

Oftivln^f. JouuT^a Mu^ who EdaytHl the ]>irl of afi^r 
^ in thr^ usevenbioii of an aany dat<^ fur VaccinaHUu]i, 
vnis II <l*'ji]i*r in v-'itu^ %nA spirit*, rharitv Iv^fifVAth all 
thlD^, btit cvL'n clmTity wuiilU exhibit a in\piicul coun- 

h^vv plncifd to hiii criKJit, i-t in ibuftf imprt^LAblo ; vrhi^h, 
if true, Etii^ht he provuil by docu^i^iil* and wiiiieeL<rc9 ; 
but which h merely supporle^d by his own word and th&t 
oi & friend. Lnt mc rcpi^nt, thcr^ wn,** nc-vcr iv vcs^ac of 

idence Adduo?*! fur tln^ re\>"lfttiunft of 1780 l>*joa3 Ibc 
tLtficrticn.-^ of Jcniicr and (j^Hncr ; and further. 
Lluii Uit^y niv r%»rt<Mlly aL vArmnRi? vritb tin? Lienor attd 
datoa of Joniivr'4 tint pulUoitlion- Tfte Inffuirif of I71''J- 

Tbo next dat4? to wliicb vre conje is 1787, in wlui^b 
ymr JcRn4ir ijt rtrprcKnntvd a« hnving tftkvn bin n«pbow, 
Qcoife, into a HtabU bo Look at a liorAtt wllb dt.iuaAt?d 

" There/' MJd be. pointing to the hoi^c'* hocl». '' in the 
«our<^<* of itin&llpux. I hu-ve luucb to haj tin thjLt subject, 
wbiciv I hopQ in due time to give to tho worJd/'f 

lUrou ^ivi'jt fui antbnrily fax lIiIh ntiuciluti^ IL m 
probably antcdat^J six or aovon years. 

In 1788 Jonner niarritid OfiLli<^riui; Kingacdte. In hiA 
dotiit-itic rvlationtf, he wiu diTVotvdIy nffvclionnt^f, vvcn 
uxoriiKin; tttAy Ui defer any duty taid U) aurrcndet any 
juIvjintAge to the pleasures of bi>Di«L. 

Ab the phn]««raii,Jenncr wiuacood bniidata'copjof 
VBTsefi/* and one of tliinc-, *' Si^is of Rain/' eoiinneakcuig — 

TIlp lioUow winds btflia to bbvr, 

Th« douJd bok Lilock, tbo icIau i« lov — 

had a placi* in ni^arly all poetical collections. 
In 1702 Jenricr appUci to the Vnivenlty 


137-1 ». 



4311 Ui^uHto Hit) Lo Ui» 
u^ii WbitUngtou. ivlt^i 
they nUffliL imd a fiiKir 

yeUow bulUnLln ho*r\ 
with haQilwne jsil-. 
LiLuilo. ood bair '1 ' 
1jnmuie<J lu^t'* 
}m glorioiu He. ' ' 
cultyp full twni 
Aaron, fons':!- 'v 


ytMi wna 1 ' 

Avhlob 1 

idtb Ooop 

r, in rclaUoa 
^agF biff own account, 
. uT at li3<i»L a f|iaATter 

[jpli witliout &uy 

^ In NovftmWr, 

Att^U'ink. An infant of 


Hi* VtutT Si'iUi WAS 

I r \ani>Ioii& Tc*t ; 

^\ LiJlU^^ at VftHnOft 

^^l|N)X witbuut othot 
4Aiion and erjHjpuliui, 
^a (unicfcl out mora 
v0t witli owircpox — 

^ ^1 ^'^ ^^'^^'^ "oUiin": else 
«^i» j.iirjHjM' to cowpox. 


1^ %ii ni*p(»flu»itfiy i»f com' 

j^ wfcii wore tho projected 
'' '"^^Sb* *^^"*^'' himlcrcd thoir 

msxKft? rjLRura: tbaka. 


lies to h^vt unlinjitf>i dniU ntfbde mptm oei^ft 
Tli« VTideBO? of example wrmiU go to proro 
Lt Jf^nn^r pU«ed Ma tm^t in BwiD«poz TStber than 
fx>w]>ox, nX Ifiut All Ut« M 17^9. 

]ti A{tffl, 1795, a gcDftnl iiMGoktiott took titaoe at 
rk«le7 om IXinidiJe'fl pba ; ihaJ^ ia to sftf. all in the 
rict who bjul nnt hiul lOiutUpos T«re niociitatad with 
ilbcAMp so Ui«t Ihpy might ndccn togetikcar ftD^i do 
miMliwf. Amoog liie ^rk^lejuu wu one J(Hr|)li 
who, 1770, h^ «tU>fidad homoe with gr«wj b^eb 
ftn4 ai Ui« ttise timi! niHkrd cowt^ uid fma Uw eowa 
hft4 ooncTnot^ cowpox. JeoMC inocukted him '"Tf*^ 
cdly frith »niailjv>x on Ail ooGHioQ. but with no eflod ; 
vf*n<* he c>ocli*Jt-d Hiai the tttJick of cowpoi ii» 1770 
had maint&ined M^-rrt^t seccie from imaUpox for tivo- 
u>il-tw«iity yi'ArA.* 

Jenn«r'» ntm wiui now directed to dcmoovtnto ih&t th« 
«Of[iinon fikilh In cuvnox M A d«fafeee ■gsioat mnftUnox 
wnH wdJ'foundcd ; &ad to do 80 it was m c oo w wy to cmr 
ftway two objcctinn*— ■ 

b'^WTT. Th&t ^oiii« who hftd tauj-ht cowpor hsd <vbsfi- 
[uottly suffered bu^&llpox. 
which he Arwwi-rod — 
fmouA cniptiijtifl 4>ccor on the teats of «ow«, which 
kfonfoundofl withrotrpax.nntl infrct theinilk«?ni; Aod 

\ I afJmit, do n>ot protect from wnallpoE. 
In a letter to EUwanl Giintubt m 17^ he nrnmrlced — 

Th« Irvtf hM lusj- kniMv>iki b^ tho /«!« no 4h« oow** aUiir 

Ski-'^kp. T7iat Honif^ who had coBtnctpd tnio oawpox 
L&d ncvfrrthelci^ fftUcn victims to smallpox. 
"■'To whidi lie answered — 

AdfnittcMi : but then the milker had not rec«iv«d ifi- 

Jmntt't /ciHnrtQr, 

f Bana'a L^ ^ /funfr, toL L, p. M 



An'lrnwB Tor the clegrtw of Dodor • 

£1-1, ami nothing more 

HunUr used to say to speeul&tiv 

but try; be pAtiontj bo aocunkb' ; ' ^ 

t" uuwpiJX, tpijuiretl tilt; wivicn ; tur < 

h^ was oonloQt to think of cowpox lf 

of IL ccntJiy. whilflt lie knew bj- in^« 

it* loajfiL-af L'fficaey, aiJd foturo ' 

tnii/, Uis first ^xpcrinac^t w^^ 

17M*, Mpoii his Kon Edvrftnl, ha f 

«)j-ht4h.-ii tutiuthit. 

" Ho WM inoculated with cowt»i- 

O, no! 

" ThiMi witJi gruane from a li 

Not at ftlt : ^ 

"With vrJiatthcnr ^ 

Why, with swinepox ; ; - ' 

Tli<? child i^ickcncd on > 

a-iiH^Awd; tlii^y vr«w* Int. 

snid), but tboy pTovod . 

tiion put throiigli whal 

not oDce or iwSotv ^ ■ ■ 

intorvals, he was idi* 

obvious ellbcE thiu^ 

Notbm^ ev«r cUiu 

satEKfnctorily than ^ 

«uppo«u)^ wc truHt ' ' 
ATguIil^ froiri til' 

to aifpo Trom) it ^^ 

tumiMl Mt ftttp-uUM! 

This lUror albws. 

^ refill ^ 



Bctftii^ ^obrt tUji^' 1 

r«d tiiuuAnxiH :^^ 
ilia iijjiiiify,^ 

But Baron faik t 
experiments, k>r Li 


■ L^r^n 

. iij.1 poit OtV 

, g^HMl Aglirnt 
-o'(rY<*i. The 



^ifcil^»M*r from 

^ pKt ^ith con- 

;^ 1757, be hm\ 

, ijwitti IcnpAtiiinoo te 

vV'^lIp, itnd f«d bim with 
■'^ ^to bo obaor\-od u 

>'^:jjp of vmriolouft con* 

-■T ^ not t« ^ usicribed 

, rii-ft^D^t smallpox; 

, IM IT HI. 

London. IS29. 

but iDurel/ thai h» held with cerUiiu fariuent Ihftt il wa& 
Um catuo of fiowpox.arid o&a in oon«Utution with cowpox; 
and thu« cnHeavoanoil to combine the tnujition of Ui« 
StAbl^ Tritb that of the (ifiiry. 

UwoA not until l7S+tlthiit JcnnorTriAdcjwiTCJCpmmont 
wlUi ftiw^HMc— up to tliatn »iaW. wlmU»vi»r hu vmitinM, hu 
wiu in Uitntor'e phmec a thinker, dcH a tr*u?r. On IHb 
Mav of Ihni y<<nT. hff t»»k mntbrrr from ihr bnnil i>f Sarah 
Nebaee, whohad been infected by bur mei&tOT*! cowh, aTitl 
inserted it by two incisions in the arm of JaniCfl i'Lipprt, 
a ohild of vX^i vr;irj* i*f n^. Tin* }k>v ttvnt throtjgh tlie 
difleoae in a regular inu,iiiit^T. imd on tho IhI July vrn^ in- 
ociiUud with »niatlpox without i-iHiict, to Jcnner'i intenHo 
aaUnfiiGtioiTi, H(i comtnunicatod tliu uvnut to Gnxdner in 
the foUuwiui^ latl«r — 

llEmct.icT. lOUi Jnlj, nna. 

Dkdifi G*m»iEn, - An T prumiifld to lot von know bow 1 pTvotvi^dod 

Inqolrv inte tho nature of tlikt awfalar diaoiuio Uiq Co^oxi 

iW 1^7 Mttffled bcrv roa^h rwi Cool mtcmi«d to tin miooMi, 

wiU DO gmtifi«d in heuio^ that I h^rD ut length acrafunrlijihed 

ibftt I bftTij tvcD r.<? Icm^ wikHii^If lor, U»r prvi^iitK of tfao VcwoiDO 

V>nu frojn 0&4 human bctug to uiictljor lij Ibb onUnArj modo Oif 


A boy or Ibo iUkKM> of Fhipp« woi iaooala1«d tn the um Cn^m lli« 
poftuk OIL tho luni of u foang wDmaii who wnt infoctod lif bar 
nutor'i OO'V^- Havic,^ n«T»x wan tho dJ»wuiB but in iti ciuiu»t 
■•J btfrcir*, tliBl u whoD ooRitstuilOAtod Ttcoii tli* oov to ^o iiMid 
of 11)0 niLlhcT^ I ^lu Aitoniitliod ftt tlio eliMo romiiblmoo of lh« 
pnatniai, Id u»iun of thaLr Riagu, to t1i« vuialoQit jiQBtu1«R. 

hui now UBton lb tba tnoAt dallghifttl pvl i^I my Btoiy. Tho 
boy bM leUifo boon icDcaUud for tho HiaaTlp^^i. wbiob, u I vantmtd 
t« pmliot) proiSiuMd no ■CTacl. T lUml L nov f ai mue m j experinuiDti 
viUi rHtoilblod u4oar. 

Rnt thp pxiwrinipntfl c*«ihl bo piimtiwl, for, from 
July, \1\W, til! tlic ^pnnt; ol I71*tt, Ct^wpox jimpj^atod 
fruiu tln> djilil*^ a,ruuinJ Bt'rkelt'V, anJ, &a wu luivr *i**^n, 
horcegreasd was ftI»o unftttnlniihift. Jptin^r had, hci%p- 
evcFt rcflolved on publication. Life vras fulvanciag^ be 
had rnnd«i no maTK in the world ; and, as he wrote to 
G«r<)ncr — 

AJdcd to oJIm^ <>^^rcAj«B( 1 mn touob^dLorJ with tbo nofjiuiig 
«pjd4 loio — IcQ po«a a jcHil J. 





fMtkft ffori- 

r ^ news in « pap«r 

of tl^ *n.i 1 

Hfi^bta dc-U^nuioed 

U t 

LflABIUGript to Dt 

be wi3i 

^ Uickn. 08?^ luhW 

cUin li ' [ ! 

:iliQ^, u( Kudb&ll. 

□ot toiuU 

4^ j«auvd tticir «p* 

JvTUirr ^ 

^^ABd ftboat the »id 


tJlin idtir.., 

It «&• ;) 


the con-- 


tluit hit 






^r^T^ ^^M 

in 171^^ 




of Ofrtrjt 

V CIK^-, ^H 





th.- I.<^. 

^ . Lit'JfTtW or CVttLAf ^^J 


■A* ^^^^^1 

to wni- 


Til* •'! . 



«^MB ^^^^^1 

Afofan L 


U flivl '1 


1 i'" 


^ 1..' 





c*>ri''i ' 




tl' '■ 









^ ■ 



^^^^^^1 111. 


VA4«1ffATJ0X. ^^^1 

.^4l«1 frIDi fourcoburod plates, Tbft^^| 

■ * ltitrriitucti>r>^ Mntber, followvd tl^^| 

■ -'-1, onncluding with tventj^^^l 

^;roiind of tho ar^itinentf Iho^^l 
ifK^n, They arc twcQtj-tiuM^H 


V ^' 

,.)( \ HhouJd likft to go T\ith Ui6 

. MriHERT, Gnnkner. ^H 

1 -ilkcJ Cow9, niul cat^bt^H 

:• Wl Sinnlipox, but b« ^| 

1 fvjfnhUTdly mtx^ulated Jtiiii villi ^M 


Mlf"4'K, Farm St^rv^oiit ^| 


hi '7£^3 niir^od her child hi ^| 


I'tlir l>l^'^'''*rjLi'i^Fi)ai], ^H 


^i-tf^rH old, Wa.s inocnlafnrl ^H 
,^.4 ill the Age of 02 without ^| 


1 , Farm Sonant ^^ 


III 17^' utt<( iriirnilnTpd vltb ^H 

Mftd aIho autod a^ nursa to ^H 

Hrtihiii;; the diHeaw. ^^M 

T-— Mils, E- 


dairy uitasiK W*u *iijL*pniitni-iT i-xpu»e<l to Sui&Upox, 
" wlnrrr it wa* Hcsrcly po*.'4iVile for her to Kave wicajHTil ;" 
aix) in 1T7H wcl-i iuocttifttcd with SmiUJpQx by Jt^uofir 
witliuvit eftet't. 

At thjh jmnt, 1 wouM iitnvt ntkntJuu to the ajc^ of 
ths pdnons »t forth in tbvtw Ca^ea; ^«y v»ro put 
midiHfi life when th« aosorptibility to Snmllpos wwi cither 
low or t*xtlnet. Tlit> reji^on given by Jeiuitr for tlt*4r 
production was that he " wiahtxl tofihow tij&l th<t din-iit^o 

tirudurt^d in thr rriiDitltiitkiri by i_^w]uix i« norr alTtcttMl 
jy time" — a claim whii^i vacciTutorB at tlita <)ay >iur- 
rendcr, iii»tAtiri;f on tbi^ iiecea^ty cjF i«- vaccination to 
maintain "Lh<i t>em^ in6ii>?n<ie;' but apArt from that 
eoiuideTaUon, thuru waa noT'hin;;> rxtraordinnry in fvaiat- 
anca to i&oculaCc^d SmnUpox. Wkhcnltliu int«rv.>[tTiciii 
of Cowpox, inocuJntora wero ooQ^tantly nic^tiog pjiti*; rita 
who would not '" uke/' evun wiLli rpp^^ftt^vl atUuipU. 
and vffpocially airioni; eJdcriy twopio; and £om« who 
obtttiuAtcly nv^i^tfil mocLiUu-d Hioallpox, :t^i] 1^^411 cully 
trftctea ihv Jiavaau in tho onlinLry way. So niudi 
ner himaclf allowed, aayiuf^ — 

TImre lirt numv ivbo ^oni uimn pnoitlUniy lu hubit mial ti^v 

«onM4L^*'iJC<i Hri. li«iLijt(iil ILiuukI] liff> uilh Uie (1btre»UJ]£ iJnft of 
Icnig Liiiii)ftiu:b fi'iJEii hijl»«iEjijiirit iufrdiou- fF> CIO,) 

Yet he waA pleasetl l« n^tur thi^i wuH riTcogiii-ieiJ r*«iat- 
anco to vanoiation in those who had had Cowpox to 
Cowjnjx, allowing iu>tlilii^' fvir habit of l>ody ! 

VI. — SxRAH Wy.vnk, J)aiTyinaid. 

In 17% bad Cow[>ox in Hay. and ''in so vioknt a 
de^Ht-, thai she was nintinrd to h^r Wd.nnil n-iulftred 
incapable for ^t*voral days ot' pumuini; her ordinary 
vorAtion.'* On 2Sth Mivrdi. 171)7, *he waa inocidat^^d 
with .SnialI])OX by Junnnr wjtlJout uHucL. 




period, aiiff iTInKtr&tei] tviili four rolotii 
nro flight pngcfl of IntroiluctOfv Mai 
tliirLy-four \^v^ of Ca^^^, ctrticUi6a\i 
pngps of Gfoiei^ Obeerv&tiona. 

It U t" th<? Cbws lie the o^uod of U 
1 wouJd firit direct iicuntion. Th* 
and may bo ihii8 aucrUd — 

]A iif CijTTfhix [7/immunirAi^ by 
4 of Hor>«>ptvjist communii 

iiii>cLi1ai'.^l bjr design. 
Q of Cowpox inoculatou bj di 
It may be tedious, but I ahonlj 
reader ovfff tKcnc Cmm, for th^y 
L«t us tsi.k« tU» firtit twdve d 
by &odd«nt> 

In 1770 aLttiidod to Hoi 
Covrpox. Aftenrvdii ItU 
eACftp«d, Tn 1706 Jeiiner 
Smanpox without cflbct. 

11.— Sarah Poi;: 

Tn 1771 Wl Ci^jwj > 
S|]iil1II>ox "couctiviii^ i 
aajoe time ijii>eul&t«d witi 

out uffi-'Ct. 

l!l,^^onv I 

Had Compos wliM 
vUh Smallpox by J 

IV,— aUii. 

In 1767 had 
Smallpox witlwiol 


jKjn4£K'!f ij^tf^/irr, nw. 


stiii^EiU Thf-fHrmUtiitJOii from llir >>uiHllpoT« amt llii* SiMPtShvji prnvi4 
bndj U AgAin And a^aih snfiri^ptlVilA df thn iDrfteltnrit nmttcT of tbv 

If tl4 A 

In 1780, when attending to Horses witb sore hocrln. 
Smith conveyed the equine infection to Cow», " fuid from 
the CfjwH it wtH coinmimtentiTd t«3 Smitlu In 17&1. the 
Cowpox broke out at aiiutltvr form whore ho U>on lived 
&n a !4rrviLiit, nml Iip became nifeicbed with it ft second 
time; and in 1704 be vrna so unfortuimto as to catcb it 
^^n. Th^ dlac^ti w^ uquallj && auvere the etecond (ind 
Uiird tiin« A6 it wftH on the first." He was Lvfice inocu- 
lated with SmalTpox in 171'5, and exposed to Smallpox 
without effect- 

X-— Stmo» Nichols, FaTni Servant* 

In 1782 vsOrt cniplo3'cd in dretcdng tk« sore heob of 
Horses, and at tliL* samt* tlni© assisted In milking f'^>wH, 
thereby infucting tht^ui and gentrating SioaUpox* Chaiijjf- 
ing hi,-* situtttion, be commiinijyituJ tlie difii^uscT Ui utLur 
CovTH, and waa liimaelf s^ivcruly artu'Ctjd. Some ytnra* 
aTterwardfi, he weia inoculated with Smallpox by Jcnncr 
without tiHoct 

XT. — William SriwiicoMit, Farm Servant 

In 17&S had Cowpox eevercly on tho anroc farm with 
Nichols, In 17!>2 he waM inoculated with Bmallpux 
alon^,' with a lar^^ft party, hut in hiK caiw? without result, 
"During the sickenitti; of notiie uf hla compfmiotii^* thoir 
symptoHkH ^j stroni^ly t^calUd to hiq mind nU own state 
when Mckrning with the Cowpox, that he v«ry pcrti- 
nonily rutnatked Uitrir strlkiu^ siriilarity," 

SlI— Hkter Wai-klet, Farm Servant. 

In 17SS had C'owpox when -^hc wort attended hy Jenner. 
In 179^311*, and levt-n other pauper women of Tort^wnrLh, 
who alao had had Cowpox, were inoculated with ^*tll^ll■ 
pox hy Henry Jenuer without tilPccL "Thin** ntftte of 
accurity pros*cd a fortimato circuaiatanco,"' oi>4Ci-vod 


ITndor tliU Cswo J«oner oWtvos, tli&L 
ilniry fai'mera ihoed irho h^re h^d SiuaHp^x 
Cow|i4ic, or Are disported to have it ^Ughtlv 
aa tho coinpl&iitb «hows iteelf otnoDf; ca-tti , 
procured, il po^Iblt-, wlio are Lbua rcnil" 
tible cf it, oth«rwim tho buHmctts uf i 
•carcoly go forv^-arJ." At thr? fanu whti' 
WAS KtnpToye*^, q^ll hiid harl SiiuiI]|kjx t^ri 

VIL — WnxrxM Roi>way, Dair 

la 1790 had Cowpox. In I7i»7 iri^ 
Smallpox by J«>iini<r witliout etiect 
TJndor Hodw'ay'a Caeo Jenncr aIiovti 

were at rtidU ill nuplxnllt^ Uldt Siiiftll 
pox. In Uio Unify whore Rodway '^ 
milkora Iiad [uturd through E^iikftr 
iiTui nil ("imtrarted Cowpi^x ; " but (I 
son in the fl*,*vority of trie diflcaao f^ 
and \y^ Rodwfty. Wlitld }io waa i 
wew able, wUliout much ioconv r 
ordinary biiiune&s*' Tlmsi 
S[nallp«^x nilj{lit not Tc*©p off Co^ 

"In 1TMlJiadCoHT?oi ftliph't 
" Afl the malndy had shown lU 
nbtwrved JfTtint^r, "ami oa it !;&< 
8 poriod of !icr Hf*. I was hj*i 
of trying tli^r tfTocti of varid,' 
stitutiiin. unrl on the 28th <rf 
her" withoiU offectv Nt^vertl^ 
1798, jshc enicain caught Cow^'. 
sore" accomjKinied wiOi ■' j. 
Altematintc with hcnl^ m\i\n 
and irregular pTilw." 

AlUivii«b [wrote J«aui-r % 

• :^ one 


I w«fl, as 

fo inoculatod 

^-A mottxXkUm 

TjKave made 

, .,ivw wimld have 

^^ uf vUbjocU of 

- iliiLt Ike n4ulU 

JiOfSKR"* ij^tntir, iTw, 


We muai not. however, prooodd (arih*r uotil Cov,i>ox 
is d«acTibccl; and for thut ptitposo I canuoL do Letter 
than cit« JviiT^er wrbatim. 

Cowpoi b[ip*an tin lh« nwl«d of (b*Cov4 in tb* ftrmKtl V' 

a pJltJ] Iilut*. <^*r TSitliar ^f ft rnlntiT- H)QiDivha.t uppniftthUii^ In livid, 
itfid ctTfi viim^nnite'l by na fn^iTnmntion. ThoiD piiEtiilaii. nnl^m) 
ft ttouly tmncdy htt ftpi^TlnJ,^ fr^qtivntly d«ir«n4nttA Wo phji^ddnnie 
(■nnuiBiE) uJL^'Tn. trbidi pruvt «itrctEm]y troiLbioK-imr. Tho 
^'V"'^** ^coini? LudiH^rwi, ikud tbif «ifcr«tiuu of mijl; in inudi 

iBd^nipd *j>iiU now t^egln to Jtppftr on dEfr«r«rl p«rtJi of rtie 
bMti« of tlio iloRtattfiTJ iinjployud in njilklui^p and >b^niflll[»fiH oa 
lb* wriiiU. wbioli run an to sappariLliua. finl DBiimin^r tJm itpp^iir- 

tAM uf LiiE< TUiiill vuiiiLklloiit |)n>ilLLL'i;d liyii buru. Murtt OODiBiOlitT 
li]V> a|j]H<rir nWul Llii- ji>liit« uf tbv Hti^ens d.u<I nl tUvlT OXiTOmJ* 
IJ«h; bul xtfbiiUivvf iJiiiN ftTi' rtf^'iiUj, ir tb<< pilunlEini will lubnil, 
tlimo biipurAdnl vup^'Ur^tknut [HtX oa n t^jouUr fonui <tJtb ibflir 
4d|pM tduni «]vv»iifd ILhci tbr^i: tH^dtio** ftu<l i>f n txAtmr ilisLiLiilJy 
•^^miK^dlt irfi bill*. A b«i>j [ilt-ju Uikcsi |>]acii, Aiid timfi^um ii|j|ru&r 

The vyKtcED beoooMv ^eotvJ.the pulto b(|m^k«noi: niilTBiiiigi^ 
nOMVded by boat, iieuorul lnMLtude auJ pnlti^ about tbe loiTik And 
Sntb^ iritb tviiiiLinir, oomo nu- Tlit^ hitad U piiLufuL Oitid the 
P^mti In iJuw uxd tlivu ovna ftf&etwl vitlIU tUliriuuj. il*. l^.) 

Aiul JL-imcr might have adiied, with convuUiDnn. 
Havirg drnwn this aUrming pictnre of th^ etfecta of 
OowpoXrlic intciixwo^t— 

and fju( twin tliv prijuiiry acUou of (b« tncoiiin viruR u^uu tb» <oa- 

If Oijw ]n*x tiieaiit H,il ihls, Botne lui^'lil pi'efer. at leaat, 

tLa rink of Smallpoi: ; Innco tbo ju(3ic:oiw *»x(iIatifltion — 

[Jfct'JRJWion of thi^ ngrTi--^. athI not tht; pouon in t}ie 

"^tbod; vu the cauie of th« distressing sympioma. 

Jeoitier went on— 

Tbow pymptomo, mryinjiE in tbolr dcfovM of ^idonoo, jCNunllj 
MotuiQo from od« dftjr to tbreo ot fam, Imtlq^ uUenUi! vtnv 

* Such timd^ rcmodltt none wlut!t>n« ift ftulpbaU of jcJoe w fulpbale 
of OOppor— Hk ^taL for fiuAD in i^neat uracLttdolct for VAccifutiaa. 



J«nner, "'jls many of the poor wmni 
time in a AtAlr ofprcgiMwicy." Whv 
li*en aHki^l, liijl Henry Jc^niier Uy \' 

ttjo^o fun ilijU" with ac]t:ri*-ilic i. 
&&<:! cauttuQ r^viaite to ATriv< 
logics lUtfL, will viow with mo^ 
And Cftsy hulijctiiia lu (lit; mn 
without proof tbat ^l- 
(vnri the abaenoo of tfv 
abk OH lid kni*w that ihL- •[ 
eevetol vanclief* oF oiupl i 
wlio heM that- Ct>wpc>x av 
Smallpox nvi-rtwl Covrpov 

althoUL^hj^^i'nntin;; th>' '' 

fftith ou^ht tt> Vin 
to bo gocid ftijaiTj -". I 

HTlAtUflcof C^WpoX li 

of Cowpos, SAj-inr 

1^nv« it aiioh&ag«d 
Sin^nW '' ■ 

rnucipl*' k' i 
r SjiinUjK>x piv. 
with SuialliM^^v . 
vraet Howpf^ 
of Jamt^r.' 
obsorvf^lH ' 
Smallpox V 
practis'rJ ^ 
nurh <■•-. 

thTOiii; i 

Cvv* V* 


jENNBR-6 jy^uinr, irse. nt 

it &fMiu«ailT hapfienv Ibat a dinsoM f« cMSEDimiontod to thv Coirit 
aod Erons tha Cow» to ihn Dalty^mftM*, whfoh f-iitiHlji Ihi'ov^h tiM 
&Rn Dutil moal of th* «atUc aod domc^M fed lu caplouuuit oo&- 
toqp«iM«iH Thip diuuo boo obtomod tb& muoD of Tuk Cowrox. 
Thiu tfio duouo tookoo its progroflu from ihc Ilorr.o 1^44 1 oon- 
edvo) td tb« DippUv of the Ootti aad from Iho Cow td tii« HttmAo 
8Qbjf«t (Tp. Sonde.) 

This concq>tion of the origin and pni^Rsja of the 
dift^iuie v^-tL9 not Jefiner'H spec^-iAJIyt h& ^LareJ it mIUi 
tiio fanticrrfi to whom it wfuj 0. n&voJty — 

Tbo ris* of Cowpox iti tbii cotiuliy tom^ uM 1jat« boen of ycry 
Ttmot* d&t*. an Ujo inivr'tiw of miJUiuif Cn«i< niigltt foriuorlj haia 
b4«li fen tlie linrd< i^E ui'<t£ii«Ti only ; ^'hiah I teUt'Xf im thi^ obav now 
is aom* oUiAt iljiirv ounnutH; ldJ oQaEOqnantlj ilmt thu CL>vft 
sdgbt nol Id tctTuur tunoi hb^o bun oipaaod to ibo ciiutt^CFiu 
matter btongbt hy tlto id«i vorv^ikiiU frmui iLo hfroLi oi lionoa. 
/ttjfr^fi ktirjitirflj/f yif th* ici'Tf' a/ infAclifiti it tw^/' in tlie mindt 
ttf v\09t rj ihr Jarmrrx tn fhU nfijhtii»irfni<iii, hni I1M til lerglli 
pndtLtMkA i^imI rinnii'^i)iipnn«i4 : i;nd U tH^iA prfiiablA frnm th«i pm- 
MnEiniu tlii«y iiri> (1uniiii4i{ m Ailnpt, tliAt tliA ji.ppAiiTvin» of tl** 

TLuft Cowpox WM to be extlnpuish^d by forbidding 

tried t« prtJiluc*? Cow^mjx in tliL' iiLHiiutir (!tAcrilw>cJ, Intt 
withottt auccvr*^ — 

It IM TMj OAfly fh* vToto] to pfocnro piifi fTOm old *OT<a on thfl 
bMU of BonbH. Tbu I hbvo ofUa iDsorud inta iianitobo» nuido 
vttb a IftBOvl ctD tho »uud mpplox c>f Uowi. und htva uoq do otbor 
tflaota frcta it tban uinplo m Uhmm&tioD. (P^ 45.) 

Whnt WAK r>'ir|i)ijdtf^ for fluccir^, he <!cnclud(v], wa« the 
limpid lliiM fmiii the Uoraufl Ul-pI at aii eAjly MLpuji' of 
the difica^o, and thnt it ghoiihJ W applied to the Cow'a 
nipples At a. certain .-'i.'Aflon — 

Tbe vinu fmm tbo Hcrrvr^' hoi^U Is meet ftctivr nl the cam- 
n^noemcbt of tbc t1£Afrrkh<i, fvtm WforTT {| bna ftoquirvd a poa-Jika 
ftppmrru3co ', ind«4id I am not ci^mUdcat wbothor tbin prowrty is 
ibo m&ltar dt^ii Dot vcmvlT cquo u pooa ax it 1* Kicrotoi in tbo 
EeiTiD of pn*. I OM Induood to think it dc«* 0M««, oxid thikl it U 
thatbio dAjrkiBh'loobiDiE fluid onL^* ooaldk from tho aowIvfivn)«d 
OMcJa ia th» lu^i ptniil&t to nl^mt maiobmdn Afjicnm frffm oiy- 
npdotoiia bli«t«f«| wbioli iji'voii the iiiotisc. Nor ua I otirtiii; Ib&t 
tho iiippU« of tbo Cowt iLTt nt oJI timoi in tk itaU to rcodw the 


•ftrly put ot Ihanuomor. whoa Ihoy u« JU^ioi**! t> l>v nlfirtoicJ 
with «poiilni]«ai]i «niptiaiiF lo muffh mcvB frviiarmtN Uiui at otlior 
•euoDv, induooi m» to tbink. that Ibe ^m> from tLn U^>ns miub 
t» r«o*if td upon tlMm vfwi tli«7 An* id tbi« 9ttkU m orior to pn^ 
4nM frIEtcrU. E«pAruiii>EiU, havr^tflr, tnxvti detormiuo tliuo muiUi 
(I-. 4fi.; 

Whtbrt l}ji)H explicit AH tc> wliAt wo^i roqiii^^ltc For the 
mfevti<ju of tba Oow hy Llw IJ<in«ti, Juiuivr <iid in^t kuc- 
ceml in protlucin^ Covrpox from UovvognAM, Ho had 
to wnt<>-- 

TUo Aprintf cf tli« 3-«kt 17@7i wbicb t iotoadoJ paftiouLM'lT to 
hnvo iletutfld to till cwduIwUmi <€ llik lDT«»tintwti, proT«d trom 
iUdryb«nraiuulLAblv*dV«n*toaiy«lil]fli. Ko Cbwpoi AppoAnd 
ia tli9 QoistlKrurfaooa : for itmotft Wicofitlr kftppfini thkt w\xdt 
Uiw tuULorii' HofAM a» •ipr^td to ibfr cold rkk^ of npiiiic; tUeu 
iiDcth become djM«»«4lp f1^> ^44} 

Wi witliout proof, be argued &» If hfr had proof, aay- 

fdctioD ut A p^frntior mi^rbiJ maltur ariiikii^ in tlut Hon 
I luv« not Mwu khla to provo It fn>m natuiJ oxpom naaU aoadflBtvifl 
iDuntdiikt*^ nniUr nj ow «gro, irob tha ofUonnc I bar* ajUodvI 
BppMiv AuJnetDiit to oflUblhh It (T. IA.J 

Kvidonod adduced I OF evidence there w&a dod«l 
Thi'. fiirJiieTi might W ri^lit 10 their tjpininn that Cow- 
pox ^prjLTig from Horw^rejwe, but opliilon wa* not 
evidcDCe, nor tvou aucb MtumncD aa tlii* of Jcmier'4— » 

I feel DO roout f<)r b<9tibftiioi) ratpoMlDg tbo oommoQ oti^ia gf 
the Jiqfriwfi bcmg wo)I aoai-iBC«d that it Vitrn «pp«W uitoog tb* 
Cowi imlftM thcj b&vr Ihk^ miUM^ byMixUf wlic ^t tbo aahsc Uom 
hu Uj« OJi^ of a HoT^ ih^nctAj wiUi ilUoAJiad bcols. (P. i-U) 

But not even to thin convktbn did ho adhere "lb 
WM bii;idj" pruljahl*^," h" thc.<u^'}jt, "that not only tha 
heola of th<; Horse, but otht-T piirtn of i\m 'widy of that 
animal, an? auMiLIc- of ^eiier&tuig the vUus wliieli pro- 
duced ihQ Cowpox"— 

iLn •itoiunt* (nfMomA^oo of tho <v7np«latoa« kind appcmr^d 
wilbunt «DT nppuont ««a** iipcm lb* iipp«r pAii of tl^o tlit^b of u 
ftukbiff Col^ t^« property of Mr- MiUot, a fjLrm«rfe( Houkltiunptoa, 
Uw bTP""tf"*-tion coiLtiijU«tl v<j^tiraL wa^lu, ajid at luiiictU ltrmiu> 

JEKNHft'6 fS<iCtBr, 1798. 


n1i>(lin|L»i U iinm t ii flliijii m rum blb^H u lo n m m Ths ibiUoMJ. 

pMtA wcir* fammitUd, viJ tirmmm vcn mi]i«d hj ^^oae of tiift 

flunaber of C«vb tnilka4 *i« ii, uid tbA vhclo of tbom h&i thu 
Coir]foi. Tho n»lk«nt, MuMag of Uio fmnor'a mlv, & mui %nd 

mvioiuJy i^ci;* UwoaiE'i ^^ amalkpoxtVtd rati bQl UlU* of lh« 
Covpoi. Tbv BdrruBl raaid lifuJ n«tt« 7*M« bofOTV bMD xnfscUd 
vJtb tlie Cowpo-i : ittid ah* ftlao r#lt it now m a «ll0!it d«gro<». Bat 
tire runntr'i vjfa. viiL> but luvar ffooa tLcough •itti«T SmftUpox or 
Crtwpoi ftlt it< vffofu vary MVttroly, 

'Jliftt th« rli««a» ]rroduc«d qpon th# Com hj tiio Colt, Knd from 
thdnra vciiT«jr«iJ to iLoi* who milktul lt«m, vtm tbe TrtM tuid oat 

yrt it vrmlA htvfl bftm tnor* rom^iiaij ttlbtecUinr hod th« oflix-tK 
of vtrtnloaB autur [luoo^tion wttb SmnU^ioicl imtn AMUtikiufid 
fin tilt' fiuiiMr'» wlfo ; bnt thoro wna a pv^aJikh^JB htf >iliuUJnti 
Thldi i^riiv«nl«i1 my nuikiDg thv riporiTii«n1. (P- «S-) 

Spi^rtoiu Oowpox T Whnt wm 8p[irtoii)( Cow[>ax ? 
llero is Jenzvtr'a fti*sw&r— 

at Ltif Cows, uk^ Iii<1aii«o« Imvo oofnirrpiT, tlionjfb vpry rnrDly, of 
Iha hAnda of tlwBBrranta emplcycil in utiJMni; bt^ini; n(TiHl»J wtLli 
Bom ID omkAttjinonoH. &di] «Teii of rJu<ir fi^vlini; m\ iri'IixtHHiii^in frotu 
AbBLtrjjtium TWh jiiixtrilM arc oraiiLiicIa jTiililt^r iiulrira tlmi^ ilionv 
vfhldit aiMftuiu thxi cr»utwtvn wlJclioiiithliULtostUicTEUo Cawpi^Jk- 
Tb^y aif ulvr^yt frtw from ule HuUIj c?r IWiil liiiL so c^uIl^piuuL1(jB lu 
thv pii0Lu?iB <if tliBL duflUW' ^o trjjiippla4 uti^nde <hcin. u\jr da 
tb[sy kljirM Atj^ |>La^vd0uI<! i]iD[Kt!iitJuu> b4 m Uiu cittrur omah. bub 
qoickljv tDrmJEj^iLii iti s p<.^!>b witliuul cciiHlJUi£ uuyMi^JHivJ-itiliiucJgf 
in tliD CijA. TliU c'iim£]ULrjl ali^vma it tarLi,'i^h ivuiii>UA uf tbo yoUi 
bat mgat Aomm^iJy lu tha ii>n^ig, nlasa bbo Cow^t uc £jst titketi 
from t|]fiir^»lfr food and fea wltJi grOM^ U la very apt toapp«ftr 
aIio wImni tlwy atv Burkliuu tlivir yai^tuif. lint thU rZUca^r m ntsf 
tif Ifc eifHuiJcffd lu 'frnE^jr iJt ft'iy rEHptfcrE fu 'Aaf v/ ickioh I ttm 
treatirt<t, lu It ii juoapallo of f^rijJiiciaj- aay ii|t«cI&G aff«ct« UpCQ 
tho II um&u Cuds titi^ lion, HuWGVGr,it iHc<ftIjc|^TMt«ilcc>&Mqiiiaiioo 
to ptibt it ani tierc, lul the V&nt cf JiDcnciinaiictU Bjioold ooojuicil 
aaliloik of fL^onrity fiMm tho inf«(itioa cf the SEnnUpoktwhicb mlflltt 
provo Ualiuivr. [Pp. 7 aad S.| 

Nothmj; ovjuld be inor» OKplioit Cowpox wftft ci two 
kJndfl — True and Spurious. The Spurious conujitcd of 
pustular «orcii which uppiMircd npoiitanQoi»1y on thd 
Qipplea i>l' CuwA. and wa^ of no &vail afi&la»t Smallpox * 




the Triiid Cowpox, on the othor hiaid. wa« not a iti«iift«« 
of the Cow, Imt of tlw? HumH trjiijwuitted ti> th« Cow, 

ft U of prim? impoTtAncd to Mir this ftiKtincUon io 
mind ; for if it is not borne in minil. amch thjit ivmuns 
tfj Im toTd must appear eonfufwd or iinmt»liii*iMe. As 
wo have ficcn, it wiifl the belief of tht^ dftirymftidt thftt if 
thej' taught n[iw|Jc)\ i}n^y wouM rn^ver ftfO^rWArtU C&tdi 
SmftUpox. Melical men in pra.cUc»> in Olouccdtorahin 
rMiciilH the dAirymflKl^* Wit^f. Thoj said — 

" W« know tJiftt Kuoh i« th& <!iiiryiBiide' fftiUi. but 
it U mieUkfJi; for we know flairymoids who h&vo hftd 
Oou'fXJT nnrl Aft«rwAr(}« hud Sm&Jlpox in aptU^ of ihtAr 

At thiH juiiiit. J»^rtnflr iiiUrui>npfl, snying — 

" Lot US distingiiinh, Kmptidnw Ol:^nt^actL^d in iiiilking 
mdiauriuLiual*]j dtt^crHH^J as Co^virox Uy daJty-folk; 
at there 18 rtn emptioa attoni^oc) ^ith i?ry»ip<tlAfl and 
fever which hw ivll the virtue they claim for it ThU 
vjtriety of ertiplion does not orl^nate on tho Cow, but Is 
commmkicak'il to the Cow from the Horw Thuj* th« 
<l»jr3'in;uf[s :iri> right und tho^ are WToir^f. Tliey 
right wh*.-i\ llic pi>x thL^y raitch i» di^tivoJ from the flo' 
thrrrugb ihe Cow: thiry are wrong whrn tho pox tljcy 
cat<^h oriin"atrw on Uio C'ow without tlio Horse, lo ahort 
CowpLJx ]rru|)er hi of im avail ai^ajnat Smallpox, ft b 
HorHjgnuue Cowpox that U of sovctv!^ and infalUbJo 
virtue. Any miwd wlio rc«?ivef* HorB^;rf'^**<' Cowpox 
Into h*r veins i**, as «he believe*?, for evor iift*ir wicijt^ 
from the infection of SuifUlpoXn" 

Let ns lliL-refote bear in n]\ui] ihflt JenntT's pn?scrip» 
tton WM not Cowpox but UouiiiROiiEA^E t;owroX- It m 
A point U) hi^ inMHtr^il upon ; for, tm wr? nhall tibv, it wxa 
lost from sij^lit, and kept out of ^ight, lo th? iitt^r ccn^ 
fiiaion of the i^uestion. 

Wo now come to Jonner'a Caae^ of Horsc^caso — for 
niit only WBTG fnnn-fnjk ropEitjnl sjct-iir*' from flrmllpox 
by roason of Cowpox, but farrium likewise ill oooaequotsco 
of LDf^cLion with Ilai'segreafte, 


-TuavAS PfUHCfi. son of x FarTior, 

In ^:ln:1cqllc^cu of drcnnng Uorxoi with fiorc hcula at 
his fatlitr's when ft la<l, bad sore* on his finders which 
9Uppm-atc<], and occasiQnc<! pretty t^rvcrc inlispaiitioo. 
flix yiwiH rtTUirwh-nU. Jtnnro" imiCuUUalluih rrptTiUHlly 
with Stuallpos, bul only produced elJL'ht inl^ftmiDation, 
nod cxposcci him to tho conti^oti of Siu^lpox without 

On tJiift Ca*e Jeuncr obacof J — 

It ii( n icmarkiLblG fiift. AU<1 well-kiEfjwu W mncy. tJ;at vro nn 

fie<|Uf-utt/ foili^iJ ill tiu- L'i]i.LcavoutB to ciiuEuuiiicnlo Siu^U^ioK by 

hikvc tU« dlMu* anoauloaAly* Stmll wo oat b* abia now to 
ikccouat Cn llu» ga a ntJonal priooiplo 7 

XIV.— J/MK Cole. FAnoer- 

Was (nf^cl^d with Horseirrea^e In the same way as 
Ptfircc. Some yc/trs artorwAr<.ls wiiw inoc^ilatcd with 
ImalljMV, \i\ii i<nly ft few t<ritiittom appearrtd ou liix 
(head, which paa^^xl away witliout matur&UoiL 

XV,— Abiuh-vm RiT>Diroiixi, Faraien 

W&s affocttid with very pajifu! Mre» m both haiid», 
tutnoura in each nrrQ-pitp and aovt^ro ivnd general in- 
ilispnsitlnti, hi f^nHriiui^iirr of drrxsin^ n Matr timl. liad 
«oro httilo. Hfj v."ftfl attt^uUtd by a fcurffyoii, who Tf^oogi- 
ni^tng aMiLiiUritv of (hi? »oro*apoii hix hands with thc«e 
of Cowpox, and "knowing tho cfToct of Cowpox on the 
huujftn cunBlitution, &!aured him that be never nt&X fear 
Smallpox; hilt, tWMity y«aw ftftprwar^lH, be caught the 
di^rit-M?, which nui lU regular coutH& 

Vrom tbe*e Cssen Jvnner diew this condition — 

Although the abtofptioti of nutt«r from locrv* <m tb* booli of 
HfiT]«r4, «*onn«| cff nvuTly i«euroi< tha tyiti^nn fmnt vkriolnua ic- 
Awllnti, ynt It It pn^ihlii thnt ihia mnn^it }^ mitlmly r«ll«>d iipAV, 
nntil n ^luniw hn« hi^nn j^inniiral^il hy moThiil mntl^r &eim lh« Hanw 
an thn n1ppl« of thti C^v, And poHod throngh that maitliim U> ttio 

ll1imB,11 SUtljDOl. 

_ lb* itmmt hmia U 

^ ^ a flataft^noBl periotf 
*;^;|r*^B*w «• employed for 
^^ tkrnqgh th* Coir, mxA 
' _ A* w «UI1 fiail 

&W^ Tina wM. wIliA 
^^" -^ fCttQlM lif»-|ii«Beniiy 

^ jistribM DO mow tku 

^^, tViPPOX. rM«mD|r **><■ TOW 

^^^^1^} W A tboTtL Prom til* 
.^^^ kuifl JoQLer, OB tho 14lh 


«Ig1it yews oM. 
^ iMvrmtel jr to olmrv^ Oe 

M^ iBMrtni irxUi ht§ arm ^ 

thi* cuiis, cAch about hili 
^^,__n-*«»kranO w» folbwM) 
.,^IH,heaaacli.^aad reaUw ahm 
■ poor la<i iflaa iimrriUt^l with 
. .f^] ni'inilj- Afi«rvr&raft, it h said 

^^ MV iw^^^'*^ «aro tntemapM tS Uw 

f whkli < -^wpox btoJie oat amooa mm-idI of 

jHnrxKR's sxtiurnr. i:ob. 


Aljout tht Ifttbcr end of February, liDS. WiMiani 
Uayiies mid Tlic>ii]ftx Virgo«, havmjf to wrmIi a Mare uith 
cor« hoobj were infected vith Grro^it^ftnd <loi4ciiUd t1ii>ir 
M^itHTiUons iv* imicli tJiu mhjum u^ wIhim Uiti^ wtri? iiiucuW 
teii witb 8nml]i>ox, Their infectigii proved that if Grcajno 
iTM good ogEUJidt Smallpos. Smallpox yf^t* not ^ond 

■rind Pox brokt* ->Lit among hia mnstor'a Cdwi^ si^xtui ten 
FoftyK aftd^ he had tirjfib nxslsUxl in vrnshing tlii< Mare'a 
I becls. 

XVIII.— John Bakeu, five ycdra oJd 

InociiljLbi-r). I'Jth M?ircli. l7'.iH, with matter taktn from 
ft pusuile on the hand of rhe aforesaid ThowR* Virpae 
poirtonrd with GtcfiAo from tho Maro'a hcol*, " Hg become 
ill OTL Ibi-^ Nixth <bty with HyEii[iLoiitA ^imllnT 1(B thiJMi< nx- 
cited by Cowpex, and on tbt* i?it;btL waa fvci^ Iroui in- 

On this cjuu L>f HorACgTt'fum inociUattonr Jftm&r ob- 
aervwi — 

W« hars Man thiit 1h« vtmn from tho Bono it not to bo rohcd 

lAAl tbaniHttvr fra^lni^ad bv U on tbA tiijipU oftlio Cotr iA j>urJWt]y 
ao. WlLdtbtir tbu i-iniH pusm^ l^om tho H<»rAa tbrongh dt« LuiDftii 
eonfltltntioD . Dsic tho prcnrmtitibtaiifc^Till ptaduco a slmUaj affa^t 
rdEDfiiiit to boded'loil. ThiftwimU bivo boon ^lTc-4«Icil. but thobcy 
vu /mdond unftt for ^irititljioi Inoculntioa Imui haviuc folt tiM 
ff0»«l« of t. oontHSloiiK fover In A work'huiwv Hoon aJUt tliu oip«Ti- 
nnil vu DQ*d«, 

Murk the asAnmption, " Tfte mnn* fnmi the Borse i« 
not to be Tftird itj'On fifi renderitig tfn* system ecctt^e fi-ov% 
VU.Tivlv}^'' iii/eciiim, InU tht: mx^ter jinnits^rd }/j/ it on the 
nippU4 of th^ Cow i» perfectly ^ I Such wiw Jtnnor*a 
ineUkod of jnduction ! llow could he IcavEr the queHtion 
tmdoddiM] i Wlxy not havt uaittHl until little Bakor re- 
covered hofii his fever? or why nctt have incK-i^Iatr^i 
ftnothpi- work'lioa*!' rhilil with H^irsfgrrnsr ' Thf^ true 
nont! of science do not nidh into i^riot in aucb £baui?leta 



laocuUted IGch March, 17!fS. from the iit|i|ilu of oiiu 
of tho Cows infoctod with Horec^c&S'^ bj ^mce, 
Suli»ie((uently ihocuIqIinI wiLIi Smallpox wkliuut ufTe^iL 

XX, — WlU-UM Pead, itgoil wght 

Inocu1iitccl> 2Stlj MaccIi. fri^m Suiurnero. SubauqueuU}' 
LDocutated witli Suallpux wlthonl ctFoct 

XXJ.—IlANXAa ExcELU og:cd acvcn. 

And 8evi>ral cliililron and atlulte woro inoculated frora 
tbo OLtm of I'wwiJ on 5th April. *' The crrcntcr part of 
them ftlckened on the a&xth day. and wi-re woll on th« 
seventh ; but in throo of tho Dumber a socoadary in- 
dLnpiuitimi luum? in ciiiiA'tiiiisnci' of lui rxti'-nxivt; (.^ryHipiv 
latcufl iutlaimiiutioii whicti appoarod on the inrrculatcd 
arms By the appll cation of mercuruU otniiweiii lu tht? 
intlamod parU (ri tri^attix^nt recommend ^^d utidor similar 
ciicuiJiataiicea iii Lbu luuculatud Scuallp^x) tlii; complaiJit 
Bub»id*^d without giving inneh tioublt*." 

tlxccll was inoculatL-d in three ploccjt oa her mrn* 
"Tlih" Maid Jenni?r, "'waji nnt done tnt«ntIonal)y, but 
from the accidcntftl touch of tho lancet, oiic prmvtti/r^ 
hflvij id-nti^ii HitJtitrntJ' The ri'Nijll,ii]gpLjKLiihv<Miiiiucb 
roa^uihlod tbot^o arimng from inoculation with Siuallpox, 
" that an c^kporicnccd inoculator would scarcely havo dis- 
covered kftWlc of difTertnce/' 

XXIL— FouK Cnif-DREK. 

On 12th April vinia was tjiken from Hamiah Eiccel 
and innurted in tbi: armu of — 

RoBfiHt F< JsSNen, a^l 11 months. 
Jons Makki.ovi;, „ Is „ 
Mahv Pkai>, ., *i years, 

ItfAia Jamj-a. „ ^' ,t 

S. F. Joaiifir did not " lake/" Tho amis of tho otlitH 
inOamei], arid Jcnncr fonring orj>iprK%, jut in thi' jiii^ced- 

JBSNER-a tyQUIfiV, 17BS. 


in^ ca^ett, applit^d & cftij><tic *^f «i:i&p ard <juick-liiiie to 
Uvkkrvo Atil Jnrnct, " which/' I]« oay^, " olfoctiiolly ati' 
«iwuiud my inloatiou hi |>reveutii%' ciysijiulaa." Thu 
di&due wfL8 sqtTcred to Uko iu coun« in I'^d, and no 
«rysipcliu» ftppoxrcd, 

XXIir, — JnHN BaruE, m^! iinvrn. 

Inoculatei] from M^rr Poa-l, and snece^ftilly- Waa 
»uV]:v^|iii-iitly jDiKrulAUni witli SnmHpox witlirriit el^'ect. 

" ThoM> expyriinenta." aaid J^unt^r. " affordoJ mu lauch 
HLtiAfactiOD ; th«r proved that the matter in p&MtD^' from 
oiw btuniui Hi]l>jn(a tfi iuuitti(?r, climir^li lu'i< gmdation^, 
lost noiifi at itJi oriipnal properli&ft, John Barge btiingthc 
flftli wlio ri^fivpd thi* iiifrrHori Mir^ensivoly from Wtd. 
Suciimcm, Lho boy to ivliom it wait comnjum^-aCod from 

These arc Jcnncr's Cuc». la them wc have bm 
" Uastetpieco ijt Modkal Induction" — tlio fruit cf thirty 
years of tncf»»ant thought, of vatchiotf , and of expen- 
uuuil! Lot u* carofuUy ob*t*rve tJic? datcjL Uniil 1706, 
when h<» opOT&tcd on Phippi, h*> ncv«r uiado ft.ti cxpcri- 
mtMii in TlomrFrfSAci row|j(ix Inoculation ; ami not LnLil 
th« tmddle of ilareb. 179H, a fow weeks htforo pjini; to 
preb»wiih the Inquir*/, did he repeat the ex^trhiiT-iit ; 
and though hin !at«T tMs^st wcnj coinpHcaCtKl with «iyai- 
pelas, h« did not ntay to diapoue cf th« difHcTiIty and 
aJann thpr»*W ''xcit'-'i- Hp got to(reth«i' his wmtch lot 
of Tnacs, Oa if under some over-mAAWrin;; CimtpuUion, 
anil e<jiiBi);Ded Chi* €ono»frn, crude ainl Ihr^ozuplelt?, Uj tho 
public byand-by the ha^ty performanco came to bo 
apokcn at art tht: n^nult of thirty yearn »t inci^swant 
tiioiipht, of patient reai?ardi, and of unwo^riod labour. 
It is unncc€?t*a»y to argiic Ihc matter. Whilst there ia 
nolhlti^- too j^Ttat for the cp-^JiiIlty of IboMC who art' in 
the <lisp(Xiition of belief, ycrt foctfl aire facfj^, and there ii 
t]io itoiic^-uran of U]i<- iir/iLiTif vrith itx »iith«-ntir (hrtAils 
v;h«Tri^on to crack thi< ^kulU uf rciuancem. In Jei;nerM 
fttoiy a« Tccit€<) to ihc vul^rn;^ «^< have the advantage of 




« r-.'-'Wjtir Ikii thtvdcipaieii of niftlk in the U^t of onr 

7jlAli»ir ^vtxmtf'h Inquity «t the tttmoat, Hluii w«a 
^ ^ A i»f|rj(i<«li<'ii f'> Milpivt]fut4> HoriegretBfr CV>wpux for 
WIM^'* 1'* lUiK-tiliitiotu Tlkflt W05 ftlL BcjD&d this 

/•flffffTf ifill< i^riijiratin^ liio Crun^f^r of vims from irm 
^.Lii.. l,(il in tlii.i iv.H|>cct he follgvcd the cjumplv of 
^ . iIaUihl Tbei^ vraa » vlM fcna of SniAltpox 

r^'>u\\\iy jfmvnlent in LoDdon cftUed "peftrlv pox»' u^d 
A'ljtJii* aii>l 4>lh<^R> kr|>t it gtHDg from [itckiit to 

ImIm i--l>ilil unrt III cunaiAnt ivqiMat W timid fcdk, 

/ftbdc-J ll^u \lniUnco of th« origtnA] infection luifbL 
^)n I I : \u nlintinl ill U^Eiflmiaftioa 

I for Ji^nti^r's (tata. NAwfor««x3rd or two 
^ i>i<iiiiljition {\mi inrcjitcd k» preacriptioti. 

. ii ttij tJm( woiDe crf tK« Ammm which ofi&et 
fnnn tbcirJoBWilka t km of uutnttlA. ami 
k\ iliMiBjiM tnMit luTB ft comnoQ orifi^ 
jiii, ho iuiJcc<L " Wit diABOh to bnagjnr UmL 
-irtftl fiiver. and iitcerou mxrm throat viith & 
p,f, httvo all sprung frooD the mjdo «ourc« f"" 
! < Iniii^iniitinD, Uwrenu^ht lie little dtffiniltj ? 
t| joy in lh^ pToduetrai of proof that ^jxy 
^ ^Mk wn# iltiived from diacMc ta aniiaala. and 
F>v »ff drrivvd ^ai varioDsly iwmlf«Atod. J<a- 
I'; liavr il beli«rcd thftt a variety of Covrpoa 
' ' I f(<Hii Hom^gTwr, whidi Onrpox vm ttw 
'*'«, Do adduced no crideDcc, howcTOTt 
.\ -. nf SrtiallpoK with Cowpox ; nor did 
,1 iLiiiTiBaidji wAt SiDAlZposL bom 
hiir:i Horvrt, IHh ideiiU6cfttMa of 

ivitik 8iijaJl|cx v&s tike reMiiiblftoce 

Ainl ini tho grouocl of this rooetnbltticQ 

M'klvnlpneo of tho dlaam. Thiu in 

-ttlatloniEf (W'pox.thAtof PltLp|« 

t ■^•jHtli Ni^fiiif« on tho 14th 



Tba Appvvmao* of Uie iiicukitt» isi Ujsb ^ ttmmk lo ft lUto of 
nutuntun «•« juvcii lb* iBEae ■« vben pTOiwc*4 ia ft «!&&« 
mftDjBsr W rftriolou mfttter. Thk aypM M ftiCft VM in » 0r«ftt 
moaaara nev to OM. ftod I ever liull rMoUeot Qm plcaMnc «Mift' 
tiona it eactt*d ; «>. from iti auollMitT b» di4 nd«Ie proiueed \ry 
y&riT>Ioai noocdfttioot il i»oiwrli rt ab& pai n t* 1 oot Um tlooe oon- 
Dtcliou UlwMa tbt tiro *ti—awi, «o4 ftlaaott ftMSetp&M Aa 

ittdt oTbij rttiuv txpMimMy. (P. ao.i 

Tlif? AEiiiljintr of this Coiffpox ai»il 8jmilf[»u^ mmtulM 
vAconifStMif f^'nM otU the dose eonnecuon betvecn 
the twodiMwicft! Thf? aWrvnUon And the ODiK^lunoD 
ftrt wortk notice^ bein^ charftctcrUtic <if Juuior'ft looftO 
aoJ iJlojciakl oimdL lie wu EainiJiar with Tartv Emetic, 
And h^ might have ohm-VMl th&t it prodno^l paRtatM on 
the Am cxACtly like tbiM*? oF (\>wpajc and Smallpox; 
Therefore wtmlH it hnv4» Ix^n fair to srj^iio i.liat th« 
la bciD^ alike, Ukuir cari^ca vC'Te iDconU^tably 
Sdcjilical \ Dr. Haitii-mik nf Prngui; iilvN^rvr^; — 

Somo jtRts t^ci Xht* lh*oiy vu tvaaolit &>T««nl. cnd*r Utft 
aniploQc of th* gru£ ulrli^mlMieftt ftrttiA, Uuf^ltnjl, Uial Vaoc'JAft' 
Ifon froin Tin&f Kiu^tJo pattnkn ra « |iflrf«1 mbhUlnto f!af 
ViMVEiiMtioii wi^i Cowpoi, hDd hajl tho fruDc fconafiunl otTBC^ 

ith tliJH I fnllr ii^rte; iinJ I rtiniArlc fartber. that if Tiirtfty 
Bst^Ur pQUliJiUiuc b |iriHluc»d &ii Cciwt knd CbIth, and vAoeiiw 
■Bittor U tliiiii Uivu fnim Uifun. nidi VftwtnatioD U nl«> parfwrtl; 
1unnl«V- Tbn matt convindnf^ pnxif <4 ili* bAri*rinu»t uiil 
UcDtunl ftDUaa of uecIi V^n-iDitloTi wllii tliAl of (Vjvjkii, U ftu- 
niahed b; Uic fut tlrnl it prcunu puitnIcA timikr la vti« vicl 
Ibroi* IbfltrfuiQ, ut{>?«arilj' of iiLeaLBCnl Vftlua>* 


Havlrigii-lcntificU HorctfgrcAM Cowpox with Smallpox, 
hj rcaaon of biuulajily of puatulcn. he vvnt i>ii id imMTt 
that HQch HoTTOgrawo Cowpoi was enuivalttnt lo Snia-ll- 
pax For inoculation, and wa^ attended with the like 
prophylaxy, aayin;; — 

Whit rt-i^i1«n: tbo Coupoi rim fto rTtmntalf idngnljir ii. tliAl 
flift jwrvin AlT*'-i'iil witli H ii fopptflr n-ftcr frtmn from t>H> iiifrfltioo 
nf llin Smft]Jj*>i; nMlhur Aipiurirn to tti^ irttrlfiliiruMnctv^i, tii^rllio 
IninrtiikqfifllwmjillMinUjiliii Jikin jirniliinkrtg tlk)ail[bUiJtLpi>r. (P, 1,) 

It Ifl flnrloiin ivlHn to abt^rrn, Umt thu vlnia. vhtdi, Wltfa raipoat 
tu ita ofTccbf. ia tuitlctamtkiicO nnd unofTtiun prvrfoualy lo ila 

• S^marU im CtrfOim Mfttkml Priu^iptt*, LijdiIqu* ISSS. 



C'ng from the Hon» IhfOBc^ lb* toodiiuu ol Iba Oow. ihmM 
not ouljr bfOooM man Mtorv, b«i abould IovuIbUj Hd oon- 
pUtoIy po«M«» iLowiv^ai^ ivopvtiei vhM i»li»« In fii* liHnHi 
cuntuttitiuu MviBplooM iiiniUr (o Ibow of lb* TMscJooa flmr* and 
efTcct ia it Um% pceuUar cIubb* i*AM jW tvrr rvadsn il to* 
nifiOopUl-to <>f tho T»riofa<M firitfaglnn (P. 10.) 

And HO ML Th& wsuraoce vu atiMiluie, &nJ tJiv 
wtLrTAot ScT th« w«unnc« woa ih^ Cmm addoc^, uid 
tiie nimilftritjr cf Howecrwuie Covrpox pii»i«]e« and Cow- 
poK pusiuleel Belt if tbe pintuloa w«» simll&r. the 
cIFccU were not MmiUr InocukdoD wiUi Smallpox 
proihiCT'] SmalljMiv, mkl'I orullberwl^, wilb |mrtulr« few 
i>r many; but inociiUtion wiih Uon^T^ttO O^wpox 
Tn^ ailriKlKl \v\i\\ tu> iini[iiMia 1)cjocia tbc pmnU of 

It i" AH exctfo in tbo DamWr ofpcAioIet vUoli m dudt^dttid 
iatbv SiatUbci; bill in ili< Cj^io^ ao f wt BJ M »pf itr. ft« dPM 
it ftooiu |>DA4[bU' ri>r Um ofloiUhgwuA nfttlcr t# proda^a lb* Immm 
from (ifHiivia ; gc- UmI a bu^ wdsvidoal in & fwntf fliybt at aaf 

a fiul«inivi4r tiiat fiUi » ooonitf; v^.lli t«nor. (P. fiS.) 

Wry good; but where aw wc? If atmil&ritr of 
piutult! jtrtiveii i\i& identity c*f Siu&Upox And IJ^rHL'^it^a^ 
Cowpox, whnt did thoso gravci di«di&ikiit4o« boCwiMB 
til) diMTiuii^*! inovv ? Thftt an objection ao obvM>u» mIumU 
never bavu ooourrod to Jennvr indicate tbe vxtant of Ua 
lo^cfd i^apbcitj;. 

Jc^nnur* exijcctalion from the iniie of tbt- Inquiry 
hof] Tiotliiiij; of tho prophetic chnrockr described by bia 
c-ntlnmnihtio biiigriipluirn- Tt U utily lu^iwnry Ui tHrniso 
itn [iiLt^fu mid tiotti Uio dates in order to percKiiru tbc ud- 
unxhihilUyjf tbovUionof l"»Odi'^irII»-ifW [laron wheo 
JinrjiT iixhiULi*d to Oardiu-r hU futuiv gwn', and how 
lit' vfOd doHltui^d to Miind liko Anron bi.-tn-ee» Uic living 
and tbfi iU^tal initil Lhr* ^rlai^i^i wila *iayed, Alaa! bow 
many mniilnr fablvA nmy wit cnU^rlain bocui-'u; the mtaitt 
of dt'Ti^cllcn ivrn not, rift HI JuniWft cnso,Arai1abK 

Wlu*ri JcinuT WAX wntiii;f, tbc KnglUb pcopk wen 
cuuitidiU-d U> b^uifbllpox lujifiO^AlipUt or jmn-t! Ai^i^umt^li 
Smallpox ciilturo, aud U 


jcnnvs mqciMT. nvt 


pox iTiat 1» Wnaod Ccma "H aAwi.' 1» ■»». 
"wbctl>cr hkbiVMit^iieo be natter of ncnainasitjr. 

1^ HOtUng forth Um dnv-tadu w Om? exblictf pncOee. 
and coQlnsUiie tbctD with the advait^g^ otf bk own. 


introdnfltkn lfl«o Chl> 

hi|pr <ftcto<rf iMcflktioB, 
lot hw novtTM aacv aM Antt 

H sot ^v7 mah w i m wAf pio J a u w 

On tiw cootat?, be mU— 

I hftT« a»v« known &lal Bflart* uiM Iroax th* Cowpm. «vai 
wli«i bmfPHMl in A# ne^ aa&nonUa B«iia«-> fcoJudH «x. 
miiT* InlTiammrioM And .i npfr lldiii «n Ilia lundt; ud^uK 
dMiHy appMnlhitdi^AtMit Imm A* coortittitiaa in sutU* 
df p>rft<^ ■■CfHj ftoto <h> inlwMia <rf (ht BoMllpai, ina j wa tio4 
inwr iMn aodv of InoMditfMiinagr ba Mnineoi pnfMrmblo to 
thai at pwMrt adofitod, MjawJIy ukonc IhoM bmBtaa, urtiM, 
ihan MmoiM liwiiimlaiinw, w mnj jn^ la ba pcad^nwd to 

iDOCQl&ttoo IrikA frocly charged with exciting scroFola ; 
tbiu JvDDcr obacrv«tI — 

la ouMttfottdaa rndbpocod to acrolnla, bov fraqotcUr w« lae 
irn ill iiihliiTniiwniiiiiiiiMiliJiMiitiitt/tlialilNiiiwMiiwIailj. 
Asd ibc iaBM doaa sal mtaik la iopani on Ibo maaaua of tfaa bo- 
vnlftlMin, Igr d w oftan aiaim is VMWt iA*a raodva it uil^y m ia. 
AoaawbortaanvitavratBlr. <P, eoj 

Ha]Tpil> lii? )iAi) t.Sr gmcfl to rrfrain ffom the e^plidt 
uacrUoQ that Cowpox wiis exempt fioio nimilnr hiuard ■„ 
jret wiifa chAnict«rutic intunHiMtency, wa?i Jit^KHinl to 
dxlvnncv a claim for it am an oxpuljiiv^ irritant— 

At Hv hiit« Mon [tliiniKh lu^ nB-rct Hhovwl] tbftt tlio contUtaUnn 
oMy a£ uiy LUna d» njftdo to f««L Uid f«bitlc aiUek of Coinioi. 
utijEht it uuti ia LQuiy abr^itiQ iliaaHHt, be iiiUuduowl Uitci iXia 
mtom. with tha pivbabLUiy vf a£WJui|£ nliflf. uiioa woU'kutivii 
ftbraalofiioatpdaeiplMf (P. Gai 

A FM^er of tbo I-nquiry in l7tW could nover liav? 
suppoacd that it waann Att^^mpb to displ&c^ tbo «xbtiii^ 
lice of Inoculation^ Nor u thcve anj sign tluit Jon- 



ner at the tinxo eoat^niplftttd tueh an bauo: H« referred 
to VeuriolouFi Inoc^ilation witTi reap^^ct. anii waa aatltiflcd 
til w]gg(^Atp liTiRt in (wnain csi^v.s mui'.uhxtlnn with Hcirsn- 
ffTMUe Cowpox mii;ljt bo ftuLr-titut:-*[J with aJvoJilaK^. 
Aa to tlie {^t-'riuanvut e.viALencc uf Uijr»T.-^LVdMt? Cowpoi: 
he wa* (lAiihtfulp Stncc^^ he Aat<], the form^tiN had traced 
tlic uif^cti^i to Lht Ilcjrat, " Ltie api^anincc uf tlio Cow- 
pox mny either bi> putiroly rxtinr^ulvhf'ii or becoin^ «x- 
trcmcly rare." It inny l»e rtjJicd that this brhavwur oa 
the part of Jenrier wtiA tjiie Ll» n^^i'Tve nnil IatL, hut the 
TvMcrvo and tact Aro itiviuibla Tho Inquhii wak nimplj 
what it tLjiiK-Aih — a hontj [M^rrijEniiaitcc:, nliJc}!, m other 
huids, dv<velop«f1 to raow» far more, thun its author con- 
4rinj>latcU Subsequently he, itntJ hi-i friend's f<it him, 
Inid cbim to yt^ar"* of research urtdT>r Lbo itillnor.ce of 
hupcrtiatural fcrci^iybt ; but, Viii\i the Inqxtiyj before oa, 
I riAi Kvbrrr is llu- r'vhlrnrt*? T biki- tin- ilatr-, 141.1* Mpij, 
17IJ(j. whou Jcmitr i:u>oulatud Phinpri from thi.* \\t^%v\ of 
SaiAh NVliiiia^, &^ Ihc time whea the piLiJt'ct of liiucula- 
tion with UorHc^tx^ajra Cawpox bt-^ra.n to kuum4> form, and 
I mainlaln that th« character, order and dalea of the 
C^AMW lidt forth in the iTHiuirjf pUinly show that th«y 
vr<^rc ;^>t tL*irethor to mmtditi the conchiaion then airrirea 
fit. Wlieu Mr. John Siiiwn di?**eaTit^ cm Jmiitmth thirty 
yt'ixr* of inei*Mmt thoiii^ht, watching and cxpi'ri men ting 
^\'hich rt%ultt:d hi thp timditctlt^n of that Mn^tt^rpit^ou of 
Metlioal Inductioii — 7/*^ rmniinj^th^ answor is. Peniae 
ibo Inniiinj, nni thi^ ,tJiy vi-herc the fniit of thirty ycfua 
of labour is to be found. The asKTlion U too absura fof 
dincuAiion, whalcvcr it may be as an Article of faith. 

Tha nAiigXe poiiiLijf origiiuility in thti Impili'^j wiw \h\\ 
delinitJon of tho dieea^o for which prophylaotio efficacy 
"nu a-NwrtoJ. ThcdaiFymaldaMiid Cowpox; the fanicfw 
said Hot«egTca»«. Jenntr taid u^'ithLT Conpox nor 
Kor£«^j^afld. but their coukbinaticn in Jlor^e^rco^ij Cow- 
pox, wldrli VArirty of Pcix uToth^ rnsun^il Itfp-hm^' s^^ciirity 
froni Smallpox, Wc ahall nee as wo proceed how thia 

JffiHiLioii wa'S rtiiirtTidereil and ictunieti, moiliHed and con- 
Uftcd b«yond recognition. Lot it nudicn at prrsient to 

Covrot wmk Ml 


fully for 

"1 I !■! I il T I I ■■liTi Ihlii'^ 
ia Uw imm^in. Aon vW W mAamm OnrMs 

not-taka^-|hi««ii»wsMdito b» proof wiMttel 
diiMM Hi«fle<»ilnl hiiiiiiptt>d2awJrHtf 

ftlknrai4i ogateHt SttdpoiL 

it w» nf&l «bBi «Mw win A«d rnflfcffvd ftw Omr* 
pas iotf PiatfMiuJ f^npoBc. uMl 11^ otk«m Ia4 
f«edT«d tbi &KM I7 tfwmhii«; to wUoh JwwS^ 
«VBW*rr aamr mi, * Tbwt twat bST* fcoM Mvw mW 
tah« AMtl Ife Oovpta : for iii> noe cita bttw» oviiuittit 
Oiwpax lod mhtmotetdly bear SnAllpox. ciikor ^ 
Mtd&oa or inocokfaotu" 

Cbw|Hn vat iDocsktcd md pnic»|pLled troiu turn tu 
am; ftod, in proof that tli« oocubtoUoo wm foHitM 
igftiiLHt final^Kix. it wra ^mmon to tnocuUtn «rith 
Sa^Hpog. wfckh wnallr dv^ not "Uk^"; wlicrNsm iKt' 
cid&iiiiciJ, *" B^okl : tbe pttti«a>t i« uwnsopiitilib 

wM the Vuioluus TmC It vu to mulUtUitM 
luld>)^ oon«liuiv0; and to qtinstftuu it* r«tMUv vt^m 
l« oxliibil ft conteoUiMM ftnd unphnoAopkw tlfiii|KwitW 

Wliftt ahftU we now Hfty ocHicsming it ' 

FhBt^thot Eailqrvw were nutn^rotw In VftHaloH- linwn* 
ktioQ ApuH frum Vju?d«*Lion. i\n*l thftl it wiw* m*! -iiiv 
pOicd that whflu a pftti«nt dul wot inkr! Ip vio Ih* 1* 
fore imuMccptiblc of Su;iiJI|x>x; nor *von wh*u If AUl 
•Uke/ that he wiw tlioruljy rcinlorcJ \ir^i AiiH\iv%% 
Smallpox, So many of iho MO00M^ltly litoculntnl 014 




Mibequeull}^ fail victims io Smallp^K, tbibl VaHuIaUiih 
ftt fhi» *ni\ of last c«ntiity w^re compelled to argue (Hke 
\'iM;cinfiHl(trH<< nt the ttnd of thiA] that VAnolatioo was li 
^uard, but not an a^Wiluti? ^'uard - aiiiI that when It did 
sot lUto^ihc^r avert Snmllpox, it moditicd oJicE mitigated 
^i atUick. TliQ iixcuniT fur railiirft wa^ as artfu) a^ thr. 
motive WAS \ir{;oDt : Vatiolation was too |;oo<l a tnuio ta 
Iw imperilled for lack of A litllc inccmuty, 

Noveithele^. ir we mak<? full allowaneo on th^ veove 
cf frcqii0iit incapacity to receive V'ariolation» V6 baro 
yet to explain, on a aunUil vu^vr of thi* vrholi^ nvJdoDO^, 
bow it vfKA that in numarous ca^ca luocuUptton iritfa 
Sniallrox w^s nirlRTilvo after TnonilaUon witli Cowpox. 

" Wiat CUD you ufi^u ajfuibit the Variolou* Tort'" 
U'aa a, TreiiJeiLt and iiuperiouH dmiiatid, 

Tb« «xp]aiULtion in gonoral \&y in th^i fact, that Vario- 
lation wiiA a<ttt;rnptetl l)t%Fore Um co:iip]r;t« Hul»i<if ncc of 
tlie vaccine fever. The inoculation with Covjjox had 
aai tip a liorioiin cnnntitittional dUtTirbtfincer ana ciurinjc 
timt disturbance tliL' Suml]^>f>x virwt cuuM not d<^v«lop 
it6 rr^dii^n onor;*y. Lot nii» nhow what 1 noon from tm 
tt.-!*lhntniy dF iTi;*ntii*!r hiiusdf. 

0& i5th March, 1800, the Duko oE York rdc|U««t«d 
Jonaor to procood to Colchceter to the S5tb RecimcEDt 
Jonoer WHK unablo to go, and ^cnt \u* m-phow, Ooor^, 
intftoad, who had to report a complete fttUun:. The reason 
of tlio fniltire wan, that, ttio rvitin* Regirr<?iit. with womeiL 
atid childron, ha^i tho itch 1 JtMincr wari then driven to 
tlitJ coiKiluHioii whidi* buyn l^aroti. '* he luhiptt-i) aiid in- 
variably maintftiofld to thi^ In*t hour of his life, nainuly. 
that any cutAiKM^iin iJUh^iw. lu^wriviT ^li^hl In ii]>jK.'Arano0, 
was capaVlo of interfering with the re^^lar coitnH> of tli« 
Cowpox an<l of prtTonting it from exercising ita full pn>* 
tvctllig inlliiencir."* 

JuAt so : and niark how tho ^^amc logic applies t^ the 
Vannloiih TwiL, wrhieh " iK*bihdy rjHiM gi-t ovrr/* If any 
cutaneous <Usordcx, however Bli;!ht, could nullify Uow- 

• Bftirtn** lift f^Jmmr, toI, l f. 2^ 

JBXifEK IX lTflS> 


poTC, WHS it not f qnnlly proTmbla that the cntnTidoiix du- 
o»der inJticcd hj inociilEiU'^l O^wpoi wcrnM nullifj in- 
ocuUt*"!! Si]ial1[)(ix Hiifil thf eif^ct» of the: C'/r/fpoj- hrul 
time to ttiftjiid*- f Wlitrn thn itdi nt Ot>lche3tcr W4s curcd> 
thnn iruit'ulfttioH with Gjwpos w»a fiiuml U» lie pnwriic' 
able. TViiiii %Torthlet* wjw the Variolous TMt on Jennere 
own principle; yet with such cvi<lnnco nndnr his oycs 
and among hU finfjets. lie failed to dUc^eni it» ^i^niHcAnee. 
Not nppftrontly did he inquire wbothor the inULaocce of 

CowpoT \^its pvrpi«Limti<<1 OVi>r HjM.<r?inrfl pi^riod.t nf kix 

rooDllia, nino uionlhi, ono yoar, two yt>ftra, and ao oa. 
A^ triulrr nitd nilvi'nUiO^rH il nuitc^d Mri lirttiT U^ hn not 
over inijuirtitivu, and lo iivowLoldlj' ihattis ^pfjciiic eon> 
fencd lif«<Ioii[- immumt^y from Smallpox. 

Vaccinator* at thiic daiy raruly rufur ta the oiict; fomouH 
VaiioIouo Tent: to do ho would ba abaurd- I'he fiact of 
R^-Voccinfltion, of Vae<?injitioii After Vaof'infl.t ion at ^hort 
intcrvftU, pr^>vcn^ that whnlrvcr the intliioncc of the 
oik^ntUuii, iL iH L Tilt] ■%! rut, Hiid itoL pf«riiianen(>; iiiid thi^ 
ca8e« of Smallpox attor Vaccination, and of .Smallpox ui 
itft Il1<r^t niulij^nnnt' form^ nfLi^r Ri>VACi;]anl'iii[i, n.^ if in-* 
duced thereby, l<jav^ iboi VarIi>Ioiia Tti^l, which *o wiJvly 
impressed and imposed upon our forcfathci"*j an exploded 
piecii of ju^kfy. 



JsyNKK. with ]\\A wifu and dati^dtter, left Berkeley for 
London on 2kli April. I7!>S, in order to *eo the Uiqa^iry 
tliTough tho piv^s. He- rt-^iiiJuni^d in London tintil 14tii 
July, and failed, if he tritd, to induce any iiioculator to 
italHt-iUitt* pnixynK Miiialtnfix. In the Jrnn^r higi?nd, 
it u luual to &nd aoino touching remarka on thiA tnp to 
tona: i^vniua unrvcot^niaed , truth turned fiom uv^ry 
<loor : the great v>\yv\ ahidSng in patience and cijura^ in< 



▼incible. Dfttcs, how^vor, arc a^mtx ixtri 
Tnaittrij wilt ivil in tJjo bonloioMent linti f 
of JuiK-. Ami, tTil1licafo^tolj£hlftfU^r jm}! 
wfts on iti> w/iy to Ri'rk«lcy> There was no 
tho virtuoH Mj>uet!lod. 

te:ioh9r of unTgaTy in St. Tbonift^'- 
Clinc l»Q left tiuinc viron m ii i^iie : 
from the arm of llnmiah KvcN?ilLat \- 
Olino n pAticut. ft chUtl tuuuc*! I 
an ELil^H^ticm uF tlit^ lii{igoii]C<, ami ir> 



iBAiK! by way of ooimtoT-irriuiioji^ 
wil'h Efici?l].i virus, anil tbiuilc»crl 
h letter to J&nner — 

»ii1'*ilpil (ID tliv flfrrcnth da.f. 1 1 
alM-itit four tuvli^ft diAmWi, f."'^ 'I 

TcrUd it i&lio fto Smo M 
ttiirl day. vnil thou mlniafrlT 

nbla to ffiv* him th« 
1 thiftk fh# mjbatitmfng 

ujiulB 111 mii^iiA ; br i 
not «i]dui^ar otiun t^ 
<1aiii» iufluilA mJiuUiC 
I BIQ UuprcMdiriti] ir- 

OUne thoTL i\.\ 
from Wulier* In 

ADii 1 lur* Iha III, 
MOlrlTa 1j I - 

I Ml A 

L. iu*t tt>;a,i in 

■M Jfr, AUnp, 
K^uAinkd with 


4naJ, Lq wu 

^ Ui\ io inako iKii|ii« 
a brow cf a libctriijQ. 

I \a he oiw^xjx. :irul 

■.v-> had the gemiine 

:kCi:ivcd siflftllpox by 

1^ tft him tliat it was 

' itnt for tho cvidcnco 

liiLs iivcrjr }^h^i• ha viilicl 

-i>iiUMit tf> protortt— 

1^ --int^lii msUnoe o^tarrcil of 

' iial]^' or ft^^m. imiotiliLtiou. who 

.'i>TiU]^'i,»H Tvouivoi! the I XI fop- 

' n^fpnuT en tliQ pF«0cint in^tanoa 

' I'l u E taay ofpeai at (fie oft' 

.< I .»rAtiglif It At OI109 thnn iTirTsrit 

M pronnL, T h*ro Tint, t'l* rnont 

tAio hfifi nnnA Mt T,1if> ShfliiATi^ nf 

..c^Ul over bn finafl«pUbU of thjii of iht* 

■ mdiiaW be <I<?i1u(:ki1 fnnii more 

.inj this, too, bv one who had 

: V few arr impiiblcr cjF comhicting 

i.i^.-]Lt«i :" AJwam aa we ^hfill aeo^ 

''u>c who qiicstioncd hU A4aertionSi 

Ills frtcTic3. OjLrdrier— 

lubaiiM. kncwi no mnro of Ulp mcj mtum of ibn 
S«lwrn docKof Grmk i ynt he U AEuong philci' 

fr*ci. what irrorokcd him waa that Ingcn- 

.lic IT too much about cowpox, and had laid his 

the p*>iiit of error at the outlet, Ini:juiry en 

of Ingonhoii'i/ hr<iiight to light srvf>ml nther 

of smallpox afior cowposc ; and Dr PtUU^iicy ol 

(1 nipoitcd that Dorsutshiio iiioculators were 

wiih Uie one sort of pox aft«r tlic oUicc sort 

ilK« d^iuUinl answer to Auch objoctioua wajt. '' Vea: 

luld not bavo bopn trii« cowpox to start with " — 

^ of argument maintamod with parrot-liko per- 

mry whnn Miinllpox follownl vni'nnutifjn. " Ah 1" it 

«aid, '" tli«re unLii havo Ujvji soiat; LiiUtibkc about U-.c 



vaepl nation ^ for no oni? chu ht^ thoroughly vflcdni 
anrj liavo aiiL&Upox." 

Loriking bnck on th^ finaf yeare of lft«t conturr. ib U 
much to bo rvgrottoJ that mono pamfi wt^ro not tak^Q to 
hold Jenner faat to hU piTbltloii that ^luallpox uover fol- 
lowed cowpQX, and to dr^inntifitmtj^ tmygrd conU'Qtioii 
tliat it waa not true. It Ccrt^unly was not truv; the 
wvMnncp to that fact w;*** mdJftpuLalile : hut fpw were 
dirinnrird to Follow In^cnhguci^ into the West uf blii^liL&d 
aiK.: H^rdi fur thv requi^ilti? pn>p>f ; atid Ingenhou&Ji watt 
cut out of the controvoray by his d^ath at Etewo™i on 7lh 
St?pt<;nihiT, 1793. PrcfH^ntly Jcnner iiiaiia^'&l U) hari^ 
the contention shifted from the expeTience cf the <laiii68 
U* x'ac^^infttion from ncni to arm ati<t the JHuHory ^luHotoas 
toxt, and t1iL< advA.Titauo of u, dool^lon at tho spring of 
fftllac^' waa lo.Htn. In the g<incral conhiaion wliicn ensued 
Ji*niK'r fame tu hn (jiknTi fnr mltMi-nVRnTjirid ht^ pvMOil 
dtiigcwtly in tht' ohara<;ttT, wh*>n he wiw nothing moTts 
than the aOvci tiriur of tiie vnL'ai' ophiiciu uf Ills nci^dibgui- 
hoof^, with the nioUilicAtion that not Clowpox hut Uontg* 
ijrease Cow^pox waa the tiue and infallible npecilic The 
fact in so clear, that he wiu a in4>r^ advcrti^^er, that it 
would not bt worth tvtictition, wcru it not ^o sysitcmati-* 
UhWy Lrentefl a^ un^it'tti. Hovr rlihttrjclly Jt wajt at flrHt 
rccog^scd appears in a letter of thinks for a copy of tho 
Imjiiirt/ adarertsed to irenner hy FratncU Knight^ a Lon- 
doD aur(f«on» whtircm he observed — 

Ciirviibu B-tatbt. tOth Stjiff FftftfT. S79S, 

I havo r^iul your I'ublloiitirjn vith rnaoh hixtinfihijUoii ; onfl, from 
ft Loaff rMldfiucd lu Ihd ilolry pnrt Af Wilt^hlrti. il» wtti oh in Gloii- 
OMtonliiro* I luLDV tlid fftcta t^ ba vtU DUFport«d ; At loAat, it wa« 
a gOXMUHLopinioD nmflDglhadmryiiicu, thnt Ihoto who lui/i rcccivad 
th« «owpo( vinro not ■uucoptiMo of Uio vatiolouh ilirsouo. Tbo 
cowpoi: fiiHtnlu is \<tr>' fttiutliir ti* my sje, an J Iaiin|Miftf ohnnued 
witli t^e iUUiieKliL>u of it ui ^our |>!uttih. Voq have r>peti«[3 to Uia 
world h TMy citrioQEi G«td ot invti&ligatic^a, and it is too intorofltiaj; 
a subjoH to (lifl vitli thtf da;." 

In these remarks of Knif^ht, we htiTd Jonner*a position 

* Botou'd Lifi ifJtniKr, tvL i. p. 109. 



a^citmti'ly ili?firn?i.l Hi? rnn^le hiin^clf rnnjion-HlMft lot 
"the ^'CDcral opinion Guion^ tho dairymen"; find had 
soEiic oiL(^ nt tlini tiiiit: shown iit j^i'^r^piciLOLJA ttntl (tiiipliatic 
foflhioi) that tlio tlairymen wero wro»^, Jenner would 
have bemi anmm&rily disposed of. Vain, however, ore 
*ueh rc*grot*; and we nu-y find comfoj't in thn rQtfM:timi 
that bhen^ ia aa or<ler ia fch^r univerao ivliicti coaverta 
niisfnrtnn'* into nw'Jtni for ^^i^Jif-et p,nd rarvir ^vkI. 

Another lottor to Jeiitior from Dr. HicIch contains thttio 
remarks — 

I wi«h you lud Iwon aMe to bnvc commuoicatod tho c^wpox to 
the ocfW bjf moaiu of iaoffuUtion from a fC^^d^ hano's hool, fot 
jour v^>rk voutd thea b^rfi bpoD moro <icTLipL«tc bad v^liisfdcLnry' 

T do nul MO thtit you Qn<»i! licMUnln t» nccopt tlio iEivitAtii^n ^itod 

will nncuTA tlio pornont no inociiLitoJ fnm over btinj{ infoctoil ^riU) 

th« omftUpr>i, 

EvoTlanLio^ Mourity front soiallpox \ Stich waa the 
unqualified promiso, ar;il with liow Little wRrrantI In 

STiMCrnoc of Ji Socmtic imjuinjr with hiN punEtHtont, how 
o )oii know ? Jtnner iiiuat have stood confounded, 
A letter to Jk^nTL«r from Dr. P^rdvnl, ali^o contAinn 
^iomo remarkn worth notice. He wrote — 

Tho is^ti y^n baro iiildu0*d inMntMtebly prove tha «uctcti«o of 
tho rowpoi, cod itn ntAy oommaniCAtion Xa the bnmiti fpvpief. 
Bui 1 LM'2i>r in'lncirtiTi Uy^t nAOflit:«iiry to «rinni' ihhl r.lin vinin ol 
the VftHmit^ Vijvfrift rt^TtJun thn pArfu^n who Iiaa liH«n uffinritAfl witb 
il ittflUT* (lirHog tbfi whnlD af hfo fWuii tha tiifai?tlnri of Itia mnill' 

]bfr. Simmoiu. lui ingonkiuii iurifeon of thlji tovn, hcu JDwiiUuirl 
huDun mbjeot wit)^ tlie idior iifsulni; frocu whnt ih ivrriiwl thn 
In hofMA; bdt th« fluU intniiliieuih Ujoui^T] ttijfht ihuintitr^ 
ten uiHflM, liflitFitir oc<-jtHiou«Ll ijiEljuciai&tloci it*jr llmpLi^J[L ; vvi tfiii 
tr»# child wuh >Hi>L>ii jtfUij'Wbrilit xj^mc!lUiiI«i1 vjtli mik^tku "he tlio 
Ipm. Ur. ^luiuoQA buE nov aus^a-KeA a herd of pom., and U 
cmpkijed iu mnkian such ci^idrimcuts u yuur publioatiaii 

It is wry rtiuiarkahli^. tht,i the cowikiji huH Imrii hill^vrlir uiuicf' 
Ucod ill ChnhuVi wrhicili In luiit le** ■ (l&Liy cociuly iljiui 01oactihC«r- 

leirT&Dte iaducriBU£i»t«^i 



Tile fn^ucnt atatcmcnt tliat JcnncrA Inqttiry waa &t 
lirst. r-emvvi] with luiMiTtirvncL* is entirely untrue : on tbB 
contrary, it wn* read with intoK&t from the oiitact, and 
the only clit'ck he met waft due to bis inability tti supply 
tbd deniftndft of cotrv^punJcnU for £&mp]ee of thi' pro- 
cioa^ TirUB, Cowpox waa nlftcnt for awhile from the 
dBir{c«,uitd jjieat wa*UU rdlef andddigbt whL*n toward 
the dncl of 17U8 aome matt<jr waa obtained from n farm 
ftt Stonclmum* wht^njwith oa thi: 27Ui November \w viw* 
cinaied thti children of hia friuud, Hiiary Hioks of East- 
inj^n ; " the first ^entliBinan,*' Mays TJaron. "' who bn^^l tiu' 
merit of fluhmitlin^ hi** own children to tho cow praolic^,*' 

Ere 171*^ hvl jHw.^trd nway, Ji*nner had secured an 
entr^'tlic ftllj- in Vr, G^?fn'L;« !'oarMi>n, F.iCS,, Phy*jtiiui to 
8t- George's Hospital], Loiiiiun.' Pearaon tiut-MT^d into 
the cowjtoY question wiih h\^ wholo heart, itnd ci>ui4ti- 
tutcd himskilf a sort of partner in Jc^ncr'# project. Ho 
wrote to htm — 

Y«ut Dune v/ilt liv* in Uia iEL4imnjy »f mimktnj, oh locg iiBiEim 
pOBMM grfttitULle for **rvlff« suici rwipwl for bonrrofrtorH ; bTid if T 
OJLU but ^t matter. I imimueh tniqtj^inn if Tdo jnakei/fn ^rjr/*»r 

And in a mot© decided strain on T3th Novcmhi*^— 

I wifih yoiu ooal4 oooiu^ mo matter for iuoaulntiuD, l»><raai«, d*- 
pond up»n it] a tbonuait ii3A(runt« Imt ]iiir<ihtujf caiku viU b« |iiib- 
uilu(L ngUDtt Uiv iipi<?it;o cututo oT tliu ULtiopnc by pcnoo who 
wa»t to sortd thuir niiiiiUN ftbrof^d about jULjthmg, imd who will 
tbifik t/£ii antJ m« fur pf^me. 

lu the same letter he told J^niicr what some were nay* 
iug about th*t suggested practice — 

You OiLTlbOt IfDA^* bcjwruliiliona ihA puA|i1<« an> vritli »gard to 
tht« bnf[in*BB of th« eov^mk- Oaa unyn tlial it i% vt^ty flltliy an^ 
TDOAty li) <1ifriv& it from the ttm b«il> of liorica. Aiir^tlii^r. Omt W 
nhall u:troduco th« disevfieft of anumili nmong ni, and t.liitE wh hftTa 
*Ito»dy too maay of oar owo- A thW *ftriwnt ««( «ay, It l« a 

* Bom ftt Kotbahftiiii 1T51, (jrulnateil M.D., Rdinhurich, and fOSC- 
(dlDil at D^Ekfiutcr uutii I'bl, v]ii>d Ilo rciuo^'od to LoDdojt> Diu* 


JBHNCR IK 17(6. 


Btnn^ odd kind of boBUioaa, uid ikay know pol wUai to think of 
it. All tbiB I hoiur very 'iTti<jtIy, aQd tv^oolloot tliAl a bIlII mcrt ua^ 
rnvDunibJo r«o«|>ti(»n wiin i^r^u to Loorulutioa (<\t tbo omidlpox. 

Such obscrvfttion,i were nntuTAl nnt] (o bo expected. 
Jenoer wrote to Gardner ihaL ■" Jjilck-baw ami noddle 
wcApoDa oE every stjrt were Hying thick around him/* 
but Uiiry wisre iMiItTdy uiLOj^Qury. Hia r»\'u!iiti(iii iaah 
commtinicated to a ready ivcrld. It yea/i no revolulion' 
my j>n»j*ict. h»it n Awluetlvu iiiwIlHcalion i»f f^xULuig 
proctiu.*. Itioculaiioa wUti siuaUpox ^v&k tbo ordi-r of 
the daj amor;- aJI raspectabLo pcopk\ Th& operation 
wu trouUi^oinct iLiid um!i-rtAiriH pi^rtUiUA lo |)iLlh^t]t*i jwd 
to ihoad in contact wiUi thuui ; aiiU. wIk-u ilU wad dijuti, 
itaftbrdei) ncj nmitiPMT.ionnfili^ iti^amty ng^tirifft th^ diKnaitt^ 
it was dcMjfbe'J to uvcrt. To a coirtiuunitj tliu.n banuit»<fd 
find UUU0U8, came Joniicr with Lia preBCiijitiLjii and Im 
promise — Siibatitnt^' cowpox for &rnal]pox and you will 
cxcApe from thU distrcAi, danger, donbt You will liovc 
a hojinlesa f^ver without jiLiHtnlvd !Lnd without rktk of 
infection, And the Kcc^irity fron^ smoIJpox will be absolute 
and pt*T|ietual. WIfat vrundtr tbat in *iic\\ eireamntancuH 
Jeiuici'a mes^a^ ^as hoard i^ladly and &cc«pud with 
grateful i^ntlju^sianni. Timt hv vbiruld have fiKtumiercHl 
dOiiie re^ihtauco ^ae intviiablo^ for wimt cbaiigu la cvyr 
e^L'cled without opi^oj^ition and oiuiEumB jJivdlctiau ? 
But thu' chajiui-' Jt»nncr propoflod was the sltghtmt of 
cbanjjea with Uio larij&st pioapccta of advantage. Vnlcas 
theae eonditimujire homo in mind, we *iba!l never rightly 
undcnttund the reception accLjnicd l>y our forct'alhcr» to 
inoeidatioii with cowpox. 





Dk, TKAFEHOK'n /n^ir^ anuCTntn^ tk* HiMory of Qm 
CnuiKKt * U A ivmark&Ue ptooC of the aUcritr maii 
tm«jray wHh which Jcoiwr^« P^PJMt wm eatcrtune^ 
Aa iiUmitvi'iI, .TrniM'x'a /u^iry wa» paUnhtt] «t Uiv cvd 
of Junv, l7D.H,jii)iIero8ixmOttUii««f«orer,iiiXo\erab«r, 
J7f>H, nji|ii-fkri.'Hl Ptvnwn'ft /nnMrVpft ntuWrtv miew td 
^H r. Piihi n ; nml not oiily ft miav, nt m noordot inrmtj 
^1 r.,,i , jiorisonal oud by oorrapooJeooe with oxiiitzj 

V phyrii^miiH ui4 farcnen; Um «ntir« wort Aplftviiy a 
I Gft|iacity for busiDcas to which Jcfmcr wu whoDj Qb- 

1 Ojwpoz dM not ootnc before PcftKon as ft norfttty, &or 
1 Jvmwr in oonntotwii thi-n^wilh. He rrklttn — 

^^^bs W>j4.rt t wu In oompUf witfa Iht IM* Vr. Mbm HoMv. ahnvrt 

rwa«(viHj froiia 1>r- Jtniwr, ihat is oymtmu^drnf an lalwtliiDii Jb* 
onbr frviiuntly prtrkilod unon^ tlw alkli cowi, maimI lb« Cow* 
poi. b) miah lJ]4r«wuBaMii|tbn«ntiMiirtHli;ilui tboatwlw 
nijUod *neli «r>wi waw UmU* to b* vAfted vfth pgit^loCT «i«- 
tttiui OD thdr tnndf, wlifeb van altofBllBdlkaaovpin; thai mh 
pMiMOt jui hdil andvgtma thb boeak coni» nv n onersft 
|iy < i><i,9V«i'o[t0i'; and lb»t m bo |afhni h»J Mffa k&ovn 
t* ' QwpM. ti3> ptttflto* flf th» tnocttkaida oi At patton 
vT J'. - <t«v#, lofupAncKle thm Hwallfi^, nii^T be fi9ti»f.oo »• 

^_^ J j-i4>4 Umu AuAFviilIoni, ftad eootfuidj raUbDl them, wbn 
^^b M|i;ia«uli]«at(irKmdliKixJii«nw7eoQneaf kctarBwlucJ] llun 

V 1%i ^fjiftjunloBtion of Jennor to Hunlrx w** n^tthio^ 
^^H |)f . r^ Thoro was no »«erct In tkc txi.->Uinctf <S 
^^H t in ttio boliuf that ii^ucaUcJLin di^ivwich 
^^1 ^tii>i'i lliJj ftiilfonr offfklnat SotftUpox. t>r PuLt«nay,of 

FRAESfflTs rvQrrtir, 137 

Cnwpoi im ir«1l knnwn En IlflmiwhlrD. IhirMtiliin. Soni«r»t- 
Mn, and Ihrvvnshvn, It la uvi iiuLuuw^ in LeiawtenliirOp mtd 
oihet taUlhiad ocniutJM ; but dfru:>''u«>J itis'sv ii a wcrot v iBLit;^ u 
pDMibtci V It Ib di&iri'uUillo tv the clo&iilincea of Uioir jiri>dace« 

In tlitf imrbUt^ni coiiiitm>4 niifl in Wiklt^n, Cow|iox vrua 
^Itht^r r&rely Bc^cn or unknown. Id Chefibiic, a^ much 
of R dniry county qa Olouccijtcrihirc, where also men 
tficUnl aj( uiillttr*. the dUeaw w&a never met wltK 
Whcro, however, Cowpox ww lecogmscd. tlic i'fiith in ita 
efficacy agfiinst Smallpox niijuiortM] to U* g^^^^('n^l, ami 
iDoculatom regarded it aa a h&r to tli<iir ttuct'ona. Thus 
Mr. Giff&nl» surgeon, GiUifigluun, wiDte to PtHr^on. ^Hh 
Auguit, 179S— 

Cow^oih iDcra known in rotnoUkiro tk&a in mcnt ooontlaa, 
Lont wuikr I inaciimcd iht^o pikfU<h<^. and noraij of tha lubjcDto 
Uf\iX mo they lio-l bad the Covpox. and that Ihoj flhoolil not tnko 
tbo Simnllpox i but I clcidroii to icoculiLto them* abd did so tvra 
or throfi ttm^H, lot n-itfaoTit cfTcet, TarrotLfi ucx'rr tako tho Srnidi- 
pL>i ftft'-r they liftvp Lad th(i Cowpoi. (1*. H.) 

At ft mUk-fnrm on thi? MftfnpHtcftd RonH, Pcnmon f«uii<l 
a mail vfhti fiAtI cftt'Ti h^'l-u J~bwpox iii WiilHliire and 
Qloucestoivhiro. Ho snid that — 

He luid known tnniiy ^Iici IiaH liad Cowpox, ftod thtj oerBr mf- 
foroclfroBiUKSmiLtlpnx-iLttlioiitilh i1pr«TAUod tnUidrovrn fmuilLM, 
To HAS bU oira iwcorJBt thuv wtjri hhvo luiid liko Cowpox " tuo Ljird 
t« iaka Ihc SmalliKU. " i P. 21>,J 

Mr. Kolpl), aurgcon, Peckbam* vhn bad proclisod in 
GloitrtfKt't-rHliire, infonmnl Ti^ftrsoTi that — - 

Ccvpox viu v<iry frw|n«nt|v o^ixaofiA in th« dury'fuTma la tha 
iprlDg. - . ' . A i^Kt niimb«r of tntlftnfu of tli-^ ("owpt^T Ln 
mllkon had fnll^n undar liis obnarriitlort, but nnl l EingSc mrirtnl. 
or oven d)U)gpmi]fi» otue opdiTml. IliorrT nnr not n inoilicn} man 
in GlonCflPWnsMre. or fli^nwr n dniry-fntniiir, wlm iliil nnl know 
ftotu hi* own ("Tix-ri^mro. or fJmt nf othom. tli^t tho"" w)u" tiftr* 
fltifTand thfl C^vpnt Atw *t«mpt frnm Ihe Agnnoyof thn vtrlnlooA 
pQlaciE. (?, ftCj 

Dr Croft likewise toM Pearson — 

Thftt ii^ StHObribiliiiif i\> hm kiiowlvdv^. Uiv fkOt li^d \totu lofiir 
kDoWQ of tb« Cowpcii, wliicli j>niviii]« iu Uinl cunutj. ftCTurdinjf Ml 
oumptiou of tlio kiunui lalijerU fruni Lliu SmidlpoXH (P- S6.1 




Nor did whftt was 3D widt>Ty bolievdd 68Cftpo nkdDliO& 
in nxi-^Htnl Utrrattirtv Thus Or. TWdom. iQ Qiteritf 
ccncemin^ Tnociddiion.hiidi written in 1705 — 

I liflTo [famt from my i>wn »S*flmiIit*n, aiu! Ihe UfitinioQjr of 
domo old iinctitiouon. Uut vutcoptibUitr to ibe Smallpox bdo- 
ktroyrijl hy tho Cowpox, wliioh i> t maluy mf>rD TiiijJoaiuit thui 

Arui Dr Ai-l»tnw, in hU traiti<9 on ifi>p''j(tf Po^isoiiB, 
1705, o^Mfdrvcd— 

Coiv|K>i i« A iJiMBM wv^l known to Ibe dnlrj-fiirzQvt* in G1l>uom- 
t«r^i£jtik Whftt b oitncinTliif.TV, lU Tat OJifiuU tiavo bJtlicvUi b««iQ 
anoortAlned, » ponton bfbcUJ with Cowpoxis roztdorel aoaciiblo 
to Iha yana\<jua pcototi. 

AdJ Dr. WoodviUo in his HUhry of Inocviaiwt, 
17D6, argtied— 

It liiis beeu cjnjoclurvJ UiAt tlio flo^ihU might ti*v« bnM d»- 
rireJ £roui *ciiiie Ciawmu uf bnit« actmaiW ; nud, ifCtlni tnia tbfei 
thv uL&ugQ BlTvcbiug Uvi^n cau coLamaniGAta & vjwdoii of itch l« 
luiui ; ur tUal A ^wrwa. liftrlnK 'OMlvod b oatSaiq Jliordci from 
LaudliuK t]j« ImU of cows, in Ihefcbx tvHidered ui»eiiBil>]F to vftdo- 
ioEu infection ever AflcrwurtU — then, ujJ«d« th« iKiujcotur* u oot 

The belief, moreover, thnt OiwpQX Win jjoml ngninst 
Smftllpov, lia^l tempted Mcv^ral to court the Ji^*t*aflL'. TTio 
Rev. Uriijtsii Drrwc Wrote to Pearson of himself aod 
Mr, Braggo, surgeon. Axiniii*l*r, 5th Jul}*, IT^Js — 

Mr- CtM-^^e and 1 {iTiilcKivonrcJ to trv iLt- i^ikist^iimuiit of liuxill* 
Ifttinp wiih iho maUtiT of Iho Cowin>», i»ut fr^iiu tliw unrcwUMB of 
tUfi iUjiflaMt, and ucwillki^^vus uf rutit^ut*. ^o wc£« duuppoloM. 

Mr. DoUing of Blnndford rE»lat«i1 that — 
Hr JottiiL^^.iif AuniuAtvr, xQ^fCiitjLt«il bii irifo and diildren' 
mattni laJioii from the t««S« of ft cow tlint Iid,1 tlie Coir|>fl«. 
oUitil ft w«L:k niLcj'wiu'Lla ibnir aruiti wero xoi^ mui^h ioBaiQod, ttnd 
Uit 'fUiionU were H Ul tliMt lli« liiodi«A] B«KiHlau» of Mr. UiwobB 
crfCtrno, nMOilJsdfor. The pntiflntodiii W»ll. 'rh<^y w«o aft«^ 
'~^ 'uocul&kil for til* SiBoUpoK bj Mr. TrabnUg« vntboat ofbet. 

V til Dlaniifoid Jtifornn:<l Pearson that— 

Actilt'Mior tuc>dliLtcJ HWcii ci]ililrc<ii Eor tbeSuxall- 
tuJ bom por^tclyiiifiTtvtl with Ui« Cow£>i>ib; 

vhMaoK» is^viitr. 


b«li>i; mftdft to bsndlft th« UaIb and nd^4M of oom nnilor t1i<? dii- 

oftv (DOCttUlioii Ibr llio Siiutl3poi, ^id not iie^Mi, vrliiitt the bUtur 
two did. IF, 89.) 

Thei@ eiuc« wen (uaunntcifi of muir ; ftnd if it bo 
ukcd, -why were not such inocuUltcjna icpc&bcd. w« n^y 
ukfi 411 Mjuvpvr from Mr F?trgtor,snmeoii,of Tbornburj, 
who, m a |inicticc of tliirty yon id Oloacc^tcnhitVp 
mocnUlo) ttiou>i&fi(lH willi Sit]m]1|.H>x, anil Ii&i) kiiovrn 
"Dumbarl(i» toAUnccs of Covpox." Ho wrot«, llth 
October, 170a— 

lo ^Donl, I tMxtkt Covpoi n » owi^ laori wrav <liMU« tltui 
Uic uiD«uJAtod SmftUpfti ; oor do I »m nay fi^ ftdTactwo frtUD 
lU iaociilalJoQ- SiDaIlF->^ inonJAtbo amou Io bo to irvlTnodtf^ 
•toL^i Hint Ujcrr u ren- liitl« Do«d of » iiib*tiini<. It is curioiu, 
bovevofi aud ni«7 J4B4 lo otb«i iiDprov«ia«aU, (P. 104.) 

To ^hovTHtill furllier liow Jcmit^r'&CGEamunic&tioD vtam 
" in the oJr " rcaJy for drtst^wit, Mr, Downo, surgL'on ol 
Bridpoic. wrote to Pcjirwii. lat Auj^^t. 17&i*— 

A few yean hK<* vrken I ln«tLbU4 agreAtnuiabeTfoTtiio SauJI- 
|ioi,lrew«fkodth*t Itoddool hrMtytaoma infect dim or two 
of iMtti andt Ob LQfiiiuTi I van uift>nu«il tlukt Uioj bod prwioucJiy 
b*«n i&lielod with Uio Ootrjwii I k&ov tfa»t a mtdicpil auc io 
^M pftrt Af lb* 0MU3lry mm LDji;tod £» LIa pnwUco by « prejvdioo 

Smaiipos m tJto«HJqjiH>n. So cnnt ott ottcn^ t« improroiuat «*• 
Ui« i^rcjadioM of ttio mibli^ in tlU oowabyi Uiat I Ifaiiut •ip«im«iil* 
ol lapi>runcd oui aiuy l>« au^o ui iio«pitaJ*H (P. 10-) 

Thu> popular liCiuidaJ Anttctpfttcd "tvliat wu eaUed 
JoDU^TB (Ibcovt-ry ! 

Nor wjvft PcftivoE crint<Mit simply to inqtiiro of otlier* ; 
hu cx]ti:nu;tnir«l liiiusclf, jukI pat Co^jiux to the teat a 
week or 60 before the appearance of Jeniier's ittquirif. 
Bo wrote — 

Happenitie, cc IJ)« lUh of Jon*, ic bo wilfa Mr- I-ilOib*, ftpatlt*- 
Oftty, (in proronioDal bociDo** nl lir. WlUivii'ji Cum, lUJiolAicg tbo 
Now iCoakd. UwylAlMn*^ whora from C^oo to KiiU loilch «owb an 
kfft, lavailodmyMlfoftbo appoimiuty locijLko iDqniry odD0«m< 
ing ih» Ccwpoic I wAt lotd it itm a pr*(ty tnii|ueiit diMiu^ nmfinit 
tbe covn of thM fknti, Hpf<i:fclly So atntor, And t)w£ il va& iiip- 
pond lo nriM fh)ra cndd*.n changA frntn ikvit to ridi food. It waa 
aUo w«U knenni to Ibo mttuiU, tcaat oTtvliom bad b«an air«etad 



w^th tb» ratlfldy from mflfcaag th» diiiwd oow* Od biVMtig«tMEi, 
t frmnd iliHt tfiTve if lh« Bwn-<«rTM>l«, caoulj. TTiniinai Edio^ 
bvxish,T}iM]iiunrirnOi4«»3irii| J^QCI*ric*li*i1boniiUTi»«<«a«ftli 
thoCflwpoi. hilt nnt with ttu ffanjJfpoi. T ladnMd lti#na lo bft 
tnoctlUM far thn Bmatlpni, tni), wUb thftvi««af veartAinlngllM 
ftflicttc/cif tbo vmWaiu lafcdini'S ootpk^^d, WflUun Kvnt sad 
'Ruiixuu Eut. odthcr <if wbctn had riUitr ItiA Covpn «r lbs 
SflrwJIpox, 7f«r9 tbo tnocttliUd, |P. H.) 

Tli^ reiull confonsud to pxpctliition : EdJiifmr|^, 
Oriia&liaw, oud (Jl^ke ^ii not Uke Sii)«]lpox, gt«d 
though jnoculalton vas rep«ftt«d, whilst Keflt mid Rant 
cIi<L P«tr«oii ftvt forth ni« oxpciioMmU naefa nkora 
philowplucAllr than Jeimer, but bu bias waa proiioiuk06d« 
and it Minrlod him to %om^ obvious coi»J[1<*nitlriii» ; and H 
lA marvi^ltoU--i how canily we may accomulatc UctaiU for 
which we have a fftncv. SnimmiDg up the testimonies 
his had coltcctcd, he held thit — 

Th« b«dr orc^0ne«{«Diun«rD[iitasJr«»ptetoU«,d*elubiCttiat 
ft p«n<tn wbi> h*fl Uboiir«4 vniextlw Conor frrH-asdkaJ^np- 
tloD. U not tuAcctittUo of ttu 8mkllp«x. itdoca e>o4 ^f<*^ Uiata 
ijo^lo woll nnthcntimtod co&knvcninf ^■**"^** had Wlaa andat 
oUerrriticiD. liut I do uM Afffffebctu that aeeantfo aad abia na- 
wmon tvill ooiuMcr tfaa fact aa otviipleMj #ftaHiih0dt thoa^ I 
Acfohi not,tl)oj viU allow that Uio Urtunouw now p<cdiici«J (cnatlv 
taatrra th« |irnb«tiiljtr, abd that Lb* o m iAom appropriatioa <rf rl 
in pntoUoo it WAjTAtilublv. (P. €4^ 

In this Bumnukr>- wc |)crccivt.' the fimit Mid bafieifeGUoa 
of iVftrson's Ittrjitiri/. ShmlliMDit <f«"r/ follow C<iwp>x : it 
wan wc»1] known that it did : and Dr. Ingi-nhouKz aaoor* 
lairitd Llic fact as noon lu he lookt^d fur it. Mvreorer 
J'lTtUTic^ii nh^^wod hjnifi<?!f i^orAtit of Jc^nvrV pi^Aition, 
who, if:cogni^-ftit]g the fallncy of the rural fiupiT^taiion. 
ivaH compelled to discriminaU* Cowpox as ppiiTiine and 
Kpunou9— the genuine being the variety derived firoin 

Upon Jeauer a afiBortion that Cowpox wac unAltf?Tvd by 
tnuumiaNou from arm to nrio. Pcar*oii rcniArkirri, " The 
fact nanainfid to Ui proved," That Cowpox produced ft 
haroilett ailment was not, he thought, to be hMtilv as- 
jtumad, Dr, Williivin Hcbf-rdMi hnci rpe**ntJy liioeiil&tod 
800 poor pcnond ut Hun;:orfoT(l without a uiifihap, and 

PEAfiftOK'a iXijriSW 

1700 hfu! pass«l throngli Hr. Woodville's Ii&oJh En th« 
current yoar (179^) with only two Joatlu; yet how 
errooecnjH wouK) he to argue bliot vnrioluiin LnoculAlion 
wu harinli^ti from such ^pocial experieuc^ I 

Sooh liuUiiMts <if ?itc?G&c con i^y he attributed to o, oort^n 
IftTODMblo cpiilomic &tate of tJio human co&fititatiou iUcEf. oiiiitiitg 
ftt ixirticnlftr tJiace, for tlio jm>porti4>D of dualhH from iiK^eulution ia 
Ufa^lly mOflh gTMitcr, owia^. |in>bu])Jy, (■> ovrtiiia unfuvuurablg 
«pjil«mle fltftUa. (f- 07.} 

Tf Cowixt!c r^iiiatii<<<I unclianged In LrarisTiiUrtlon froin 
ftrm to Aim, it would bo no harmlou^ ailmont; for thu 
cviclutir* wn.1 ili?*1.inot thnt iL wn* frci|Uf:iill/ a. :*cvore one. 
For «x&tuple, EJinbur;];h tolcS P«Ar90n thnt when dUt)Vr- 
ing from Cowpox he ho'I to give up work ancl go into au 
hoaplCal; find GrlTii'tbaw that thij dUcase wiu uncom- 
mODly painful, witli ^wcllin^ in his urmpitfi, ftore to the 
totich : And thn itprvnnt nt RlioH^r^s fArin in f.lii? Il&iup- 
«tcad Routl, who hml hp^ti much Owpax in Wiltshire 
fuiil Gli.iuct.'jit^'rwhirtv rtrtJii thf mllkerH Wtr*.- ^simietimc* so 
ilJ thitt thoy hftti to liorp thciir bciJs for aov<iraI dayo, 
thotigli ijoue tvcr 'iiiiJ ul the Coifqiox fev<-r. If, how- 
over, by trADsmi^sioTi from ann to arm^ Cowpox hvcamc 
miirlcT, it wAn not imprc^bnblc that at the 9amo timt^ It 
would \oKv iitor*» or lew of Its protective eflicacy. 

I'cai^on mi^bt b&vc accji fl.n<l added, that r<?3i»iajicc to 
mcic*ijbit*'(] ftmnU|nix, whfii thii curiMlitntion w/w in no 
humour for Smnllpo:^, wti^ no proof that the rioino con- 
stitution wouH roiflt Smallpox when cpidcuuc, ur in 
Gouditlon for tlie evolulSoii of tbe Ui&uk»ia, 

Foar^on likewise took objection to Jcnner's evident* 
(iiuch iw it wh.*) that it was jioxhUiI'^ to tjilce Cowpox 
after Cowpox, tut not SinaUpox after Cowpox ; naying — 

Uo«t of profvMiOQfel men arc cTtrfliud)^ relnolftol in yjirtiliD^ 
HDt to tiju rtatcpicnt Bojuo< inJccd, tcjccl it in Uiu luvj't un- 
qorUifird 1«mu- That CowpoK £<>Uonir Gowpox nppf^ui odjUIi:, 

Here we see PeftT^on on Ibo vorgp of di.scijv^^ry of thfr 
illusion, but with aJi bis training and Yorkjbiro &hrewd- 



BOM helcnt tli^sccDt,fuirl allowi-il htniv>lf toW r]«rvive(]; 
ukd not only <locotvtid, but to Ixfcoaio n prim« mover ia 
th« dcccpitoQ of the warlJ. Jcnacr fell Ibv dliEctiUjr 

Mt mux 8ir,— Yati mftj 1>« vufivtil thktjt [i«iiwnt niftj'W mp«kt« 
iilvhkh I bar* ftildiiMd, and li^vn many man In my rwoolUellaii • 
bnti HATBrtlielBM*. T hvm koiuc nvc^c U Hii|Act t}^a£ my dtocrinnl- 
DbtioiM ha\t nnt bivii) iti\ Ulely. ■nfDolcnlly rLqo. , . . , Coftaln 
H Ic. tlisl Iho "kin ii ilway* rotjoot ta tbfl utMnCfTfl #ff>tfte ol ths 
iKmi ; liut wh«(lt«r Qtf MfmlitoiQon tta npotttadlj TmI Ui« priinazj 
ufTeoU orUi I b&v« «ft^)Ctflj3QeQbi la ii«w lo d«t«rniiii«h (P. 0^0 

TKw pru«fig(f ia ooinniend^tl to thfwi* wbo liolcl with 
Mr- John Shtit^n tbnt Ji>Tin>>r <loliv«red to the world °ft 
Mn^f<-r-nii*ri? nf Mnlira.) Iniiui-Licin" tlir fniit of (hiny 
yciftra of incesfant tliou'^ht, watching and L-xp<irimcnt- 
tt U p!aii^ (hat in !79S tlu* very elemeuU of Dki jiruMi^m 
woro by him tirnkt^inkined, ftml th« moat obvious objec- 
tJonn unfi>TCM;cn and unconnitlcrcd. 

Person's stTOKiff««t opp^UiDU vaa rcaerveil for ibo 
^aaerted origin of Cowpox in iioraegroue. lie saM— 

ItbbB 00 better ai;pp<ixt tlio-n tlio ooQDcUenoa 10 »mc izutonOM 
of tbeiwii iliHccups ia the foxat^ ftttiu ill wliich the oauw Ktvact* 

I hhy« futjtiil tbkt jij ijj«]iy fiiriiu iJitt CiiwiHjt bnnlu i>\ii aJUiuogcU 
uu tLVW^CiJifJC^r LriH Inwri irjtrvilucoil lo ilia horil ; ftlUivUjfh tbo 
aitkoM do iictt Gom» iu coqIacI vith tho HontMi ftltboujta tluav 
an no tcroMOil Hants ; &nd crcn althotijft] there art no llorace kopt 

It African iLat Ibe Covpot do«« not bit^k <iQt umlnr tliv noat 
fiiVDnrELDlD rirciuuAlaiicw, if it bv oooaiiocuid bv 1^ firaB*?, *' I 
liavu hail,'^ write» Z?ir I>vuo Ptncli^etaD, CambrLJM, I4th S«p1«ta- 
W. 17US, "Dr- J«uu«r'< book Mm* wo«ki. aod tbo porticabn 
vlatadin U ar^rvaUy MtpOiiUhiiijc> IbareuudDiiiqitineaufioiillift 
fnl^oci at C^tUabam and Wilfiiurbiiiai in whi^h tiro poruhaa BOW 
mikb CufTK ATfi kept ; abio & cftaI many Iloniu of tbo roo^^ 
1«K£cil out kind imudi lioblo to tbe Bcm1ob«« ot |;;TWt«) half VM 
pariBhea beiDg undar the ploiucb, eliuI tlio tasa mticli employed tn 
milktni:. But I oaoool Add &tX &QV i>uKtu1oaji oraptionB oa tha 
teatn of Ui« Cov«. or oa lb« bajkdA oi tb« milk«r*, liavo ovor loan 
h«aract" (P. 8^} 

In ihft opeaoioif of liia iit^ittr^i Pearson ^n» good 



0^ao(A to Bar of JortU'^r. " I v^onU not plnctc a sprtff of 
Imid from iao wic&th ih&t ilecoratM liu brow ; but, 
rlUpiitini^ the orij^TL of gvnuiui^ tVowpox la Horsejrri'M**, 
ha miffbt bftv« Ai&td hUodelC. vrhat »pn^ of jamai ho b^ 
lnft> That Cowpox origitint;p4l in Hi>rsi*gr"**isi^ wa^ not 
Jennor'5 Olncovciy. An Puaraoiii fiM^urtuiucd in thu 
LoadGn mJlli foTuja* " Tli«r« wan *ucli a uotluii imt^riAmed 
in Hovorni EtftrU i>f t]io ccnntry, wlin^Utvor mtcht bo iU 
fuunOatioo. (P. 3GL) But* Ibu di^liuitiiin uf E^r«i*fiTeaae 
Cf>wpf)X ns th*' form of Cowpox iHat justified th^-i fnitb 
of inti C(iutitry-fi>lk m the power of tbc <iuiCfk-H: t<> jivtrt 
8r[ia11p4>x. wn>i -b-iiner'a AulitAiy distiDction — tliB principle 
juici TnotiviT r>f lii^ Inquiry, whidi, to prov'o fnlkcious, 

from Hor&>,>n;ivas« was deatlv t&n|:fht by Jenn^r to Jiav^ 
no influence cm UicconntiUition.ikTid to be attended with 
no «ry»]pu1aj<. " Lrt m** call your nttuitJoii/' he wrot* to 
PeAraon. 27th Septemibcr, 1708, " to n aimilariby bctwtxen 
tJi" Rniftl!pox nnd th«T C"'*'p"X wJinn inociiliit4*d- Tlir 
i^iDptomfi of aljHorpliori tint disturb tliu aystcni, and, 
seioondly, bbe Hyntoin fix-I* Ibe con>iet]itenow of tb« local 
ioreM. Exact]}' ho with tliu Cowpox; and m thf Cow- 
pox inflai/imtUion v$ <\iwix^ii vftM ertfitij)rlaioujt kind, 
wh«n it «proad>% over thd vkin to any gr^ki fiict^nt, it 
proflucciavmnboThA not unliko tbt; conHnont Smallpox/' 
(P. lOOO " 

Pf^ornon forc^bw th^t if the principle of inoculation 
witli Cuwpox w^rt; oHtablisliCH] it would It-Jid to (ithLT 
applications — 

Th« Cow fodnan a^pcan to alter tho hum&Q MnttxtntiaD, to u 
ia r*a[larit incuMontiUo of 4 diCTor^iiit iiiorbiCa pcuoD,Daiaaly,tl]o 
vancJAiu Id pradaaiBiE t1a« Saitllpor Tlti* fatti in, I Mtwt.'i'iiU 
a novdliy In phyoinloOT niifl pAlhAlnej ' i( Ini11r<fttikt a txaw prm^ ipU 
in tho mofla 0I pHiphjUfitlo pr*cflM- Attd va now ^m m prtrrlpla 
tipoiT whJHT di[raw4 from vanom otbor moiLt&o poisoiu may po«- 
Hibly Iw ]rr«Tonl4^l from t&kiaxpluv, cnoli »m Iho utAila* , Cl'^orooc 
SfirA ThrsviT. HoctjiLnj^d^Ufr)]^ !i^Tl^iliS'^*<*'>'^i^'''^"'y» '^^ i?oiiii<if|M^iiO« 
of dfiiitTO rtnj{ Ihfl tfTHUhilitv offtift p.'jii*tjnitrfln trt »iicli j>.iiii(iT»(i liy 
tha HgDPcy fif illffnrnnt. at;J pAriiApn 1^41 Imrlfal nnta. Wbathar 
tho Cowpox pfosarrna tho ooimbltniloTi frcin otUirr mArbil^c puijuaii, 
b«aldsa tlia mloToni; U an nctlocldod -iiiailiaD. (F. TO ) 

Like Jcnncr, bo iiJ^o rccogni^ in Cowpox a connicr- 
IrriUiiit — (i anJto tkftrt of tr.\tr^r thftt might Uf iiMtil tci ilrivi< 

If it be tmc thi^ tho oiina oaurhtitiitioit ia Linblij lo uHiIar^o to- 
|Hmli>'lly tho Cow^x, to whicli dutempor no oad boa follcm a Tictiia, 

CotElLCjiivn nuijr arul thnminrlYnB of this mcuu of oioitiD^ ui 
oooQt r<>v«r M & rouiody of variou* divordffrK ; it bdoff & truth, 
ftdmittod by mon of oipiTrioacOi that fovtn arif ocoEMtoiuiUy «fflo^ 
aiou ramcdiotr, ocpQflially for iavotorftto olmnuo lanlftdiu, on^ M 
Bpibp^t HjitMu, Lunoiljr, 8t. Vitus'^ Donoo, TotaciUt kkia d«- 
foKBitiift »iid diinuvK, ob?. (r. 81.) ^ 

Nor wan thci notE<»n without wArrant^ for SmAllpox 
itself wtt-s credited with a Joiiblt; jLctloa n.f a guncrAtor 
and ext^rmiDator af diHeaA^^ 

A du[MjBitioii t> oorbkia diD«aa«c» and &t«ei diaMOoa themnlTMii 
atv not roreEj hron^ht on bv Iht SutoUpox; bnt sooiolamDe also 
di^lhieUkiruL U> iliNvn«aiW, and illB«M«it UiamitvL^H of tZio moat idVot^ 
arAtu laud xui rttnovAd by LL« Smullpox. (F. 77 >) 

In ono redirect, Jonnc?r nh^wcd hioifcif mipcrior to 
IV-aiHuji, iiHiiiely, iii i}(rBnny inunK vxplaniitlujL of Oi)wpi>X- 
Pwvmon ftccGpted the diewi*© on tho rural terras— a* an 
cTuplic^n Tin C<>vr-i Jitt4^Ttdc.-d with no nerloiis llliuwi. If 
in any way such Pox w&s equivalent to Suiallpox. it was 
inexplicable that it j*houl-i be limited to the udder and 
t<3ftU of inilo]i OLlllv, juul thai ninles^ and feiWt^ not In 
miiL, ghoald be i??i«iupb irou\ infticti'nn- A diecn^c so 
uniijiii^ wn,i)U'd oct'ounbin^ for; but Pi^rsuu modn Q9 
attempt to a^eoimt for it, not gavd any aiga that be 
apprchondcd tho difliculty. Jenner^ on the other haad. 
aLt'Ounted for Pox on the Oitw by refurring it to infoetlon 
from tho llorao convey<id by die lailkiiraH which DXptaa&- 
tion Pnfir*<in Nj**ct''d, Hut in pivifiij Jinner cnulit f«r 
ao inucli, lt!t it not be for i>vor much. Whilst ho njiciibod 
Cowpux to u credible uuuac, Lu i.lid not reCLigiiiae Ilia 
advAnLa^ir and Humnion gAiiiflayur^ to ^jxplnin how Cow- 
pox. on dcacritivd by thciu, couli exUt without Bullpox. 
On tbe ootitrary, A4 we ehall se^, JenneT submitted to ba 
silenced on this point for reasonn far from crDditablc. 





A>oTHElf *^t\y fttiJ <>Eirue£t exiuiiiDCr of Jwniior'* TrtqiLtrij 
wifcs Dr. Wilfiam Wocnlvill^?, t»liy^ician to the LondoEi 
tSmAl1|M>x and lnii^i]!jitiori HrKpitnt, Ha vhba fl Cumber- 
laud man, bom at (Jo(xki:r mouth, 1762 ; & riKimbcr of the 
Society of Friends. An ardent ixitnnixU lie ttirned two 
AGrc« of tho ground arotitid Uin Hosipitfl-l M Kings Cross 
into a l>otauic ^rdon* wlitch Iie? iii!uutajEio<l at Mn own 
•XMDse, He (3ii?d of & chronic pitlmonarj cornpIa,int In 
]&()5, and in hb Ijut illncM hod himncif removed from 
hU house ID Ely Plaoe to the 1Io§plta1 for the sake of 
the pini*-n flnd the country nir. 

W<rt>ilvilk' vios tifigur to try nfswjxjT, lint Jcnner lijul 
no supply, nor could any bo oad ol§owh«ro. Ho tlioro- 
fcrc resorted to horfiegreaae, but could tmkko nothing of 
It In hifl own wordn--- 

CoQflffiTtQff that tli« i1i>4emLwr my^hi be iimdac«<l hv liioonUliDje 
the aippknof Cowi> vith 1h<i niAtlrir of 1li« etum of H<Lr«M, T pio- 
DBedod to try whPtJtn t^xa Oi^iox could 1m aotuiHy oioitod in thiu 
nuuDW. yumoroUM oxporimouU iruro Mworliiiffly mado upon 
djflmat Coir» vUh tL« m&tlct cf KreaM. Ukoa its tLa ronowi flUgcd 
of Ihttt JTiRmnii^ bat witlioul producluc uw iLiurttcl ulTacL 

K«Etfa«r vtr« iuueJiUtioLu with this mAtbor. twr with »«ieral 
otiior morbid Mor«liou« in th* Qotnv. produotiiv of uiy iiff^otii opoia 
tin hooua rohjeot.* 

Thrice ID p«raou did WoodvUIo submit to inocuUtiou 
with hoTvogTMUh), hut in vain. Othtirn in Lon<lon and 
elaevrhbre atttimpttid to rauo pox on cow» in chu name: 
wmy without result lave malediction on Jenner for 
originating nuch a tronblcdomo cgucai. 

Thu» c]o8im] 1768 -hvith tiiony anxious to try the now 
prcccriptioD \?hcncvor thorc was a chAnc& Early m t^o 
new yHOr, thi^rr? was h pry hi Ltuidun^ Tih found! 'tU 
fbuiMl InHorrison'adairy.Qr&y'alimKoad.cloaebythd 

■ Rmru i^f a Smft i^ ittormlatkamjbr d^ I'oHoto I'ttaainv Or Gow- 
S0& LoBdon, 17W. 



SsioJlpox Hospitfil^cc^wpoz voa disoovdred, ftnd thiUiar 
hastened Woodville, reftmnn, Bir Jonoph B&nka, Sr 
William Watson, Dr. G&rlhshore, Dr. Wilkn, ajid oth^T 
medic*! men; und in their prescnw. on lOth J^nuitTj, 
Woodville IcocuUted ftlx putSiikt* with the poy.* The 
eruptions OQ tho covra' to&ts were dili^^tly compntod 
with thi? df^nnpt-ion Anil plntrji in Jennsr'x InqtUry. and 
pTOnouiicvd idontiwil FourSfthe of tha 2U0 cows in th© 
ilftiry bcwinip sflVct^d, tho8L> not in milk t^cftpjng the 
disu(uci>; likowtiio Homu of tho milkers, the lintt leln^ 
^amh Rice, who had underKuac AinAllpcx in cliitdliood — 
A proof thftt am/illpox did not prflvent cowpox- " At tli« 
s&mc time," wrote Dr, Fcaraon* " 1 rcccivi;d the a^reoftble 
intellig^noe thit the disease wiu ftlso rs^n? in tlie 
lorgr-Mt «kiclc of covr^ on tho New Kood^ncAr I'aiidtngton, 
to wlddi at] (jnv could gnin &idtnil[jiiii'b \ini myttvlf." 

With cowpox thug provided in abuniiajicdn Poaieon 
and Woodville set bo work — Woodville at hi* ElwpitaJ. 
and Poai-aon In private practice. Bt? it ohBrrved, liow* 
over, that this London cawpox waa not Jennet's cowpox. 
It vrwt not hoiNe^rrease cowpox. biit thn vnri^ty HtiKni*- 
tiaed hy Jennor aa apurioua. How P^araon and \^cm1- 
vi!le pTe**i'd forward with their enterprise appeari^ from 
tho following hrtter, enclo^in^ cowpox thrcaa^i, Acnt by 
Pearauii Li> Iwu hundred inedii^al pmtiLjtiiiiitTs thn>Uj{bout 
the United Kinsdom — 

SiTt^t IxopF you will iitfirJoai am fof tttkiiiir ihv liborLy to kiforoi 
YWi (by w«y ot ftiliUtionnt AvMfticfi io thn t^HtiKionUi I TiAvn pab- 
Ualioa OQ tlJ« iD]^«cL of tba Cowpgil ihhl U|iwudh cif 1410 puLcittft, 
ftioEn two voeli to Jorty jeaniof p,ffl.pniidpjUly iiLfitutn, ltiivr>li««u 
isocoUtod nam tli« i(Hh Jnuunry \aai by Dr. V^uod^iUc viJ my- 
««IC OTpmrwtely 

Not onB BKoid 0M« ha* o<«im«d. 

Ncirt ou« uf tl^e patlcDta hfti bona JATiKuf^'^i^iv ^H- - ■ • 

Kcpiko of the paUeatf.Q&inelyflbcjio GO, iutici^UioJ vitth tt)« BoLaU* 
poi, nib«oqQfrDt]y to the Vaccid? DUca». took tlid iufdcbiaQ- , . . 

In masT of tho cnsM frupti^nM o( ttic 1>oJj nppcDred, Homo of 
urbiob coold aot bo diHttnjfTiiHhtkd from tli» ifoinllpoi. 

* J> C WubMl in i.iMdm M*diHii tltpPtHcry, iStO, y. 95T, 



TLATiaMiQllhtiiifttterofCoviiaip^iiituToiicu l^« thread eodoicJi 
ia order, if joa approva of tha inqiuiy. lo iuocoUto vitli it ; atid I 
cnlroat yoa tofAToor mo with ^v rcoult cfyoui trials : bat I mutt 
troub[« y<m i> itpply iho tMt of looculnUoff with viuHoIohh nuttoi 

QKOOCia FuDVOV, M.D„ F.S.8. 
KS. — I nm 1iA|)ii; to bo ah\o to ilmtu that mi BnriualB^i Dr. Jdmicr 

hu rontinuail lui tmls uf iiUHmluliGD with viusoliu) luattqr evui 
ttam Lcmdau witJi good sucovHtr. 

Jrnnnr was cf an milolcnt f1iH[K7nUion, hut Uic part 
T'.' UTK |>laying stuni^ him to action, ffia nephow, 
i'l ^ . ^ i, L\ Jenncr, wrote to him from LonJon, ami thu» 
roiwnd Ills joaloii^ — Htkkst, Ilth March, /rw. 

'VfU-j' wlijit Mr, Pii^tJianiA Iuoa wnlteu to you U will b* noodtui 
for LUD Uj hay frnylluofi to m-^ tJi« aoooantj of yoor o^imiiifi to 
town lo wiorthc Uurols jou hfl*e giuttod, orto prcvoot tlieii boia« 
ploc^ oa th« browH oF ftiiotL«r. .... 

Dr. Ptamm ia jcoiai; lo Mcd droulnr l«t(«n to poodioAl ROi^tlB' 
ronn to lat ihtiD koi?w that b« will Rupplj tlimn with Cowpox nut- 
t*r ttpon IhA^r uppliojitioit to UIui* Ij irliieh m«nc« he wiil 1>i> th« 
«hiflf pfTocVD knovFQ ill tliA Liudnsu* itad oomognoaUy dir|irtTi! you 
of thftifaant, or »tl«ait upcftt itbarcof ic. wbichiAPDJuJitLF y^^ 
dTJO^ l>r. Pc^niiii j*»f« a ptiktlic lootnro oa (ho Cowpox on SLttDr- 
ditVt and iidcTiod jonr opiuioos, oxcofit wiib rcKiird to t^o prob*- 

UUlj of 1h« AHMAorieUiAlingtn HLWAb«' hnolti Au jour 

Mvodji Mffno th«l hou U ycuv ttma td* ^Mitblji-h your fniiiA mid for- 
tiiAo; hatitjftn Aelay tfLkmf- a por^cEiftl ootivo part ^ny l<3Dgor, 
tho oppofftomlj wUl be loirt for otet.— Vour ftflootioiiftl* nophow, 
Q. C. JKirvsa 

Jonnor %t onco cooiTnunicfttod tho &lAriniQ(- mtol1i{*diice 
to hia friend GiLrdner vrltb « «lj iinggcstion for coimtor* 
action — 

BllTBLRV, tt'nfnMifvy. 

A letior just roounsdftom O. Jmi:«r mfomui mo tb«t Dr. PL^ur- 
■on ou SfttunlBj aro • public boture pu thu O^npoi, &uil tbai it 
w» piiblJoljr oilubit«<l at Sir JcMoph BaakB'u ou aucdaj ovmiog. 
Rfl hoA aIm firtin o\ii th^t ho will fumbb tnjr ^fotJomau aI & ilu^ 
toQoc witit tao T^nu^ 

An thif U probably done with tho ricw of stowiog bitujielf aa llio 
firvt Diuiin th«oocoora|Bbovildt«t urDO aoMtlr drawn prufc^caphn 
appvor from laoM to timo id tho paUic prinfai by no nipnae jr^dDct- 
bff ou ll^« conduol of P.. but JTut to kiMp ibo id«a putL^ly ^Uvd 
Ihat P. vai iii)t the Author of Ibc JiRccvvcfy- I moau of Cowpox 
iBoralatiott.— Toar» truly, K- J. 



V ' ^^^B 

SinA]][>ox M ; ' 

"t'mnr.TTTi'irv thM 

liut«ne(! V, 

_^i UVUJ^^H 

WllUfttn WjUo'I'J 


roedicAl men; <u 


WoodFin* ino..' 

tf tW ^ob mit praliRw^^^l 

Willi tiii< ii 

~ <» '^ting lulrdrtuovi^l 

1 for the product«3 

y^nt he Bct a^^l 

^' \v)iox, oqU w^I 

dlieft«e; !jl 

iiat Jenut^r hoA ejS 

Samh Rv 

r, too, had <uccit<V 

A pro'.i 

L t nolliiii^, to 8&tkfj 

SRTf '.. 

^ .r]«t to await hucca- 


to «hW to Toai contcQt wli«n 



to mill' 

.1 Uw fn^iVy ia jDia«, 179 


lAlUtBcI PSKB to lh« «ad 4 

wul ^ < 

Tivwlif^iiU^ til* bttUkTy oflfai 

uid E 

LMuArm fioni* of th« luli fi 

n^MTllI CIT dt>pniT« OtIufI, tQ 

It Wr 


(i-.,! , 

i1 to hie neplMir'f sum- 


. vvon thp iSMof Mm^ 


h; the lUh of Jtm^T, vigitin^ 


s u elaiin^, an J countcr-actinj 

lUtf I : 

t WlKuJvilltt. ^ 


tJUL »* ^i^l ^ obftorved, that h^ 


^ih cowpox tM atL^^deil with 


^hitfhcouU not ^' difltin^uishod 
^. k4 ENttTson and WoifdvUTc wera 



^u(^unnt4i AtaU)in«Qt, &n<I gavo 


,,« ibotn vrhich he iiac<t uospar^ 


^ triocttliUon with cowpox waa. thai 


H^^ «r«« nu4 lufectlouii anit vru with- 


rvitd h«cif wfis Dr. r^arsoD satUog 
p Wiioilrill^ asaumiog to develcip 


^ t^M^mir ^^/wH i^CimMflk^ 180SL 

^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ « 

i^ < 

woonviio^, nuR90K and jexmsr. 


^piftcllee^ and produciiiK & disorder tbat wa& indU- 
~~ttifa4l>lo Stom sujaUpoxl Such prfLamniptioD ajid 

pTliAt waa Uic tacplanation ? Simply tlila : that Wood- 
)1r cnn'litct^rl Kome of hia cowpni mociitations* in th4t 
ioloun iLtmcKtphcrc of his UoJipital, ivnil tbit bi; t}ioruby 
ConiiuLiiiicatetl HiimI]|jiJX audcowjioii nimultaimoualy. ui 
ft ««iiMitific HpnsQj tho oxperi^mw was vahjablo \ it pro\'ad 
ihai it wtui pcitAililc W Havt: i*ciwpoJL and scj&llpox at the 
Ruaotime — that neither disease superseded or nullitiod 
Ifac Qtbcr. 

Woixlvtlle tntM.1 1«? vtijd](ikt<> MtiHi^lf , and in his failure 
magnified Jonnor's ttinmph i^till further. Vol he bad 
mudi that was wa5t>na})ht lij nay fur himn^lf. Fur 
oscample, he had tranfimitt^J to Jesin^r som^ of the virus 
from one of tbc first of hia cowpor inoculation a in 
January, aiid wilb it Jennctr operated on twi^nty persona, 
reporting to WoodviUc — 

DKiuULr.r. Felrttary. IT99. 
Tiio riB«, pTogrQKs. atiil tflrmiriAtioti nf tho piiKiulo* or«nCod bj 
thfi virat wtta AiAetly ihkt of the tni« Ccwpoi- 

Neve»thcleaa, wrole Wo^Hlville — 

Thii viran wlxich Dr. J^niior il^nlutod t> bo jMjrfeatly puro lusj 
Kunamo wag tikan fitun tlio firm of an liuflpit*! pationt wbf> hod 
SiD pti«tuloF, ilU of *vbicth rapparMi?^. 

WoodviUc ftlso argu*>d, that "Cowpos, as casually 

(truduced hjr ndlldii^ iiifi*cLed cowm. flifitrs tuinxid^iraMv 
rom that which is the t^fftci of inoculation"; which 
Jenner nlttat^jd id snjing — 

Fonr or £v« tiervR.i)t4 vetp iiioi?»]iit6<l >.( n Unti t^miii^itanv io 

Cov- A littln iulLkCumjiUau lip^x^urtiil on all lliuir imiiB, but dJml 
^^ny nithcitit irfuducULg > pusilvito ; vnt nil Ibi'^^ >£ivuzith cuu^ht 
iL« iUnfuw witiiJti ■ moaLh aftorwntuii ^m mclkiuf; iho iafartwl 
CuwN aud bLiiUD of Lbeiu Lul ii advexcIj^.' 

OtlmrH uiaHintaLiii^l Limt Uit- rviwjKix whidi Mivt?d iriilW* 
maidH from acnallpox woja a, Eimch eeverer affection than 

* yurthtt Obterrati/Otit en i^< I'cjtoi'r Jd'nrJ'^, 1199- 



As tmottQ lutUrre «%iiiB« It 
Jttnm »bociJd foel wtxioQa o-r- 
k« «onndarad 111* ova ; bat ttt 
tbttt P«u«cn liAd doiM ftoUufL 

Hr Hl]riw«Hl Jenner full cnnli' 
Qlooooitccibiro Euth m co«rp 
of oertftin milirncpi fiir 'h--.' 
Jcniw^a pnMttplioo uf 
nukug on of a fono uf t^ 
plidtljr eopdOTnnoJ, Whilt^ 
cunoflitx- be did ooi^i^ - 
It; «ml it wms idll to «xi' 
vcDioDc^; nor ira« Pe«f>;.: 
Rction vju possible. Aft 

Proiu 1h« licw of tba 
tha ihiilhor iuntrlbaf44 
tiutyoftr; xuirooiUdl 

t&nnen, noiii vl ' 
Dr. JcaoBT'H book 

Jtuoar u 



2* ^ on 

> WW a cQuntTy 
, : %p «» « bit 

or lemotc, 

«nd tbc viri 
»uch eruptii 

«ii|Mriin«iit4i thi 

with amallMue 

h moctiUtioitt 

cnipbioQ OD Uia 

f.MX vvKLcle i^eAuhoj 

iL' two inocuUttiojia 

.' iniorw,! on tho 
c'owpox, its action 

,U1 Uio inSuencd of U)t» 

' * u*ti?'l timl smjinpox 
Aed a liybrii.l pox 

M i'^ Umiioii, laoe. 

"r-r^'^viLLE. PfiAKWS ASh JKKKKR, 


'I'rvction of tho diuHucc^ u of ft vuMued 

. btit i:«n«rd]y they prxieciicd toj{^tb«r 

■ wpox maLutalDing itA charact^^rutics in 

u( tfreat &]£:amcttikce lu Wocxlvlllva expori* 

r1w>Jco(L Hq u30CuUt«d with cowpox in tht 

HoapitftI, and some of bU patdcnta tbcre con- 

vnallprt, who c^rlAinly w*re not inocTiIat^l witJi 

Ejx, either occiUcntallj or by dc-Ngn. The l^aaon 
experleuocf w&a unptfrctilTu], &m] though it baa 
I npt^^od «^in onH again, UTArcly acknowledged, 
'iiftttott lu (irc^cnon of Atnollpcx. or in nn epidemic of 
;, \a oft«a a means of inducing th« dtsenw it la 
, to prcvc4»t It lichti the fire; and when the 
[bua, U U said, " Ah : It mu&t have been a-1ight 
When we have a nund for fta oxcusc, our 
iKtrr U iiKTiAlly eriiial tn t1i^ Tv^iiitiiUoTi. 
'be New Inuculatiim, a,^ it wiu called, grew in f&vour 
daiJ>\ WfHHlville &iid rt&rauii did iLf* rvttl work of 
puhlidcy ftnd promotion— Poaraon (fl|>ociftIly, Within 
SBVcu niontlK!!, J&nuary to August, I7&i), they pexfunued 
900O inoculations, 'in tho PKUoaophioai Journal, 
Aagurt, 179t>, Pcar«on oboGrved — 

In Scotland tliu t^v* InoculAliifU has nub Inwu IwB lUoQilgfal. 
Df. AoilHveqi* uf LviEli, itJiiraa ui« tbat hv Iim Mivculal#d m^iots 
QB Hiaocki; Uiat Dr. Duucau Liidbv«,'uu Uiti umcijca iu Kdlo1niii|3i 
■ad dial it bM Ifmq lAtrodiMed iu Duudc*. rbulDjr, aud D^Iklltb. 

Kov (lid r«ara<ia limit Kb dTorU to bin uhtivt? land 
Ho wrote— 

Id Ui* 0ODT1* of tho Mmc ^mt, 17W, I tit«ii4«4 iLs (faHTnifH 
Uob 0^ Uk# TUdio* i^&lUr to Gmuajr. for th* PhnMm LouiM a& 
BtfUn, to Uaciot'tT, Vlaiukft, Umiata, I.kkkon, Pati*, asd Uoton, 
■fid mio Ihft BnUdi Atmj throtigh U*. KmU. 

Jenner leii^aided much of thu activity with a jcftlous 
6j« : it did not suffideotly make for Ida glory* Ue wi.3 
uuEJout, frctfntrholpUu. " It in impowbtc for me, un^l9* 
httndiod, to combat all my adven&riea,** vraa hid wbinc 
"1 am beMt on all udes tnth Hnarling ffrllowjij, and ho 
ijDOiant withal that they know no more of the 

::ch ;,^nerate it 

'-. he published 
jC», in which ai 

-.:: vr»>.iiKv.I with Tiiain 
..>:;;>, Ji-iini-r wrote it 

^ -tv-.4,'J an.l wiii,']:cj in tli< 
. .'.ii: ;i,v^i;r. Tlu' fvts uf lb< 

< rtiV-^ei, finil Ji^cjhVt'i- tlie 
, ":v-i::t. L:i':',":a::t I pet out 

r.: l\'r which tli^n- wa-^ no 

'.::o rnati-L' tl.nt wei^ vt >,e 

^. ■:■. th'.' nicest 'A' falaiiCf's. it 

'■: WU-: a wt.ak-iiiiii'i,'<i crt-a- 

t 4'/<sii^ a'-oTit ( ■' wji-hx wiih- 

-'..^.ii]\v L-.'.\^.. Jnvk'vJ, 

\ !■ .,■ .1- Viii'cir^, :*:■.;'.'■. ltvi.:.,i its 
^ . It il i- 1 1 -"l:.'.:i_' ^■ t^clty a 

.■■'..■. Mirl; il-- M-.u . f :■' wijtinc 

■ -:: ;.:i'-ic.i ::: t... :. i:.:ir ImatitL* 
^ .■.■\\'.:u., [---:... -..- -...>. lis it 

_<> . ■..!^i:v..:/.^,,. 

SomettcDes when it » objeeted th&t tJie evldeiica ad- 
duced LD the Itiqidry wai hastil/ collectod, moflgro And 
inconclusivd, it in replied, "Y», but recollect, it was 
aaerely & selectioD, if a poor one. from the ftuthor'a 
vtonffi*' — a i^eply which J«nner thus rondurx nuirntory Id 
recording — 

My Into puMlcAtton cnutiLtiM a roUtioa *^t tnfml tt/ tfm f<icU which 
hiid came u-nder my curit intpcctior* <t( tha lime it wew Vritttn, 
ULt«rspoft«<l with some oc^ajootorEkl obietYaticaa'—tr. 70} — 

Which i4 exactly what any pfrspcacioun iriwlor would 
infer from the ctfies adducud in the Inquir}f. Thay 
were Jenner's beat and hh all. Meanwhile^ m observed, 
bfl» had h(^iin able to do littW in <ixUinflton of th^ Trijiiirj-; 
but if tdlc and helpless, Dr. Peanon had been acuv« — 

Siooo lL«u Dr. Gourjc^ Pf^Kou La« eiuUiiliod ui icouuy mto 
th» TtlUlty of mj prinolf aI jwortioQi tho result of wliiou cumoA 
but bo h\^i\y Oftttvriag to mr fooHc^v, It ooobdnB {INMnon'v 
Inquiry] iMt « DDglocuoirhiob I tM&kcAn bo^allfil &ti fliovpttoD 
to tho ttt/jl I WBrt no (irnilj uiipr«9Ac<i vitlt-^tl^nC Ibo CoVj:Cl 
pttMnU ihe huiniiii body tmm tb» Sdallpoi. <P. TO.) 

Here we hnv^ a dij^ticict mU-itattitiKf&t It wa« not 
Jenner*H "fact" tliat Cowpox piot^cted the hiiiiian body 
from Smfillpox — th&t wkh a wtjIcHprc^id nuprrHtitiniL 
His contrihution tu tho quoJtUon waa ti delimU>^n of iht 
Cowpox effective against SmallpCix, namely Hcirsegreise 
Cowpox, other Cowpox being adjudged tpuriou^t. I'car- 
son Hu far frnm cuiiiiriuiiiK Jauuerfl poftititiii, <l«lilii?nitely 
c«t it &»Jd«^ He not only nccoptod th« niral faith in 
Cowpox (wKtcb Jcnncr knirw to b^ utivrjirrantAlilc), hut, 
wh^n ha proceeded to practice, made us« of Cowpox 
vbich owed nothing bo Hor»ct^rt:«c. If therefore Vkat- 
•on*a procttlure waa "highly llaitenng" to Jtnncr'w 
feelinf;^, bo uoa oitber ooaily ploosgd, or an adept in 

Thu trutJi tSy the publication of VHrfher Observiti'ms 
wiut iltt^gned by JeTiiier to loo^^D himself from what waa 
dotinito in thu Iittjuityf 4o that he luight be able to 
appropriate n'bat«v«r rolght result from the ioveatigft- 
uoDK and ^xperimonta then going on. Ho had dofl 



propliylacLio Cowpox ae Hcr9egr<e&G& Cowpox, bi 
grease did not meet 'n-itli fftvour, nor &ppcat likely to 
uiEvr^r; and it might be eTp&tli^rt to drop it; aru] Ltiuii 
be deaccibed the ground of \m attaohuicixt to that fonn 
of Bpemfic — 

FirBllyn^l eoQColTcd tbil KofBegroaw wm ttae Bouroo &f Cowp^x 
froia Qbwrrme that whoro iLq Cowpox had appvikr^ uaonff tL^ 
dftiHM h«To ^ Herkelojl (unUu it c<:»M b« Cr^OAil 1o llio kilroAtlO-. 
tioD of ftQ iufooUd cow or wirvAut] jt UlJ Lf>oii pn^uiuil Ai tlio IktM 
^y Bi Uoivo diiMued la tli4 mAQUi>r dt^ciibvd, ivlucU Horvt hod 
boon At^Qiioi by Rorac of tho miltcii 

l^a^DLl]/.— From ita Ifin^ a popular opinioa tlirou^liottt Ihit- 
tfrvat dairy cauntry, uid from ltd boiag uuiut«<i ou by ibo«o who 
Gore ntl*ud Dtalc «ntUc 

Thirdly. — Fruiu lh« total abMHoaof UtO didaniialn Ihoto oouQtnoj 
nhflTu tlio ioicju ioivfttita oro not «aployod m t^o 4amoD, 

FoiTitlilj.— FroiQ haviugolsQorvod ttut moiliJ JnBttoPfifflioritoi 
by tlio Hone fi'cquobtly «oiDmuiLUaC«fi, m a eaturd way, a diMftM 
to U)« Lumau nuljuot £o Lko ibc Cowpox^ tiiut m luauy OMOi It 
would bo diCboult to mule* Iho duiinotion bvlvuvQ oaa >ad th> 

Pifthty^ — From bcioff Icdticod to fiopp om fram «ipAn:u*nU, that 
fiomo of tLctfc who hod boou tboi afl«otod froto tho Hono n»utod 
tb» !^iunl[pox- 

t^ixljily.— iiY^EU tho jiro^att and j^oaeraJ Appou^aoi 
pil^Lule aa thu jtriii of thu boy wjjom I iD0Cuia1«d vitli mutt*' 
nvira tlt^ Imnd of ii man Snf^aliiJ by n Huritt ; Ani) fraai IhV 
BimllfirLly to tbu Cowpox of Uio guierdl oanatitutionid lyicplamt 
whidi followed. [V.n.) 

The boy inoculated with s^^coiiclaTy HorF^oprooAo was 
Bftkcr, Cmd xvjii. of the lumt-lrt/. iLq died of fever in 
^ej)Qrlib u'orkLouio b&fore he could b« subjected to tho 
vanoloua teat 

Ji^r.iu^'ii drift in tlii? forpgirtng propositions wiw ob* 
viouaiy to Jijfhteii liU K'ttpoiinibility for the advociw^ of 
IIor§8gTea6e OA tht^ origin of Ci>wpDx; ijiit in doing so ba 
deprived luin»o)f of ouy voaUga of oIaIiu oa a. dtncovi 
Cowpi>x and UoraegraoM u prevenllveiii of Smal' 
woro in common reputo ; but their combinntion u 
grcane Ccwpox waji fl"jpp<iat;d by _icjnic to bo J< 
peocliar spenMc. " Not so/' he wh\. " It i^ tho popnlir 
opimon throughout thi? country that Cowpox la bccottoa 
of Horflt*^reaw* ;** and prtM^eed^d Ltfjiritlfy hU pmvjrjptioiL ' 



by th« popol&r authority. He produced ft letter from 
Pruraon Moove of CtialCunTUill t« pravo bow in Koverotwr, 
I7D7. \\U Horsf* had tlio Grease, with which his Wy* 
tiervaat iuffCUid the Oow, which in turn iDfcctcd Luu 
lArl with CowpoK, ftlthon^ifh eigliteen months before h*? 
had bocn inoculated, and acvcroly too^ with >5iniUlpox ; 
thrj par^ju adding — 

1 nmflrtnlf cjf oplnbn ilmc thA Jlutfiflrn tbeheeis r>f theltonu. 
whii^U wiu a vlnt^oDt Grfifupn vu the Drl^in af t)ie Scrviict'i VUiI 
Uje CowV mnlAdy. (P, t>l.) 

To tht> objecUon th&t att«mpt« ta ralad Cowpox from 
HorBt^ruitia hod, »o£iur, proved foilurctf.Jenocr replied — 

Tlio cipvrtiuvtitB pablisljed by Mr- tSunxnoEUi of MwiditmUr anil 
othtrA vu thv iiuVjuvt, with bh« vtaw i^ ivfutJuu Lh« uiiifLU uf Cow- 

Kx ID norftciciiiMo, ftyuiffu to hftT* hut hitle welfbt, o^ cvcu the 
WPodi Vuiu iUolf, When rtpoftUillf Uktrcduced into the Aound 
nipple* of Cona by meauivf a liujcet, wna fonitd lo produce no 
«ff«ct. [V. QQr) 

Having rcachrd this paint, I wnidd hcg the f^/uict to 
paiis« AiiJ awk, What wiu; J©nn<-r'ti dlHoovcry ? It wan 
notCowpox; itwaa not Horsc-^roaak? ; it ww not Horae- 
grcAMs CowpoK - nil of which hy his own aJtni^lon wcro 
ftOOffniaed tv thcfic familiar wiUi Uicm oa provtntires of 
AmnTTpox. SVhab wa^ U then' 

Notliing itt more coiLSpiciiou.*^ in the Ftivtfur U'^Witct' 
fu»lL« than tlio comlition tjf i;jauTnii4:i> aiid luiWt^ility they 
rflvtfoi. A* we have setn, cHtics of thi* ordt<r of Mr. John 
Simon represent JcnrnTfl /uguvVy af n MiL*tcipii^cc of 
M«rHca] induction, th«? fruit of tblrty ye&ru of iDct^&aaDt 
though t.obflcrv&tion ftixl ^'xpcriinpnt; whilst the patience, 
the cautiuii. aiid Uit- imnU^tj ul' tlicjiutlicr nrecomuivn^Iud 
for iniilatioD. Tbcs*,- wlio bavo been eubjtctcd to Mt. 
8iinoLr» homily cAimot \ni suffer dUonchftntnu^nt whifli 
thoy COCK* face to fncu with the facta, Not aftur hiia 
thirty yiMti^ of as^oi Ud iL'^^i'ttrch could Jeuaer ananei Ui6 
aliDpie tjutution. What U Cowpoxf Incrgdiblc as it tiiay 
appcAr, the foUowioj^ waa IiIh dcliveiance id prcaencti i» 
lh« ilnitbu rxcit«d by the diacmsion of biH original com- 


fT . 

^^ fawiT to d*Umii»«; I 

I ^ rtfcTi^ of thau aniptleai~ 

\tiM^m ^i-^iuvtotholniiiMn 

"^^^^f^ag^l In Ihin mvoftid^ 

^»^Jri th»y fuui uiti>rtiijn with 

' ^^^ |«(Dnln# Cow|H>x ? Until 

^^ ffkri Gowpoflic, tind whMl 

* teii*. (P. 7B.) 

ibiityyc&rAof JQC 
t\ The Mm 
_ «asontiiiJ fact u 
_^^,firtlT(l ! Aiiil the repa 

to «u»0r9 of hu piujiLT lind 
h ^ffjchibition of Nctf-^atisfiod 


l4i ^ln)W Umt the countrj* 

\toih or>fiAtt(utioaiU asd IookLi 
I* r>oolT«Ei fnim tha inoiUdd 

-— Jt fcAi*}" ^^"^ iifirc-ted may fftni^ 

^ ,.^v luive Liiidi^TKonn nntnliin* 

\i Uu^ -vf nt of inciimiiij HtnaJl* 

m ,j» llni virtue of trm.> r^-mpoK, 

.„,( thi' two dbeiKtH, h« illus- 

.„a AH- iT-'s^ 1 

,. L,, Imtii^^were vi vihctlr IUm 

I ||„ 1,1,1 lilion the difit^mjMir'troai 

■^ "■ lubJiJ "^^ milked n Cow far luoirtt 

' \l-) b*lo **" ^'^ luaKtwr hud u Ur«A^ 
*ijr 111* ftBi""*^™" *"'! fu-tbor Aid, 

JBXN3H'5 FvnrrfBR omEJtvATtom. l*r 

tiiftb h* hjvl oonftiftiitly droflfloi bim twiou a day for tb* Usl tijrw 
WQtkti cr mciro. aad renuu'kci that the mufrll of hU huado was 
tough UkiT tbal of Ui<s HcTw'a booJs. JP. OT,^ 

Thii* Horaogrcasc *orc* wo .'nmubtcfl those of Oowpox. 
or of Hotsegrease Oowpox. &a to be mJiatrnguit^hable 
Erom thoui. At thb time it wiu Jonnor'a opinion th&t 
Htinw-ureiusc, jwr **', nffiinlc*! iio pnjli^aLidti fmui Smitl!- 
por; It had to paae through th*> Cow to aoquiro its 
>Ov<arcij,'ii efii(»<^". The opinion is notcworthjr in view 
of its absolute KUtrender at a later purbJ, wliuo Uio 
virus from the Horae'a heel canio to be (Icacribod by 
hiTa hm "th« truu and genuine life proaor^in^ fiuU,"' and 
vrQ& uar^d by hiiu for tuuculatiou without any rcforeocG 
to the Cow. 

One of tho ninift of Fmiher Ohaenation^ waa "to 
enforce ihv pucaution of &iibiluiii>: the iitcculatvd pustule 
s^ sc^n tu^ it had sviffidootly ptoduo^d ltd effect on thd 
con.ititution." True Cowpox. according to Jcnncr, wa.-* 
a senons afT^tlon. "Thr- aori« ate Into the f1e8h>" 
(P, 77,) They were capable of pTodiicing violent effect*. 
Tliyy wtru att&nOvd with tfrynS^wlaA "Thiiy cbst'Iy 
reeomblod Smallpox of tho oonllucnt sort." (P. 111.) 
To prolong *uch R«f!cring hu coiwidviwl iiwl(*w, for thir 
vln;s oon^rrL>d ita proti*otivii iDfluanoo oo tho conati- 
intion IW1 aoon as icceived — 

The sjiiititoiab wliioh iaa in the ucciJflUtHl Cuwpo^il htSvvi i\u* 
imlJviit uitti Bfiirnty, are euLirttly sHcoLjdu'y, c<ij:itvd by chv iirital- 

iLu HJitKiitjir vinid piiHiUsMDit mi ij'i'itiktiiijc 4imlit> uf a ^ocuKelt klui) ; 
Init 4k M liu^ltf Conpfti pqatiilu l> all ihni is nuaouiu^ tc> r«u Jar Uic 
Tttlioloiu tIiiui ineflixilLml, auil lu ve |JuesocB lli« lueaua of aliayluK 
the initutioiiH ebtjutd may afisc, it twcoiuw of litU« or ua <oua^ 

qlMUOP. j?. 110.) 

TIm mcaiu for allayiujf the irntatloa weic mercurial 
cintnient, acet4to of leaJ, caustic potash, or any aultablo 
<!iclLaTotic — 

AftVT U]« pa>tixl« biui dalj •url4d iU inflaoDMt, i cbLiulJ pnfat 
Iha daitmying it qmokly a.od albatiuUy to aaj otUar moclo. Tho 
term MuMao to a U&dur mt ^And 1 cotiouvo ncno wi 
iuUfosUd ID Uuj Infouy thaa th« acxiooi gou-diiuiK < 



siA>' Hoaad Unnb tnnl uaplpibsiutir* l^ut etrrfy kollcittat^b llist war 
(riw on tiiLi McoDuutwill no lomcBr«ji*t wbtaa H u uu^JcmlooJ Lbal 
Ihv puatulc 10 ft eUl« fit lo b« »et#d npoEi b 4b«a qntt« suMt^ftL 
ftnd lUftb it <I<i«H liol OEHsapj tlia ^pooe ol & cflvor ^cany, \V, 104,t 
I vould not, liowvuri rooommfrDd anr ^pplicjitigii to iialrilTEP tZi« 
Mtioii C(f tb« poricle cntt] oonruidne proorfi hai ftpponrpii of ibo 
pnlittnt linTmi: felt il« clTfds for >t IpnAt tw«]r« Loun. So hftnn 
iad«Bd couU «n«a« iif««« a locjear iJf^riixl to ^InpM Won th* 
Afitilioftliciii VM mode uao ol Iii iLi:ii'tt tli* puttolo iiUould b« 
flutffirod lo bjkto aa full ad ofEcct u it could, oo^v^rioatlj' vitb tbo 
BtftW ^tiho MEO. <P. 109.) 

norsegr^^aAi* anDove-l PcAfson — it wa* lika to rlanin tho 
"vvholi^ thing ; nad if U tro&tmi>at of thv Covrpux puxtule 
waA bCA'ccvly le^ olgt^Uonalle ti> him aui] la Wco<lv']lle>* 
It givvo tho pubUcp tJicy thought, a tpiiHtt of thn virulonc^^ 
of Cowpox thjit wiW vrholly uuwarranUtlc! j niiJ they 
did notsTAy to coniiHtiT whor.her what Jonriercfille^] Cow- 
pox in GlQuooftcrAhirG Jtmi whnt thoy cnJlcd Oowpox in 
TxiiiJun were Uie naute virus. .rt?iiniTr'?t vim* w«s Honnv 
greiUQ Cowpoxi Pearson And WoodvIUe's was CowpoK; 
cnfl Micli being the ct.*c» the <iivrTsity of ftymttoma miG;ht 
h.ave hL*efi accomiti?*! for. Ajiyli6w, thi? diilyri^iicc be- 
tween JcQnor and I'carsoD tmd Woodville. as to & deUul 
no i^loTiiintary, hIiow^ iu whjit an uiilinUhiMl cottdition 
the Cowpox pre^cnpticD vtua ali<jt upon the worJ-X^ind 
RfToTiU A cunous coiniiicikUiry on tne Masteipi^cc o( 
Medical Induction, thd frutt of thirty yoorn of inaawiH 
thought, ohaervation and expciliaenL At tfi« stttDA 
titiiit vfo hnvc to do Jonn^r tho juvttco of allowiRff tha^ 
at ihia datt-: I70t>, hfi mode no pretence to a fininhExi 
\Ift^t*rpii*ce. Ijiit uigeniiQUsIy RJicribed the prex'alont un- 
eorliiinty to "tlic prc^-iont <'arJy .-^tago of the Cowpox 
luquiiy; for early" he wfotn, "it imij^t be ili^mnn).^ 
(P. ] 1 5.) Sariy it wu : not ft point firmly det^^rmindd ; 
the reverse of what might have been expected after thirty 
yenrs of inee«4ant thought, observation and experitii^nt. 

• BoKA'a J.ifi qfjftmfr, vol i, p, 31D. 



OPEBATIONS 15 Loxiroy, iSoo, 
Dr PEAitsos wa* tho chief actor \n the formation ol— 

/fjj- £ft« InocvJaiion of tite Vctccinf Pock, 
Wa'i-^vick Street, Ckuring CH»«». 

In Apn], ISOl, IW ItintikLilifju waa renaoved to a mere 
commoiliJ^as hoiisa, 5 Ocilien S<juftr^ k w&a th& first 
esUblishmcni of thi; kind in the world. In the con* 
spectus of th«> Inatitution it wa« stated — 

on 6 
nnlj Ima diAil. TKci« Ia. bnwfwor. gnnd gmiini] far l^AlU^liiff tliKt 
tlie proporLlnruil mtiTtAlity wiU Jjc ovna Tom thait hoiM sUtul. 

}lot n a£n?]o wall^ibtlc^ileil JrinUiDcfe Iiaa boflu prodiiDuii AQiong 
nOTO than 2i>0<t iiineiiUl^d with CtiwjKiGlE, acid ^ubH^t^ucdtly w:tL 
Sauktljhjr, tit t)\v SninllpLiK lf*in< Cnkutt, riltl]iniii:li mnTty wcrv 

&r£ U VhtitlilihhiiJ fruui Um& uauivmujial Llifit Lflur Cowjiox iliur» 
Is no 8nittU|>Liji, 

It may ho fiiirly aHirmed. that iho lUoctiliLcJ Cowjinck it 

oa at Icwc t<<u U' oufi. 

It diHtii not ii(>LVAf the t^mnlaa Yftccino Vock coin b* iin>jpa4[»i«d 
Uko tbo 3aai]j|)QX Ly cfiluTta frciiu pcrni^oi Ulit>arliic i^tjJor it. 
HvDoG if tho VnoDi&a Inoculation nhauld bo auiTCfOKlly uiAtitatotl 
ui place of tbfl Smallpoxi it U rtfANUAbl* to ooaoludc* tliat tbli 
ino«t loathnoui^ anil £niai uiftlUy wiU bo oxlinii;Qi*lii^J; a-DLl, IJto 
ihd BwH^jt-SicknoM, tl)^ Ha^qo, oericin form* of lTj>noii5, «tv«, 
bf: krtawu in tbia cutwlrr only by nu&o> 

It docd fioi appear Uiat th^ VaocLD« ?ouo&, like thaX of Uio 
SmAUpc>x, txui bo ooorevod m aa to pradu«o tbtt disou« uxdbccfclj 
from oiflMCodMnoo*! bj adlivrieif to olothost fnmittm, boddiAei 
}«tt«ni, otc. HoDOD nk> dlninr of lU prequ^^iitLdii m tbono oliuuiui 
In Ic bo ftpprttbond^ &«d Uuo na^Toraol ptnclkco ^f tbc iaoenlftlioii 
of tbo Coivpock. 

It haa boon found that a ponoui wboio ooaEtitatioc has dulinoUy 
onfloreODO tho VACoioo IJiiiWt, iu in fnliiro in<iiKfioptiMu of tijo 
10 aiaordor* [r^« r»-«itoo/ihif lioA u>m irvaitd an iinpo»»ilU. 


It my ficiuii'! 

tlio jnisl^il 
null tl^;il : 

nctiDTj '■' " 
j>iit»'iil - 

KIllTtJ' ' 



qI" < 


, : tho pnlj 
._: hjw I'a' 

■ : -. .lay 

.■:■ :: Z'.-\\ijTt 

.„-,::.;.' jkui? 

v: the luijia 

.■/:l■i■>!I^lv a 

\Vi>ijilvillo V 

.;_'iiii'y his o^ 

^-/■'u tu havo CO 
..i.sliiki' wrt.^ i4jai 

„ ilu' luatU-r \va,s 

* ui";';itiisecl with 


;i^ il was il.-^,iiv*I 
iaciivf oi-in>(.nLtit 
out 'if rhc i[iksti(i 

, ^*. ;<'/'^ h'-rmhrr, 1709. 
■■f.\i\\\\u\n <>f n diJLiity i 

■'■■■ \"^'^;:,'yts: 1^:;: ^hp:] uuy ilqiy 

, ,'t:tlu'r falfi h] jim- .^cut for ii 
■ ■ ^T*.*.. k-'*' -l.\i^^ u^wii' TJontvrr, if it w 

1-' - 



Tfao invitiLtion waa glvoQ atiffly, fronD duty moTQ thcin 
iiolinfttioii. Pc^oTAuii knew verj wolj whj^ Jtuuii^r. furiuuH 
vnxh jorIou;^, bitd kept away from him; «iid he wvm thus 

It appoftn to ma lomcwhut eitr-ii:irillD.Brf tliat AD inst^tatioa 
foriuM opoQ icilorgD uiCft1*,aiid tlmt hu for lUobjix^ thoinoculft- 
tion of tlt« Cowrioi, HTioiild h»V4> bi'cn Kt^t fiii foot iind ftluifUtt owu- 
pUUlycirvMiivAiA withimf nij rcii^Alvin^ 1h» inu^l cliwi«nt intiniftllAn 
of il. Tht jTisllltiltftn Itflotf cannot, of oonniii, but bo blghlj' flnttOT- 
fnp I*^ fno, Its 1 mn thniviln- f onvitiprd tbnt tho iinpnitaneo i*f the 
fftol I iinjkiLrttvi j^ nckTtowWgod b/ ziLrn of tliti llnl cibititfox. Bnt 
al tlitt Hums liiuri nlLtiw irie lo oWrve Ihiit JT lht> V^rrin** Inooitln- 
ttrm, frora nn^i^Ptlefl i^fnidnfrt, aLoalJ ^Jiit [ntn illhmj^iitA innrl ^nn 
rnojU futinU. SiTy ihftt in mor« llinn one insUDca Imu Liu r(<|iiitAlinn 
■tiffiirndf 1 nliinr) iiaiiJit hear the iiiilom. To J't>U, or uny otliflr nf 
tho ^pntlnnifln wlmip riLnins yon mortion na nlltng np tlio modirai 
ilejizu'tujtutv, it cTiiinnt po^iibly pttai^h, 

Al Iba |]rvi!fflUt crisis 1 fc^ &o KtiAibly lb« UupurLancc of tbo 

in IfCimlou. Fur ILj^ {jrenuiit 1 Tiinut be^ luavv l^i uvrliiLV tUu A^'nour 
tiit«uil«il mo. — ^I reiaiitii. Sir, joiLr obcdieBt SiTTvaiit, 

PfanvjiiM T«p]^ Uj tlila Absurd and thorou^^lilyJuimeriaii 
lottor does not appear. He might hftvct ttmnfcctl Jcinnor 
for having drawn \n» attention to towpox, am! linvw 
poc«ode<1 to poirjt oat that b«iyond that aorvicQ he and 
Qu fiicnd.-! ow<.si hitn nothmg. not in anywiic admitted 
his gnardmiiftbip. Th^ir practice was at camplet<^ variance 
withhUt^jAcliin^. HcbadprCTCribcd horsc^^jaio cowpt/x 
In which tJit^^ hji'l rii> fitilli. havirr^ Lrh-d tii jirorhir'] it in 
raJtiK On tho other hand, they woro opc'raLiu^- ^ith oow- 
pox jHTc ntp which h(! hml o:indi^mn4>i] iwi [lMl.^lavl, Wiup 
attended with no erysipehu* or conatituiSoJial cllocL ; and 
that working with this condemDod cowpox, they found 
themac1vv« pr'iJuctuir a u^uch mildtrr d&ea^L\ anJ wcri; 
under no nccc^iiy oc following hia advice and duatroy^ 
in:; the pustule fcnuL'ti At, tho pdint r>f incniktiim with 
6ficharotic£; adUiug, tliot if tliu> had bui:^: bound to bit 


* IkruaV L^fr qfJ^uintr. voL I. ji. flW- 


,. ;_ml>,1 for iiiarikiiid, bi 

'' 'I- Kihvnril Ji'niior. Tlie 

■ iii'^_i>':iliiH'-y ninl rnpiicit 

■.;i;inilatr<l Pciirsjin on h 

i^xUiiiiii"''. An tr> clainiir 

IriiionUiliiiii, it wa-i prcpo 

'iV.'li'l hi-j nnitrol. It \Vi 

I- TU'vmli<l anytliin^Tiscfi 

■"'ff. Hi" Ifft to i'tho 

' ' hilmur aii^i ris|iiirisiltili( 

i-'-'i-ari'il "n tin* sci'Uf wIk 

.11 'u' I'll 

\\\'\ \i\i\y till' part < 
— ili:iMill viijijiii'.i.d iinprov 
■.■ ;i->--iL;Mt'l til liis civlit. 
vMiTiiint^fr^' )i:i::i<ili>^'y. In 

. nf jlHlin^ !►> I'l'^VSi'll ail 

' :irii i\"i JiinUiiiL; a faiiirifi 

/.■■Iri'iiti-nijiiinii y i'vi<loiic 

■ , :i riiiinrmtiir:Uii)U l(j tl: 

'/, -Kiti'.l 2:.Th Muy, ISO 

.4L| iJii- w'Htf! 1l rill:.'. l)ii' ;:r;iti'f 

r ..| i(]-[iln[|-<' I- I It. .Ihhiu'V, tl 

.'..- ,iij|i' lini''. I'iii'fi.'-': li.iu' iiiiu 

III. I ■'■■ii4'Vii!4''iit hr. 1*rjil'<L^T) h 

iiiirM-r :f^ ho Jiij, (1u< bnsiiU' 

.»!! ;il H'l.ri', ii itriiv(T-,iiL !j 

. mil iiij-nL-'JiiihL;, Iv iiiiiminr.dp 

iii|.|i'|p- '■■►irfirimiti''ii of [lir uuli 

I ,,■ .|j, Mijlt I'iVfV-^nii (lid 111 
,- ,\ I rv.' * )ll tlir CoTitVrtr' 

miff v;ivi,'iTir-' wiili Jciizn'r 
,L<« |'i'>.. aU'l vjtll lii'^ en] 

,, . lu ''(pnliriii .I'mii.T. 

iliif rJiMii'in''' !is ln:nl tit' tli 

,l.Ii )> lli^- N'w IiUH'ulatiui 



He put JenncT^a piVAcnption bo Uic test willi pnrfrct 
^ncerity and admirable courn^e. snff^rin^ Mm^eU to h^ 
thrice inocuUtc-l with horscgrcriflC in onlcr to ccmo at tho 
truth;' and only leaorted to cowpox when he found howo- 
pro4.40 cowpox un&ttiunfrblo. Mr. Anthony Hig:hinoTO, 
Mirgrou, «|K4iking i*viir WundvlIVs gruxft in 1805, p*- 

Who llmt have folt tho boooato of Vtwcbfitioii will ool touch 
tliou' cliiUrcQ, and their (^liililroa'e oliUdroD. ia bloi* tho name of 
Woodvillo wbcb th«7 blcKii tiio DAmo of Joiuior* 

Vet PcarsoD and Woo^lvillc. vrho ms4.a the Now Inocu- 
lation jmu^tical and jirat'ii cable, Wfw |)iiTKUi*d by Jnnncr 
with i;iLplficablo animosity, etig^atisinj; their miahap^i 
Mid a^i|rn:tpnii,tin^' tlinlr iippnn:nt hiu-i'ixsi'm. 

To pubUfiha pamphlet lot tho d<.*tracticn<jf Woodville, 
and if poflablo to np^t Pearson's Vaccine Pock la^titU' 
tion, Jt-nner UH Berkolry for London on 28th January. 
1800, tnkin^ Bath ou hb« way« wh^ro abio & Vaccine 
Pock Inj^titntion wiu In projjrwi 

Early in 1800 nnpctvivd A Ot>nthi\i/dior\ of F<sct9 <md 
OhM.i^vntloiittrdaUt-i^ f'l the V<trfo!*i' Vtu^ciTKr- — a quarto nf 
iQ pa<fM. Jcnner' n thirfl pampbbt J.iko itA proaeooeaor. 
& trumpery collection uf ;r**^ip> it wan dvoigncd to niam-> 
fe*jt hi* Advantage over Woodvillo, who had inadvertently 
confiJAcd cowpo:^ vrith amnllpOA in hi^ inoculations &t the 

YinK Jcnncr expressed sat^sfaHicn ovct the interest 
of Ktim|J4» in Oowpiix Inoculation — 

I hnvA tli« iilfbHtin*, Il^l^i or KtLug^ Ihnt 1)l6 f't'lile vlTorU of a four 
Ihdivljlii&lfi xo cUproo&hU tlie vitw |in4c(jc-e *ni sfnkifin T^at into 
comoiu[it baniinLh thA lninieiiii« mfU£ af fiviiloncb whioh bftAriBAn 
up in (Tlppnrt o/it- 

H^ th«ii vrent on to describe the accumii latin jf ma^H 

of (i^'idence — 

U|)WBi>bcf tdi llioufaud iMjnuua \m^« iicrv Ld^u Luuaul»t«il with 
tb« tirn^uf CLrwpui. uid tfjtt Car fft^Ui part of thoui kawnuiov 

■ jpff"* CjfV»/*.r J^, rol W, TiOtKliin, IStfl, The wriUc of th^ 
ATlirlQ hno»«U ioaoubkUd WtwIviUo ^ith thv U 



ra tfTfrj ¥»tioDal way llitt ooolil bfl dovimLi wiiJi«Dt oflxi. 

"Tni^r PeATMOii inigbt bav-o olworvod, " but wbi> i 
IftteJ the vo/iL fuftjtmby of the alx thou^ftikl ' Nor 
tii«r ioooulatod with tho hoiHe^^Tvat^ co^vpox you 
sonwd, bat with the cowpox you c^Ddcoinoii" 

The Introductory reference to Woodville ruvosJed Jea^ 
nut* disposition and t<tcticA — 

It ttftf vory imjuobAUo tlitU tb« lovcati^tiaD of ^ du«aM 
uiflJoifotit to tho anuU|)Ot ahu^ld no fonr&tS witbaiU dcghjCMi^ 
■lUtnlioa of Iho PJiyxicuim fif Il;fl STriLiI1|K^i tT^ipital m Lootloo* 

AoronLn^Iy, JJr Wuudvitle, whr» ttTli* Ihat 'lt>p«rluMal wibJi 
mUAb n^jiwrtihtlity, took tui nnrl^ o|ipfirtriniEy of inj|ihiiln|^ 
lii4aLry irto th» nftinm of ihc Covpux^ Tine, mi|TtLn w»m bogub 
U»«arly|iart of I71^U. Okiiil ia May, Dr. Woodvilid puti!iHh*d 
T«<iitt, vhicli diEIdn DiMntiiUly from miott in a. point or mi 
tm^iOTtAso*. It ai>p0iLTii l}]At thni«-ftrtli« of tti» pn£ioiit« fnooi 
IMtV aflisoi«rl witli iiniptiikTifl, fnr tli« inowr, jiiirf, ko f4if*elti 
Mffiblbifl- tViH Sm»llpnt. M nnt r^ tut JiKtiTiKniHrioJ from Ui«Bi. 
Ihtji «ibJAR£ it U roi^ouary ttiAl 1 iilifiiiM tnnkt lomv oommcml*, 

Wociilvitlr. whcnr- i*x|)i^ineiiU wmrn lu n hTindrod Ut: 
oao of Ilia peLtromniD^ critic, and infortritbd ^-lE^h pTirj^ua^ 
too, miiHt have rncrivi-i1 tliK litn^iid ct>iiii[|efiilALion of: 
hui country ncfitmiritiincu with »oino surprU**, if n^t with 
tic^rier AL-nLiuinit. Jf^imcT aa an ittvi»tigaLor ^rius iit-ver 
of mucb account Of wh&t constitutes scieDtiGe domcn*- 
stvatior, he httd littlo pcro^[>tioiL lncnpFb1>tc And iudiil»nt« 
ho novortMe^ waa aiubitiouit, auJ had the craft to 
Appi-opriate the reooarch of othc^ra. and with a^isurancQ mi 
JtiolTFLhh* thntffven tlnv pIunclRiv^il M\ niidi»r l,hr*p4TrtiiajQO0.f 
that what ho took wan voinetiow hin own. For oxaaip]e»' 
tho oocurreiice of NmAllpox arut cow]>ox h1 mill tan i^ously 
in WoodvilloE practice, which ho had not fora^ei^, nor 
coahl ntiV fiircMTi', he 6raL u^ni) aa a pretext For lofty 
loprohensiofi toward WootlviUo, and then convettoJ into 
evidence of hw own prescience, saying — 

In iQf iint pnbUoiiUou 1 «iLpKiuiad t^n cpiaiun that t^ic t^m^^Upox 
andtbtC^Wjpox vtr«t]i»tiumDdiMRj« oa^cr JiiToronttJia'lificjitLVQB. 
In this oplQJon, Dr. Wcoilv>U« Uw DouonrrciL Thr^ aiioia of tho 

tb« flftm« tima in L>ao an^l the tame ptaf. ^vill not lu h^jgr^l b^tho 
adaiwou of tUa tbcory. 



fiwukonflgmae that heiL^sumed t-o be th@ origin of 
sniBtJtpo?c through cowpox ; and the cowpox ustid by 
Woodvlll* WBA Jenndr'a condemned cowpox, nnderlved 
from the horac; yet tho inconvenient waa pamod ovdt. 
und UiJ* iMinvi-itirnt ituiimT-rl I 

Poesibly oovmox anrj ^tnnllpOTc ore forma of the Biune 
dimoso : poBsiblj thojr arc not possibly all diM^o ikvc 
fomiiof oiiddiseftft0:|>08»fb1\' Ojtyaxo not: butwliaHrver 
the f net. Jconcr had not an iota oi evidence to Qd<liitx^ for 
hiM conji'crtuTr tltaL grcONfi in honuM, N.nd pox fruni LlmL 
groasc in cowb, waa a modificatiCD of amaJlpox In ineix 

As we review fchifse early tlnji of tlie New IrtoculHtion, 
nothing Ao «tirs rc^et on whjit Appo&n to havt^ boon Ibo 
witfut shutting; of imhh'h eytw to fuctd — to noturlotiH facta. 
It vrne "^^M known in Gloucestershire, that wIdUt ths 
volgar *nppoM:d that co^^rpox prevented sniftllpox, it did 
DOC do so. In4.1eed, It wsis nnder ^trv^v of ihU kitowled^ 
that Jcnnci rejected cowpoi per sc for hor^cxrciwc cow- 
pox. Til (lift GiancfAtirr Jtmi^ud of 9tl] Mjiy, ITtfU, Mr, 
tX Cooke wTOt« — 

I lint itiiy ve^y inuaii iloabt tlut tbft Cownox b a pmuftaoat 
jiravfluLiTc of 3iujk]tpo.^, hni I run cocflrtEied in this oijiaitm by 
uOCHrreucM in luy owa |rrA(rtb(<. by nourarthi^z ^'th mauy uH^Iicttl 
mva 0a th« •tilriuvl, nuU by l)t. ItoJiluWt >'ltj writuv. '' 1 liav* * 
(MM «her« 1h« SmaUpot wm IjaIvu aflvr Ui« CuMpui IjaJ bo«a 
hrio* goao tbroogh."* 

Yet in presence of such tofitimoniiM, nc*hieh were neither 
cxnminrd nQriTXplorlml, Jcntmr prophmii^din tbM^tmin— - 

!r>atu« ll)*r« iim vho inppanA tbn ufrtirity tram tli« SmAllnot 
ofaUtDfld through di* Ccwpr»T will bi> ff n tnmpor*Ty nalurfl. Thk 
mppMrition bi rnfiilod, n^it only l^y anAlo^y with roipflct tm Ll1«iiAH0 
of % timiJnr niltitt, biit ly mi3ontrov*riltla frurt^. aliwh nppeirln 
L-Tivit' niirnKnr*! n^miTiKl iL. A |u>nr>]i Imil tbt* Cowpov tiS yi^n 
hofttra tlif SiTkftll[u>i wtLfl lTta4 Ti^mn film, nnri lu \\» roir)plni«1y 
roHlUAiJ U> I ivinttBiTn nvary mnumMit mliiil muDt I-a jinlfAilAd Umt 
ht WM Mean ftvoi th« dliiauii during lb« luummlng tlini^- 



Hiiph WW Ih* ovfdiinoo that Jiit thought AhouM saUtafj 
t'S^i y ri»<i4t»nikbU tnfni) ' How di<l ho Knr>w that tho said 
IhuiMFU lukil cuivi>DX 53 yi?At4 b^or?. or Imd the n^ht M>ri 
vif ihiwjHik.KHil in thn right vnyf Inoc-tilntionMnth small* 

Jm^ MU cuiitiiiunlly uoHUocMafu] (without rvf<:r«nco to 
i»H|iiik M nHiixir taf fftiUirv) soil iii«p(<cin1]v among olditlf 
i\t\\% \VI(oo, |j'iw©v(jr, tlior^ U a diapoHitioii to belierft, 
MtM tUiMi JiiilKrunint ufl^ifrLt aervo for conviction. 
(\iW|Ukft ahii Miiia]l|>ox»KHM Jiiukt. wi^rs modificatioiu 

(■r i\i.- ~*i ijIwAhv^ Atiil SiuallpoA. wheUicrr ci>:)lracted or 

iti I MM A wull'kjiown rxcttnnt of scrufLilt,; oad 

tLiLiii I v>tii Irtcllnml U* coiuuUor it prohabJc tliat "tliv 
t<iHi»t knUi^liHirm of tlio 8mall[M>x hiUt Kuropd had 


M... uMHi vontJudvo iDoaon in Lxcitiis^ that 

ii . . M hrtvltli" Then, iL mix^it U- ^id, Cow- 

, .., Miti|.4Uiiik "f Snm11[K)x imigt b* iinhly to tho 

,,,ii, Ni^i At all!" protested tha<>th'S|n>k%u 

■Tin* flUoAJVM&re thd >(amo, but iinluco in 

Luiih^ii »f Jiflroiula"— 

,u ■iLl>lllll'^ witlol>«<l tl]# tffr««U df tho Cowpox io thii 

, idtfi t«aiibD0f to [iro<Jiio« thia di}Btn3otir« 

III* lliilftod o?tpcricnce, the HMevcTation aa 

latuihili *»f rtcrofolawju flheer qunpkcry.aDd 

^^ .. nilJor HMurancc that fulUjwH. lu 

. ,1, piiw(>ox as n useful altomative to 

UUHiolitNc^j; l^tit in 1800 tht; claim wm 

ihfM |iiM*» tic>l oolyamons <mraolTM. but 
Hi^u flrvW lu Europe, uii nhvu jl boA b»«Q 

iiflvr u/UrttMtrtU, at ttn^ period of iU 
I |(ji^L% ooiiic^atu^t? tay coLiiitc.v uid 

ln;^ ijl lliatoilJ folTO of tbo CuWiUK. 
lUqmibK froi^ tLn «u-tb 4 diii»u« 
iLd tii?ttmd ; A dLfi«b*o that Uaa OTW 
. I avourifo i>f tho biionAu raoel 




It ia unnccc^aory to dUcuaa th«se wild wotda — It Is 
anfltcicat tc record lh<^m oa evidoncc of vrhe^i it iv&a 
p(^js(Ui> to BJuaert in thn yi-txT )H00 — and Assdrt^ too, 
whilst xi yot Uiu Lowpox tliat waa to work the mirode 
vn/M ono thing in tht* ImnH^^ of Jmner, nnil nnoth^ ID 
thciBo of P^aitTiun ani WooJvillt*! 

T^ie pttini>bl(5t puLUhUuJ, Jeniitrr*** other LusuidMs In 
lf4Xi(ion w&JF^ to umlprmint^ tlio institution for Vacciiin Tock 
IiiLiCuhitiuiu He wi-iit ailioul mamtiritJnK and proti»ting 
that it* founders and otficem n^ith^T Icncw what was tnio 
Variolro ViiccinR\ nor how to uwc it; th«l not only were 
they IjjfTiorani, Imt pt-rvei-iie; and thut tht lunni^aMJi'able 
bTeaain^ ho hnd bt^cm the incans of conv^jying to miuikind 
would nb!V(Tlii?ryiOy tujjiiyiidunUl i\ivr^ waahu lii^iliLu* 
tion with Edward Jenn^r H>r it8 j^iiirl^ nnd dirvctor. 

In pUring thi^ game Jcnncr had faciliticA «Ad ndvan- 
ikgi^a. No on'>,not Pcai^n blmndf, cout^stt^jd hU position 
80 AdvcTtiftvr of the ^ew Inoctilatioii, and to the public 
\ii3 wjLs iu rnprisi'ntj].tivo, Ht^ hml aiUmptd nothing 
and had no iiiuha|K) to auoount fur: Ihc^u uttochcd to 
Woodville and othtrr €r«i!Dh)u>i and octlvo (ixperiMientetu 

MoTOOvor ho biid no awkwanl inforuLiklign to contend 
witti m ilioau hd adilret«eU — tbt'> ]i^tcnQ1), wdio iiifonnikl. 
woro ooQvinc«d. Jonnor's conduct nt thi« juncture, io 
relation to Pearson and Woodville, Iia* br-cn »tic>cAtUcd 
as mean, thanlcleas. despicable Tbes>.* be hard wordi. 
His ULCtics vcro the common tActici of men in whom 
selfdovii in iireclimiimnl, ami v/a havi? not thtr aiLrcn^t!i 
for the uao oi Iho appropriate opithcta with tho froqnciicy 
that cxpcsrirncu n^uLitrcx 

Thu poor were trie chi^f fitifferera from Bmallpox, and 
under the name of the poor Jcnncr ftdvan(:*:d bis project* 
H« cirnw Tip Lb*" foUowiTtg Miu[tiL>raiiduiiv whidi he *»h- 
initt^ to the Eari of Ei;r<jiiiont, and drcuUtod privately — 

paovouL roa a tuuuc iHSTiTtjrioN roit taccdtk iwucmAniMJ. 

HftTini; Ticw piiTvtiivl thi» iat|n{ry into tb« namrd rif tlitt Onwpdl 
tA BO gTMl Ml MiUint ȣ In lie nblp poalivoly to ilDolAnk thnl tliAt* 
wh^ tittxo p-n* IhiMUffh iJiifi iriiU dUeue ara rf>]i£|pniil pnrf*(illy 
UKTuro frara Vho 4?oTLtiij;iati of tlic Stiihllpoi ; imd Lciu^ cativicc 



Snoh VTM t)i« flvl^pnri 

^M«f iL* EDMlllJUlW 

9VtJWy TOAeciulTlo 
peraon li&i] co^-r- 
of «owpf»i:,an'l i: 
pox wfta conUi. 

f DWpOX U CMXtf 

folic- W?M 

till' tlUHt ][.<. 

Cowpox ftm^ 

of t1l1!HflTlLtT(U^ 

inoculatvii, ^o.- 
Jcaucr w-- ■ 
ffv^nKn] iTi- 
hotn ftiuon . 



C<*v ■ ' 





. _i»iitalicu, mcludi] 

jTicifincy, or brcftui 

. I . .J -, iili l^-^trj.jii^j 

, -.^x U-1 1 :iL a. liLlook 

_,^ ^re thG vrith-trawj 
^^ uiil fx>rd l^gTcuiojiJ 

;i wM (it'HiynoJ, tut hal 

■^— ji l3jti I*'*'* <^f tlic m 
*" . -Tj^ ; ^'^tS 3«'*ilj^, to flcrvi 

TJ t^* world witli viruij 
^^^yKr?«*ary/' One <jf Uia' 

--— not yet f-^iii thftd! 

'•* • ,1,1, tfiloU Ji luto dU«i 
- I '^'JmB **"* *^ «M«W Vf'itk 

" ^ 5*^— -jfl wo know iljnt it ¥ofy 

id «» ^lufi. 



<o in ^Jnxlik&d, luring bad no frcnlj m&ttw from tho DOW sisco 
J^iiavj »ci4 fcWiintj of lut 7«tu-, 1700. 

Tli« Frciiyliun-ri fatli^! agma with this viriw, l>ut Dr. 
Woo»lvillo eoou aftur weat to Pari*, fiiul ctTtfcboU what 

Cow'Ptwk DifipuUHftrios woro opiitiuJ in variouft towns 
througlioLil EiL^]bud,l3d,t1i and Maueht^ttr pt^rLap^ having 
the 1<^ ; arid Ait A<tircsH to tlie Voov v:jui clmwtL up aiia 
OOmmoii lovMi to bo i^ucd fttpm such DI-i]wriNuiiM. In fl 
copy rjf this A'hli-e^, widely circulated in iind nrouncJ 
UauchudUr iu 1800, vc rca^l — 

Thf* oijinicinoo cf s«v«Tiil j-cfLn hu fully provAd Uiat Ini^piilitiari 
fur Utv CiTtrpox ic i rrrf'Tin jtraprv<itiVc nfpinM tlio SmitLlpol ; 
SQit LH, lu«Mi», <4/ niiM \nd info a t1i<Cifdoi| vhOd ooirpnrvil vJtli 
tho iTinfiuUuiil SmiUlp^^t^ tliut it liM beon jff^nArHlly inttoiliicpd 
Kmrng tht\ hdtiuv Lriformi«c1 ftnd DiOTO irealthy tTihtliitfLHl^, tcjllj 
of lIjiB kln/^iloni ftrnT i^r vurtnim jinrU of Kurftp* 

looculiitlon iitr tbn Cowpoi hu* hMn |iTnctluki] fnt nn^nnU ynftTii 
l^en tJwtn th^rtt] vith 4xinKtaQl fliccffn, In Tiuicai piuU uf Uji^ 

lb hAH nwiir fikiltfkl to prt^vent tlio fiifr»«li^n of tlis rinlunJ 
It m^bc ciiuimriuloateil villi noifHty to p»i-nrpiic {>f «verya|f* and 

aud i1 ifl ti-lJum> if wcr, nllonJuiI wiUi ouj ctlivr luitika uf th« 
iUmium tLifiij nliaf npiVKT uj] lUfl atma frum iiujouIatiuLL. 

So f^r fmui ^iivviiiif I^LutfuL. <lcUcisLv muJ tucllj U^Uitfvn ue 
«ftoil impRkVOii ui health hy Unv'mn putnil tlui>UKh tbi* c^uiplAlat. 

8c4rreV ild^- [cm«dic« vi tAXtniiiauce uro m^oJivd fui lliD Coirpuit 
nor 10 there luij ueccuLt> ioi n gouiao uf phyuo bvl>re or *ft« tbo 

Tlie pff^judicff* of lh« poor iffunsl iuotmlAlion fijr tbo BaiaUp^Xi 
bv wliiok ihcuooDd* of Lv«^ liftvo bwn vmiuUv kavmIi* hA^e Imi 
onen luiMiDtod; bat if tLcy miSbr u&jnut prtjnaloM to i^mvflnt tUoit 
UyicghoU afibc>ilnuitd^iiov<i(erod»uioJDbythoiiioculatbij 
ol tho Gawp<>i, Ibcy wlU Dpelc^t th« pctrfoiniAbcifl of a Jutj' th*y 
Oim to theaM«Uefi| to tfieir fiUutlie*, Mi-i to Hoi«U at t&rcr. Tov 
nutJjr it b lUtl« la** (^Iiati gtimtnKl to •xpo*« tluiir boEiiWi cUiiJnn 
to tho att«Ak of DO tck-kiUU lual UM & muAdj an SmalJjiox yfhtoi it 

* By uiJ by coatrcivcny vitli Umt ^^uullpoKor* WAxed hob, ULtl ^ea 
th« C'DHpoiR* ivvmd Uut tliudiuiilii of lim wm<i mnauU^ liruif bj 



'«owa/^ mny haVB Chctr 
.w«fjtnJ^ tlirniiMboQt tb* 

.'4 poL-ir ill ftiwrin^p thkr 

""'iiJiioi, JcXirh 
ai thiM town. 

nf b no qucfltion that 

^ theao moQclacitus 

tkought, by rue-JMsd 

- (be aiimvfti of ihfi 

It would scoui tlui 

^ 4 ^rtniii «rf, some" ~ 

^i*sV J^ reverse it, 

.. . mty no sufJtJen that 
^ rf itfiolf. Th*?r(j wet« 

, ..yinliL^iit Maying— 

,,.ijc id aot iu poMMdon 
ftuiuukld tbAt uiuitt ponni* 

fartlior tououtiiiutf JL 

^^ •! by •oin^ : hoir it «« 
^T^ iBSl'oaititio ; how it wu 

^^^1 ^ oOf momnry. ^ 







Tjte Kouiic of Hooovcr boa beoD reDroochcd far in- 
ililfttreiK^K Lo Ht»rittDr<% ncIuik^ and art, \ml an eAciijil'loii 
migl^t he ftHsetted od tbo aoi>re of variolous &□<! vaccino 
mocitlation. It was OArolinc, Prkicu^^a (if AVn,!™. whu in 
172lpromutr>JMaiUaiid"BexiwriiiienU; and Jeniier found 
none so rf:aL[y to licAr ftiid ^jclievo as Georj^ III, oixd his 
family. His iir>t coiiv<*rt wiia the Duk<tul'Clniv'nce,Mil)- 
eequontly William l\\ The Duko'a aurKOon hfippcnod 
to be Franpis KiiigVfc^wliohinl livpil in Wilts and OtotitsEM- 
tetuhiro, and was familiar wiUj Uiu country faith in oow- 
pox, and loc^ived Jutnicia cuiuinualcalloii with a ready 
mind. In 1790 Kid^'bt was nllowed to oporato upon th« 
Duke's children by Mr». JordAn, jind lh<: f.ict wai nobed 
fthroad and pjL*;^od to JennerB credit. Nor waa llid 
JJukc."* service limited to this cxAiuplc. He niAdc Jen* 
ner'a aci|uahitani;L*. lisU-HL-d to hiiatoriw, And became hi» 
ociivo partisan. Then tlic Duko of York, conLLmandcrin- 
chief of thf-nrmy* wasconviiia^d, aud L^nf'jrctd the Dew 
practice to the full cxtonl of \m vowi^v. Ha. moreover. 
Acted as patron of tho ViLcdiiti Pook Institution u:ita] ho 
woA pc-Muadtrd that f^'arson, itn f^undur. was injurlouh to 
Jonnet. Ou 7th March, 1800, Jouner was pK'acnkd to 
(fiTOTgft HI. at St, JamCTi Palacf*, und di*liviTr«d T///f 
lAqti.iry bound in orim.-ion to hit majesty, who w&9 
plofvier] to Hcc4?[jt i\i\A <li^dioatioD of bhf< second eilition. 
Un the :^7th hei heid an intonicw with Qncou Charlotlc, 
who convur^d about the m:w AE>tH:if*c with all tho 
ciiricfiiiy of ft grand -motherly quack. The Prince of 
Walea follower] 5uit; itnd Jcnncr found him^vdf invoited 
with tha fiiH eifulgenctf of thii royal fovour. It wjw & 
magicnl snccc-.s^; for, con^^idcr, not two years had clapaod 
ainCH the piihlunlitjn uf Tlu fiu^iiiifj. 

J&nner naturalh* becau-Kj vi-ry pt^pular. Ho wrote to 
Mr. 8hm|>iLrl — " I have noty*.-^ matlv half my calh lu 


V>wit, ftllhou^h I fftg From eleven tUi four;" and, "Pr»y 
UIJ Tiemcy now rapidly tlic Cowpox i» marcSins ov«r 
thb metropolis, anJ in5t>e<J thruugh the wbolis u1«nd. 
'JIki rioath of Chreo cbildrtmundormocul&Uoa^thna&ll- 


III iJrt)l«.b1v ^v*r tU/it pnu"l,ini^ thn BruttiK'HtnK" 
lilUd aliSty 

to make mill maintain jfround, 
JsQiier.UkeiQaiiy ft't^Mi- folk, liml the Fftcully of convert- 
ing tbovft ho caU^ hit I'rii-ndH to tiU privaU' lulvantai^ 
M* did not dubdu« them bj vUl, but b^' weoknuaa. 
fnrUci^, whoever chooser to observe will often havo to^ 
inAf k with amuo how stronffcr natur» onfTcr their mcan^^l 
aimI «ner^aft to be appropnat^fd by inferior orgaiUTtfoiT^^ 
uid iM«d with the thank lfuAni:<F6 oF rightful T>o^en«ioQ. 
John Ring wfV4 n n^iimrlcabln itvtUnn^ nf^ thin Mwt 
M^eadon. Ho was n eur^eon in New Street* Hflaovi 
kiUATc, Ix>ndoD. In 1709 ho cnlcnxl into corrcsponden 
with Jcnnur, and hiE intcrojit in cowpux and its tdve 
llior develops into an cnthuaiJiAm without qualitioitic 
1^ WMTinfHH or fe«r. Wbnt4*vor iTj^nr^^r ^iwnrtnd h 
Awora to ; whaL^vcT charox^ won hrouj|;ht aj^OiinAt th« No 
Inoculation lie dr?nit<>l He waa i^eady for all oom 
with utich voIliMo an^i hearty vijpur that hw ontroeM 
jfToprirty wbtm Uuglii-d at ivnJ vxtLjscci as " John Uint;*s 
way." AiDorifl his earlier eerviccs waa the preparatl 
of th« Tcfltimi>niftl in favoux of iJic New Inoculati 
wbkb be carried froi[i house to hou^e and obtained 
dffBftbm of ncarik every London physician and eu 
of dtHLincUon, Tjin Trj<timcininl wit-* nulilLsh^d in tb 
^fdical R^'ieto and Mt^Ocal ^ourn'u for July, IS 
and waA reprint^rd in the ri.'WJSpjLporH, It rttn n>i follows 

\tMky aDfoaadfld raporta luivc ^een ofrrml&lth], whii^Ti hava 
Undntoy to prvjudJon th« pa^llo &;;iiinitl tho InoonlulinTi (if 1 
Covpot: we, ih« undertiijfned (iliyiJotAtiK And fiiirKmiiM. thiuli 
onr BDtj tixlMlftra ov ophaoa, iIjai ihuMpcnuiLs who hai/o had 
Uie Cqw|>oi am perfectly aeeoro frnm the mtan fcfBciion of th* 
BmaQpoi. umTlJod llm infection hfw pat Wau prorifnuly com- 

'by_ u lu^npensl nDdO' TVoodTill* mt BtttU Bridge 



Wt alvo d«oLu9 Uwt tlw icoonlntod Oospox k ft m'luh milder 

The fint Bt^aturo* CDinpriAod thirty-two ph^-^icifiDe 
and forty nur^tiui, nnJ tho exaniijle Wn^ net, otiivts 
hasUned fforn town and country to mcord their odhuf^icD. 
" r foci pjrom!," wn>tc Mr, Withjuii id -ponding hw nftiue, 
"that my litda bark mny. with othera more illiutriouK, 

jUtDuduit mil, 
Pontie tb« trintapb, and ^ortnko tlio ^e»'' 

Thf! TtwtiitiDriUl Wl mwt cfTwt on the public ininrl : 
to the ciajority it w&a YrrtwisUbU. As Rmg niUd, " It 
confcumded tbe enemies of t\\(j ucw piaclico" — add'iaif in 
hi» ehaiacUrrMtic v^rii&cuhir, " niid it Aoctircd thn iriumpb 
of Ti%K>Q over tJid ftcraplda of prejudice auJ ij^uornnco, 
Am! tite bftse ni&n<Piiwes of sorrlid and snlf-iiiteivated 
men/'* Thii4 early was it dUoovcrod ^lut an opponent 
of Vacc^hmtuin wj^-i iiii ignonitiiiLH i>r«. ruKcni Kiii^K t-jmy 
arrogftoce i^ oonci^Iy iUustniteJ in this dolireranoe — 

It i* D4> WAol of oujdour t» affirm th^x thoi« irho am Btvtilo to 
Vmonn* looenlAti^a, are lot«I BlnuiRtin to U: thoBO who w 
4«iibtf[dt an almost tobJ BtntDj^crs to it ; anj I dofv tlio whol« 
worlil to proitiieti ono Hfnv^'^ iuAtunoKi of a |U^ri^a tlinl fiiiH hiiil an^ 
«xponoaoi» of iha ilLMnAOf who ia aot a dcoidod friand to tbo 

Jenner reco^i^ed hu thcrongli -going snppfjrk-r »nd 
mod hb k^'iLlty to strikr; at Pcutaoii and othcru who 
taWtii} U> nhUU m Ilka HubaervituceH He wrote to a 

foreign phy*iician — 

Tbo difccvcry vhicti I had Iho happicVM to uuionaoo to 4h« 
wc<rM i\ lauoli iiiUrbtoil to Ur. fiintf** vUffiiicoU unci i&ilofutinUd 
ticrtioniL r>r tlju n^iJiI pro^rvi' U hut aaadu ; vhilo hoibo of llioeo 
who irahity oonc*ivffd IkBrtit^ivtn inttntmental in promoting itt 
Adttpti^H hikvo kQ roaLity from thiir ryiofc^npd aaa indii^retiont 
nUbc7 fflUriod tbau ooraUrated its pr^gnm, \ 

* A TVMrlv on A/ Crivpta ctntatJtmQ ihc FliAtory </ TarrkK /vooiEa- 
lt«a. By John Kin^. Parti, il 207. Lvnaon, )»01. 
t /«. !*&» u. ^ 7W. Uoflon, n»03. 

ivrv. Uj Jobn aiofl. Urnhn, IMT. P. 49. 


that inoc'ilittion wiUi cowpox was & kvtg ao'l 4ivf rljwting 
protection! from amallprix when lliey hod not, ami eould 
nol b&ve. anj' experience to warmnt thtix AK-iertion ? 
Trufl, but thi*v bad wi illuscnr vxperk-nc^ hy wKich thfty 
were bff^^ijUei namely, the VftriolouB Tcftt» UTm^lretTn 
w^re inociiUtr^tl with ^'owprix mul s(tiWiiiJPHt,ly with 
iimallpox. and were aluo oxpofied to smallpox contagion, 
auJ aa the diiL'Qflo did Dot take it wa^ OJDcluilutl it 
Gonld never take^ uid that the iiubjoetK of thn oporation 
wtrc fortilli=d for -vtr. The fallacy ia now manifest, but 
it vras hy no tniTflna mnnifrMt in ISOO, and all manner of 
men received and |iropai:ttted the fable with ciicr*fctic 
aincent}'. It wa^ oniv a^linttt^d that & tiilt full of wuti*r 
did not cvcrflt^w when n Hmh van clipped into it, and 
many e.xpbiTiaiiuii* w^re eurtejit uf tl:o furioris phL*nn- 
tDenou \mtU a ae^ptical spirit suggMtod tbat the experi- 
ment be tried- A like j^pint might have augg^teii L!mt 
it was oxpe<tien( to widt and see whether ccjwpr)x was 
inde<*t] a ptrjn:tual dcfonce ai^nst bmaJlpox, iniuiinufih 
an nature' tuui iin Axvkwrir-l hiibil r^f confuting pmj^'nosLi- 
CAtdon.'i uppari^iilly iiTofr?\;^blo. 

ThL'i'Hflr with which i t w a* awcrted cowpox inoeiilAtion 
cotihl bo nc:rfL>rineU. coupled with ita barml4>isn(Nis, not 
to »ay wlnjle*«5mene»s, and the abaulnt^ Hftcurity it 
alTordfd Rgainnt nmnllpox, induced benavolent tiiisybodiea 
to act up 83 YoccinatorH alJ MVcr the country. What the 
Idndlf (jtiack d^lighlj^ in h «ainpthing cheap and hoiidy 
with [I tflin*h of mystery and llie promi^a of immeasurable 
aJvuntA^e— ^uiiditioikb vrbieh lite tivv! pr&eLiee rtini- 
pleteh' iwlfiJIcd. The memoirs gf tho titno, cepoclally of 
the Evongclicttl liarty, nbeund with inntitncnv iri wfiirrh 
tlkia t^od soul and that good soul had vac<;inated «o wnny 
hiincTreds or thousmdn, delivering them from tho ptril 
of au nwftil disease. Th^xn \u ih^Oentt^jnan'u Mit'jn^iit^. 
for DecoDbcr, I S00» wc read — 

Two rtapeotable r&imtioM o^ftr Miuiahfnl^T hftm witliin tJj«!h« 
favmontliv inoeotatftd tipwai<U of BIHI of ths iicichboiu-mfi pcor 
frotD two uentii* old 1o ivoniy vMn with lujiform tu^ccsi, 
Twtaty ^ ihttm van mbjcctol to tne Taitoi&ui U*t. auxI uil wtte 
~ Vioof Agiinst tliA disuM* 



And John King iv!aU« — 





Dr. J •tutor 
Portman SqiMM, who. wtlli onottutr U'ly, biu tQoociUUd ISOo Ua 

blMuii|forjMia*r'<<liMfiTQn' fr^m mth u fur lined, mnft 
Uuki Ui* Ooilii«u of HttftltL hiiri ft*lci|it«'l i^k^ pra^liM.* ^ 

OF coarno medical practitioncn^ hnA littlo favour ft 
thtA anrt <if intruHljii Into tlieir doiDiuii, Litt Ji^euji 
enconrftg^cl ard boJw:*'l himself in the domestic diffuaic 
of the dwcoii'trr. By and hy when dJMUitcTv bccim 
coiaiuoTi Et waa round exbremely cuiivt^UR'iki to aacril 
thom td th«o onnkin^ oporatom; and nltiniatcly vi 
^nation won nsagncd cnUnrly to tbti Ic^lly i)iinUSi*i1 
pr&ctitionor. whose failures are rarelf ioquireji int). and 
vih'^ti procIftimtM arc» aa profcf»%ioiMd matter of coi 
GEpUeltly (Ii^nlnl. 

Jouidr After ^x month? of liomiiin^ left London 
83rd .Ttiri", 1M00, rmH on his wny hmw^ (iasmhI thi 
Oxford whtw lio waa introditccd lo Dr, Jlarlow, Vi- 
CliaucL^llcir of the University, and ether dignitaries, 
unW-ribiHl th'S foUowhij; U-Jitlmociftl, dravn op by 
Chriatoi'huc F^£jfo. Header la Anatomy — 

Wf . hIk'sq DBEQci arc usdcrd^od, w fully aadsftid npoa 
aouv^ctlcii cf oiir ciWD gbBcrvalioD* tb&l tlio CohdoI b not i»l;f 
iDfluitely luiliicir diB?M« iJuu Ui« tItQkLL|>«t, but hv Uio adn ~ 
of unt bvioit GouiaifioUAi and i« au «Q«aiQal itausdj 

liVlicn a piopbut in tlic cuunttr tntiia out a propliot i 
London his ooontrv n«ii»hlionri* begin lo ln»Uove in Iilm 
and ihuA it woa with Ji^nnrr. IUa inctropoJttiLn rcputi 
Uon waa Ttiil«eud in Olauce^terahir^. Earl Burkel^ 
WTOtO to the Unkc of BcaiLfort — 

Erviy father of a fiunilv ow«b the irr««toAt obli<:AlLLjQ to 
J«llD^ tot pittVAntin^ ti:* Jnirilfii] <fr«ct« of llvn smi^Upax, 

And the sonac of thU obligation toolc ?^hape in 
Mrvlce oF plate prewnted in 1801 and bearuig ihU 
inacription — 

* TreattM on tht Vou'jtort p. 520, London* ISOL j 




As 1 TiKTiHo^v cif Ttre nion hkv«i? the^ Kurfttrxis otf ntc«> 




A I>lS][ON>JUlLAl5Lt: TftA^^rOIUIAnOV. 

Hqvot'H ^viis ftbiinilajit, l>ut limtour U wtndy fare, &iid 
J«4in>'r ha^J an 03^ for eomothin^ nior^ sutwtantial. 

prcvpoct boftira mo nf l-nlri/; tha lii^Lnimont tlnstiDitt ti^ inkn *wny 
DomlUcwnrMotiDof Its t;rojit»iP'LlmEUl«, 6ffflrf*<f i^j^MM*- /nmi 
htipt! <./ rnjtjfing ind^ca4ene« uiJ louii^r^Uu p^iurf [lijiI liuppiiiuu, 
vrM«v(tvLibUVicaiiiQ UlAti ill jiursuliii: luy bvuuiilv 'lubji^til aiiiaug 

II h plnjmAtit tit ms to rudoIlQct lltjht ttioitb ii-JUctiuru* iblw]t>'H uiaiIaiI 
iu [IctdLit v^kunwlodgm^nls lo Ihftl lacing fixuu wbum tliU and nlL 
Qtil«j oiciuna flew.* 

But iiow WM th»* Tund hope of etyoj'mg in(1'jp*?rnleootf 
to b<> rexliiiod f Th^r qiKtstion wojt iEL-icu»ti;J by Jonnor 
and bia fri*ni!?)H and il wa^i fiiiftUy Ji^cideil to ^i^jly lo 
tho House of Commonft fot a reward, Cut in ordccr to 
(JO to P&rliftment it wn n«os«iry to hnvr & good caw, 
and .rnTincr'R case vas open to variom objdOtkilifl^ Thf 
[r\/jitir^i, puhlUhcd in 1706, wil9 by no mooDi^ a manual 


B»nm*» lAft ^Jtmrr, *«L L, p. l¥L 




uf |irfu44Mo- lU prcBtcriplMQ wm HocBcg taj ic Cowpox; 

iHli Mlfli 4ViW|miL WAA ntrithvr prodociMB ha- mecaotrateJ 
(^Jijfulfl*. IVtwfMiK UiU did bol ori^ioAl* itt HonecTttt^ 

(htw)au IkAtI Uvu ftAlo|)4rd bj Peuvoa and WoodviUt^ 
M<t mimIbi- ilivir livrt»rDK< kail obuiaed cxUMrdliMCT 

1'>f|fki]iii)t.v, h ^^-4 ihf^Tvfoi* far DO «s«uv lupolttUi 
In.i .iii^ iiUim f^T i>'ifc\b wbtgewiUi to enjoy iDJgytod<Pflt 
fut I Htiiuiai)- coqicsImL lo tfak fltndt, wbu wa* 

i'.i liiMiLi Tho iitooitMMi w«a A £i&T« 0Be»&ad called 
^iJV II 1i«tU)lu Mtlutlin. Roaolv^d UM^rrfore. that FTone- 
I < r ,M . , . s W tItof)p«d. and witli H t^ m cl 
I I I u 1 I Ubn naljqgBlioa til tbe ptt>talc» p>cd«Ml 
lifti* li| .Uiitihito<aMlggrtwid tb«De<foitli b* hbrale 
m l(^ !l«i-*n|;itMia& SomaaA lor tknegattTe pooilaoci: 
tlxi ('■j*il(vn 1VJU iii«)c« dWeolL To ihim CWpov as Ida 
IWII, VhiMtfJioiiiwIcAof HvciditUiioD deri»od bv Feano«« 
VM #<i tiviilillion fnll cif bftzjuO, l^it nnlfwt pnumd to 
jl^rfi^ijihir "thv fi^J bom ol «njo7tiig i ndBPcadeoof." tt 

f^iMt I tliTrifKl Ho had advairtABBt His onv wu 

t • i{\i Ibfl Dov pr«cCieft: crca rwnoa hftd dooo 

. ■! ; iiullher tbc toodkal profcaako doc tfao 

I . liKi^lv to ntudy the Inquiry cHtmltj', ur to 

I, I J iHwii over oWvredoUiLi; i^ovrpoxwaa to 

l«>ih ; he Wl ibe worUTit ev; mod oppmidoil 

,1 Icwn Aft tbo «vdlBtt7 btfaavKUT of cory 

^ Auybow Ibe tiaftfariMiioi tmcct b 

I I .itlitirwbA, fmroveU to dmuno of fUuuMAftl 
I .' I 

I inkiwfonnatkifi, JoioMr «UDe to Lottdon, 
, . H [ jmblUbed m ^owto puapbkt of (veJve 

, ,, HI ■v4Hftry lo rt^prgtat that hia jpyeaUg^ 

. ii.IliiI over DifLUj jeanH-A fact r^ «blda 

,, <i 111 th« /»7Bfty, tbe ovidonod UMlc«d 

, iiiliiTrwiM); uul tbiiB bo ab^kod h^ 




ooaatrj I wm f»qiunUy caIUiI upOQ t<^ iu4>0D]ato, miUky P4«ut«d 
ftvoitj oflMi to ^vo th«m tli« Siuallp^x, ThvAo pe^linnu I fbond 
boil imdotgooic a d)i4M« thciy caUviI tiio Co^o£< footraotcd b^ 
milkiOilC CowD (iirppl«<l with n jtomili»T ^mpiioa on llioir U4U. Oa 
ixifluiry. it n^p^imd it liikil tifteti known lunj^ng tlia duHvA from 
liiiia iiiaruamoHftl, ^nd tlial a ^^^' opiuii^a pruTiliaii CJiit il wu 

tivoi^ D4IV lUDODG tJicm; for aH tb« clJ6r formon daaUnd Ihty 
lud n4> m<]h idoa in llinr varly day*— & cir«umvti(ii0« llut it««tc«d 
•Mil? lo Ihi Mocivn1«il for, ri^i^tn my Itnowtn}; llint tho rnmmfin 
pMpU van T«ry nu«ly InaanliitALl for tha SmjiUjiav lill Umt pnii- 
llAa waA xMld«Md fr*in«rftl h^ tho iinjimvnit TnitUmil tntroiliircd by 
tb« Siiltonfl: to thftt tho wcirklag paoplc intJiadaJriiAWflrouildDm 
prit ta tlio tnit af tho prcventiTO powom uftbo Oowpo^* 

Jennf^r's ddnign in tba foregoing ?itiit«iiicnt wom vnnnU 
ft^st. It w?i4 to tuininusc the ffl.i(h of tbe country folk^ 
anrl to rfpreKort tliat hy hU own pnr^picacify he had 
diftcovcred Uic virtm? <if Cgwpox through hui failures to 
iiiutrul&to with Siuallptix. The hnjulrioH of Ptarsun mul 
Others, howdvc^r, i;howotl conclusively that in many part*' 
of thti .ttmth (if Etj^'Wd. la Irclojiil. aeu] tni tlii? C(jnt.iiiiuLt 
It V9A hvlievei.! rhnt fo havo sutl'treil from Cowpox wa* 
to be secure from SnmMpox; unci the belief wa.% enter- 
tftlrioti Al(u^ijthi*r inilf-|kL-nil(.-iitly nt failiiri.'.'i Lci ini)(?ulht<* 
tvitli StiiaJlpox ; just a^ a r^imilar belief prevailed ftmont: 
fnrrir-is am Uj thi? jjnjijhylaxj ()f H(ir?<f'^Triw<^ 'Hus fiiitli 
in Cowpox wa* nt^Uror vajrue, nor imw, nor ooiilincid t<i 
Jesincr s neighhofirhood ; noa hii avtcrtion to tht? cotitrary 
ahovred tviih whut hiir^ilhcod ho had un<lerU.Weii to eon- 
Mruet a cft^e in hU own favour. 

In om^fi^^iticin to tht* rural faith, medical men main- 
tained that it waa popnibk- Ui liavc Smallpox after Cow- 
pox : and Hir^LioHH averrt*il ihat thi^y had aueetWHfizlly 
inoeulatod many who had MuHorod Cowpoac. Indoi^i it 
vtttti ludaliiLttble pr'>ri*?uiuitd1 tr^Htiiiiony tti tliis Mnti that 
GOinp«1]od J«rLn<ir to forsako hi^ Gret fanoy for Cowpox, 

" to report Uio tnic ^j>rcific iw Horsc^aso Cowpoi. 

itvincf. how*?ver, tosaonfice that discovery, and rcivort 
to thcto^rpox he had di;*crcdited.n frc*h iiianG?uvre was 
Ttquislt*; ; and thus wa^ it performed— 


la tb« oourwof tli»lii^^tiffAtionIfi;iuiii! tiiut tvuieof thuM tfJ^ 
tontied to Aavv umlrraofw th€ Ctmrpoa, avvcrthftlcM. on itiiwiiUtion 
niUi the SmdlpoXi Ut lU ioflaaooe jiut tLe miuo v if no tlbMM 
bad boon oqmmBTiio>t»d to Iteo by t]i& Cow. This oeearrcnee 
]«d □)« to iii([iur» u&oDic th« mejiciil tiractiiiooerB la the 0^011117 

not la bo nliad apon a« n e«ft«Ia preTCDtiv* of II10 SrujLl1|ioL 
Tluf for B vlillo d^p«;t iU oot a^Etuit^iBh cay arOoor; fc 
I proeoodod I bad tbo dftliifaction to kam that tb<f Coir wwi 
5«ct to Mmo vuic^iM of RpoaUaoouB craiitiatu tj]>ci& bcr Uats. 
nvro >JI oapnbl« afoomJOiUDiontiiLi; hqna w thv Eftn Ja of Iho nulfcc^v, 
And Ibftt wEAtavor poro wu dfrrivoJ from tli« ftttfrn^l wm mlUoiI i« 
llio dairy tbi> Cowpnx. Tbiv I ■utukiiiiiUhI a graii.t obidjLo1<i, uiJ, 
m oon««^ii«ao4, wu bd to kma n Jistmolion bctwooD ihMo JutowEt, 
0110 of which oot^r 1 hmvn dtaozmaatad thd fr««^ (ha otlion tbo 
fp«ri^fj« CcnrpoTr ft* tbaj |)Om*R« no ifiaoiiia power 0T4C tlia oui 

Hon? w« !iave tbo triclc before nn at tbe vory poirtt of 
iT&ri^r»rLuation. He eoosuJtoi with luedical prnctitiontrt. 
" who alt nj^eorl that O-owpox was not to Iw relied upon 
an n cfrlAm pr<TVi:Tnlirc of Smflllpox/' Tmc. Wlmt did 
In? Jo tifxL* Hi' liiwMvi'n-rl Liml wlmt OuwpTix did not 
prevonl,tho vfl,ri^ly derived from Horse^ea^e did. Such 
wjin III- oriLnnitl n^vcbitlini nf l7f)S. In ISO! w*? liavp a 
dilfL^FL^ut felory, nnd Im qu>.-<t a dilTurfnt issuu. PTot a 
word about the discovery of tiie sura pnjvenlivc in 
H(*r*ffgTrA.iit^ Cijw'pox — not one woniT Akbcngli bU 
ardmiT wiu damped by tbo miHlic&l eviJc^iico lt^aulat 
(Viwjtox. li« yet prosi^cubttil lih iiiqidry : and to his »atis- 
fuctiiJii ascLTtAtni-'d that what thu milkiTs: ccdlud Cowpax 
wdK lint always (^lopox, bttt Uiut any AorvA whatdvet 
c|firivt?<l fvi}u\ tho C*ow woro ko dn*ignatr»l, ir<» thorefoTO 
WAA Ird to form n distinction Iwtwcun the dlncAM!?*, mikd 
to denorolimte one &s trw and the ethers aa «piArfou« 

Tliiift th*T Hnrfif. thtt olinoxloLu Ht>nst\ was got rid <jf, 
and the Cow represented a* of herself yielding pOXi 
which pox wa^ the Ccwpox that Tc/rn'Mi and Wcodvillo 
(in Gontunpt of Jtnnerfi 171)8 revelation) bad broucbt 
into fa^biun; and wtdch it had become all cssontial Tor 
J^Tinc-r to Halm aa hi^i own in order tn rt^list hSM " fond 
hope of enjoying: indeijondencc." 


IiL thii GCMiiutcllon till? {|Ti(*.HUon oceurs. Why aIioiiIiJ 
"COQM ▼anoUoa of sponUneouA eruptions" have bi^n 
(lmignnlr<1 itpuHoni^ tViw-pox ? ShcIi rrujitifinn wure not 
Cowpox in any aeneo. ftliy then eipurioiib f That Cowk 
comrQunicat^^ a variety uf soica to their milkers, Ue* 
GcHbod by tlium in commoiJ »* C-JWpijx, wii« an assertion 
for which Ji'nner never Adduced *m> cvidfucc ; whjchj 
toi>. (ji« v^-f. > m^tO At A tnur Hnt«> hn iIwiwuchI oa a 
BiisapprohcTLMcn. NoveTthcl<ivi dpurious Cowpox got 
Uio New Inucuktion over many {lifflciiitiirt. Wlittn 
SmalljiDx, or any noti^Wo rtiincKiof, followed Coft'pox it 
ira^ Mid. "Ah; the Cowpi>x mimt IiAve been apurioaa; 
for Smtllf-or. or any hann, h impoMiblP after true Oow- 
pox." Pcopb did not :*fcay to incjuirc whether spuriouj* 
Cowpox (tnal w*a to *ay, matter ""from a variety cif 
»ott» on the Cow," according to Jcnncr's wcond vcrtsbn) 
could Ih^ mopjv^iU^il rrnin iirin^trMirin, i?vcn if taken 
from IhQ Cow Ly nmtakv. The illimory Variolous Test 
and tho Spuiiuon C'owj>jx Dodge worked marvel loiisly 
for tlicpnbhc doccptionn 

Another \tJinl Jcnncr tried tu aCf^re at the cost of 
Pvarton An<I WoodvilTe. WLen they be^jan to inoenlatu 
th^y found they bod to lUKi^rtAin at what period the 
x\mii vhoulil lie lak^^ii from the Cow, and f["uni thp aiiiih 
of tho inoculated, Jonncr afforded them no guidance 
Writing U) Ji>hi> Riny, Isit 'htly. ISOI, hi? cunfuHHed — 

lu tlua Ofiily pnrt nf my ir\(in-i[iil\ar\s I hsuX not Iflnrnail to dls' 
ctrimiuale LuLwnon Ihn nmrAcj of tha vtmn lAluiti ftt An oarly tmd 
altt Umj iH^rioil mf Uio puciuto.'' 

W^iCTfr Jrimor had not learned to discriminati*, the line 
became clear in tlio itoupv- of gi^rcral practice ; an*! I'car- 
Bson WA«e«pi*dally 4^\p]1r-tt n* to Uif ri^hl time for taking 
vlruH; but to nuUcc L;ood hia claim to national coneidt^ra- 
tion, Jenner r^ra'ieii it rinj'-\«Ary t/i i^xhUnt hirrnjflf tut 
coniploti) masUrrof the art of Cowpox Jnoctilution^owinj; 
DOtbtn^ to others; and ho therefore prue»^i"iUil tu iippru* 
prtate the fiult of the common modical experience, 



Mklll'M' ^^' ^ '^ KMuton vrlion li« alooe wu in tBe ftd4. 
Hafmlnif to hU Muporfttion of Uuo from ^punous Cowpox, 
tin Uii4« |fri«Mmt4Nl Ilia nud — 
flfli liiiMllmnil lo ni|- pnivraM vw sot looir ncii«T«-l bdfon 


. h I if tuiliuio*'! to pm* thuvhaa tk# trap 
ilta MlOo nt ft^diy. tbft ti«mo«lio tad 
. ari), uitl had Uunbj coo* thravh tbe 
' iiiiin^ralUblttlorawin tlu 5iudUi^>x 
^ J. II uiBT ftbttoolot c>v« s iwisCial duck lo cut fa 
^*yn ; lull rvl1«fTUik|{ tlul m« ovBnfttWM ti Kakuit] 
itfonii^ ami that tt vw not promibb iLo Ihuiuiq 
iMif iLmUrfODO Um CoitpQSi •honld ia •ocns 
•liinhLoil frmu tho dcuUpoK, utd m nuunr oti 
i<>fil»J, 1 Toiumvd lay UU«» with ndovMvd 
th* tjTtuUAlv; for I t»« Jmcp t i w J tlut tti« viivtoC 
i.p lutilv to u&J«n;i> wK^nuivc dunce* fro&i Uio 
Illy u ttiat (/ SuuiUpoi, uid dt^t nbon It vu ^PffUt^i 
iiai dil» In Ito do«onor»t«l vt»le, it woiild _ 
ifiiiit* In w sniftt ■ d«xr*« u wben jtww not 
III! n III ^ far crvBtcv; Imt Wirac loat it* fp«cv^ 

MKolproJcwinxtlialchftDn vtpoc tbe~ 

,,.^^ittf to rviid«r 11 lMWO>pK&U of tlto 
iii.t n IrMBia* fitioDl a panoDxa^LI inilb ■ 
I I lu/ r-*iMghttli6 Jlifl^PN 6* /or wtr*fCMr#; 
11^ tli« »Aiuo Ccw tlt« D«it 4«jr« 
111 til in iiqfh A w&jM to pndQetft 
i.rkoo of tliiM. inlgbt oxyvnaDra ■& ii 
I , lUui; ^#t,uhMbooDObMrtod,ih« 

f )■■«, 4ltB ixiufeUlntioEi «c«1d roocifo ao p**"'*" Itt- 

,11 ^l1lJ' cipbun Uw Mian** of Ihoco 

iiMtlf^l h7 ui«ny iDAevkl^n of th»CowpoK>! 

I I ...,?,-. «Tt»n)*1^ lumplo, M ttot to 

I,, . 1.1 l.4» ±boutiho iUt«of Um 

' Ii' J 'I'l, I-- pnrtof 11 wUlb*. OVOD tffl 

I II.. ,. I '■'-.' ' fflit aa imprapor eoa- 

,11 > F:^i:i^ll^ .. ^itlHtOlo fOF ifaat 

1 1 r'lui^ht it worth whilo to 

»i, ^ft,i(i iipiiciu &n-1 to Ut11<f objeotil 
. iif till' htqtdvy of IT^S, ftod tlia 

.'\»?i of 1*^01, cflnnot fall to 
ucy cf the uorlicr and Iftter, 


TiKrniUvffl, iumT hcjtw a few htinty cxpmmrnL* rnvelopod 
Id Nnverifiabju coojcctuto and goaftip, caruo lo be m&j^i- 
fled iitto yeard of arcluoiiA resGftrcK 

He wiituid up hiH Htatcmurit with thiiJ flourtrih and 
pred:ctloiii — 

of lOQlicA] juu(t> LTQ my Qrit AuaouucinK 9<o unosDct^tod a dbccToryi 
hfkB now □oorly dijAppcaicrL Mnny haadrfldfoTtboEii 6^111 acttml 
^ipfinmcc, haro pYcn tlif^ir nllt^HUtiiiiJ" iha,t tbo innculnUd Cuw- 
jKix |irifvof ft ptiff^Lii PccuriLj H4^ruuii& iha ^iLiiiUjiux ; nuil I nlmll 
protuLLr lu vhitl;:u cump^D d I laj thoiufrucI» ari> rciody to folbvr 
tbcir cjAQiplo ; far tho aizoiifi that thii Inooalattoa ho-s uow taken 
ii immeriB«, An hoodrca thoninnil fcmoTio, upon tb« afOiUlcKt 

Tb« numbvn wh4> b«T« rnrUkon of itn b<n«tiltt throURliimt Kurupo 
ftod ullior pnrl* of the ^lobv ar« I&cjileal&blo ; and It now boccuuoi 
t«o mnQJfcrt lo nimJt of coclri*vflraj» tlmt tho cionibilntiflti cf iJio 
^iiialEiiox. tiic moftt dromtfiil rcour^ b( tho liUXaiU3 BpD«CB« rau»t 
bo the ^Ekal I'ooalt of ttiu pi-iiotioc. 

For the end desired — to c^tcibliab and osalt a claim 
wltli tlif^ piiqMi«» uf tsaj-ting (rurri'-tpunding ivtoiiipouHts 
ihv Origin of tlie Va':^chui IntfCut'iUou n-an mi aifcoitly 
drawn <locijmDiU' lis vvnirity is a diflVrf^nt matter, A 
jutt tatin, n>:it t;> Etay a ^onc^rou.-i, would have Lad honio 
prfdai? for rearson, Woodville, and others tv whom the 
ttxtiinflion of thrj Now Inoculation wait chio; hut Jfrnncr 
wui cmciitiaU J a mean Hpirlt ; aiid fur htiu to havoatatvii 
hi^ csji** truly would have heen to jenparii^ " the fond 
hope *.i ciijtjying indipcndcnce." 


JENKKR ItlfroUK rAnLlAUX>'T, 140=, 

^enn]:r wa) timid and in dot out. and, though tAj^r for 
ri*WFird, ri'ipiirr*^! mucJi proTnjihii»i» to iHf tVip mpani to 
tho fiiil uii whidi hirt htart wiu net. Ho wnoU; to Lord 
Sljcrborin; io sptak for him Uj PrutM MhiLnLi?!' Addini/Lon , 
but Shcrborntj replied, S^rd April, ISOI, that ho did not 



kj^tftt AiliMiitftLiiL uvou hyvight Hewoold how«T«rtij 
lft<*'<i'Mr rirt n04ll^ttor«l!lOOUIAgODeDt«kddicocUoB— 
U4.Lltll .f utiiiih ^x u aCOOO fcr hi> f >faii4iwn, Ibo twia pahWr 
J I I MR nrv sot lew; sod lA«i would b« 

I . . nkoC 1 p«rfiKtij nooIUct OnUftn^Mi 

i o vJt ifD<«£fc ; tad leAvinf Ihil ttaa 
t bt« t'Mrttnuar 6uDd> vm (o get 19 Aftom 


j^i ittiii hml io b» UkciD,«Lii>J on i^ih lJcc«iaber, iSOl, 
l(«|Ul?l' W*llt U) LoniloQ to pn|jair a petition to Hm 
HiiiMo «>( f VimuionM and V> ctnrftM for sopport Krco at 
lliit UmL itHiHifiiit. Willcrforce lift4 U> warn Ktm, £ltli 
IM I II iL ISliH, lliat no Uid<; wax to Im lottt. or h« woqU 
k I I i.ixum for thp><ar. Alt4!r prokx^cd coiunltft* 
. rtwtiRtouuM) to Audi bubdiMM, Ui« pomioa 
ui, nh^loQ 17ihUardi,180S,itwa3prc9ei]lBd 

n V, ijtiADfif Eirvuu> Jmm. DMtorof Fbpl^ 

. L .iiiii.UDr iMving dbomcnti Uut a dUsau whidi 
r|iiiu In A|«rtieulikrramuKing«a<tJ«,faiaimbjrtti« 
^ riiVf|"-t. ntlmiU oT balnff [anralfti«| « ilia lii—^ ' 

IWml Mxfpvt caiio aod fafi^Lj, an^l b aUfodcd 

I < ihlUr«mhalatlFiilivauifl bl»rteWiLi;*««ti* 

■ ■'il'iij; uulu DuuAidcnliGiiA o( privata aafl 

ill nvLiiouK to jprgmvte tbp vofrty aoJ 

r^r'iMi h'mI of Manlond lu SKHjral, did not wh 

[th^ lit III I lii> ••■ lob^o of tit* iuc<l« of coEjitiartinf ^ 

1 1 ^ 4- ' H|iiiriiiti, liut Icniottluicly disctofihl Uio wbala^wt< 

iiuMiniontiou thUi ipuliml m*p In m5\ jttftaof 

I in^i^n CoODtrwN HnJoloiiily codcatwond 

I !> rif hii duoov4ry juid tbft beocAt of hta 

I'Ff^l tl^DTllrWll CH'I vUllM of TOUT PvuHi, 

1. l]1]f<Li fcr UliithJAbRnt&jcvlwvlia.^ 

< ii"ii U in practice ItrccjEtiOTit a ^*mA pm- 

"rM, unit bod in imrticulai boeo iirodoctiw 

Kknedt^nut, iii<<^««<mni«or itfbdas 
iilo th« Armj(uia\at7, 
;-.*. I. J*<ith Alro^ !y 4h««kcd Uw proftrw ^ 




Dm* * 




4r*tdfiil duiordor. 

That Iho imH«r of «xnrTiini>aU by wIjIoIj tbU dUcDVvry vjtf 
cUvvJopod Uld OoBi|rlMod hAVfl not <m]y oocn^iod a CQiiJii<Umlil« 
yaiXStm of your PobtioO'er'd lifo, and hjkV« not merely boon o okmo 
ofgnAt oKpoiDQ &Dd aiucittlv to him. Imt bavoio mti>mijit«i libn 
in th« ordjnniy oxvrcio* of tu profocBJco m mat^naJly to nbrtdgo 
Ito parmuiioy adiKctvQftA wiUiout Uioir bvin^ oouaUr bAlu)C»d by 
Uioaa doTiTod f^MQ Ut« ei«i^ pnctiA*. 
Tour Pt?trtioaor. tborafore, wiEh tlxa fivU [lorciiCLBion thtit li* vhrLll 
&)a«t trit-h thai EbtUmtion And mdtii^bDco o( -nliidi tbin HoQ- 
AlkT«liIa HuUHD taay dc«m l^^m woitby, liarubly ivnya tblt 
HononnbW Hj>i9k« to Uko Uiu pramiwa liito roTixiUtrxrion, 
And to e^i^iuit Ltm wuth muimtnttoia u to tltmr witJom jJibIL 

Patriot Orattan aAkotl for £!0f),000, wu ftwiudcd 
JtflOjDOO, and toolc X47,'^0Q: "tru<i pntnc^t Jonatr d««crve6 
iDorc." said Lord Shcrliomo ^ but Jciiiicr had nob cootwft 
for Ihp demand. What, hi>virever. was undefined in awn 
Vim wiftdc up for in prcton&ioa 

As w(* n-»ul Jfinruir'snf'tiLiou wi? iint4!(l) thcDiHOrtexy; 
(2) iU Disclosure and DilluHcn; (3) the Expr^nno ihurobr 
iacum^d \ and (*) Liui Prophccie* ; and iindca- Oitwc hc^ada 
It ix to be ol«'>rytHi — 

1,^-lt wftfl no discovery of JeniJer'a tlial cowpox wan 
inoculablu and nrf v<^ritivo of HinaMpox, Thnt wok il vural 
cupcmittion. Nor, bt it ajfain repeated, did ho ever 
bc*e(]i:i4r n"Kpoti>irip for that luml superstition, RirogTUrt- 
iikc iu fiitility, \ia clcUUwtcly wt it omdc, and recom- 
mended a dihi-adi^ uf lTjv Iicem?, tnuLsimtUHl Uiiuu^li tlio 
«y>w, for iriociilation. Jt wju Person, wh4> dij^Ulclug 
Jenner'a picMi:r:pticmH Ijruu^iJit c«vrpL>x UiUj Wjint'.; where- 
oil Jpnn*^, fearing ilM In* mi^'ht be cutout of lbi?*nUir- 
prido, dropped hb Appcidc. adopted tho cowpox he bad 
rvjectod, and dalniua Puantojin work il» tJitr dev^lupmuiit 
of his own. 

2- — TImt b« diKclctMf^l bw diKWiv^ry wjbc tn:*', but it 
Ti'nji not tbe discc»\<iry sut forth in lbi> pt-titiori. Moreover 

tlie merit of discfostiro in ^^l ib uiciisurud ity Lbr 

advantage of conc4>aImi.iiL: u. ^ ..,il could Juiim-r bavo 
token by coEtc^Jmcnt f Thu coiidttiurm of eu 



quftckrn' wero Dob prvswsfti m Hie f^^CTet ]>ractj«6 ofj 
moculatioti with hcrB«i|^3iA« cow-pox. 

3.— Itiftt the discovery occutiuJ a conaidemblo portion 
of Ji-rn^^r'i; lifr^nni) wtut iLtten<lei] with great oxp«nx« And 
lo^ of pi-ACticc, in luiBirercd by r^f^reiiee to his Inqnity, 
With whftt Ws of time, Infts nf money. ami Tow of pqracti«e 
6ouId tbo Acric-'; of ca.'ic.t therein net forth hav« boca 
otttiiuleil ? And nfler l7dS, ]ii3 (ytTifiwwil ha wan libla to 
achieve Utile further. 

4. — A^ l'i>r the [iniplit^iL---* nhout iW- ftliM>ltit<: security 
aiford'^d by cawpox with tho tliml extenxunatJon of 8mfill- 
pox, wc may c^tiuiato the worth of such vapoiirijjg by 
Uh» FLSsertL-d check at ihnt t|in<\ 1S()1. itii!i]iiL|«L-rH) to 
the vihoasc--. whcti as yet an in^ivpiitioaiil fraction of the 
jKi|iuln.Uon hnd f>e?n suhjectcil lii thr* Ne^w IiKKMiliition, 
and a fraction, too^ loo^t lik«)y to uufl'or from t^mallpox. 

PctitioQA aie ]jetitlon>», and iicit de8i^[ied for over-much 
vcrutiiiy. In th^in trriUi U rarfily to m looked for othoc^ 
vibo thun wuri^rd to per.^ona] nndf. The policy of a 
iwtJtion U to claim in -^xcv^i w\th a vi«w lo obtaia & 
krgor concession* Jcnncr'f* petition wm a more than 
usually llagTAnt InHtancL- of tliin |ioiky, wHh ttm dh- 
itdvantft^ that much of tta untruth paaaed intocun-docy 
fts niatti^r iif fact. 

The Priijiij Miniat^T, Mr, Addincton (aflc-iwatds Vit- 
count Sidmouth). informed thf^ ILou^tr thai he hfi^ tak<m. 
the EiUj^'H pUft»}uro on the? o»iiU!iiU of th4> potition, tui4 
that Lis Majeuty rtcommcudid it aUon;;ly to iho con* 
Hidrration of ParlmmenU It wiw reff nvrl t-n a conimitte»e, 
of which Afhiiiral Bcrkoli^y, n XL^uloun believer m Jutuior, 
wax appolnli^i] chairinan^ The points to which the com* 
Diittijc ohitirty diivct<Ml th(?ir imjuirics woro — 

I. — Tlie utility of thu di^nivrry ibclf. 

IL — Tho right of the petiuoiier tn the <liscov*»rj', 

III- — Tho wcnficts of the pftitioiici in making tho 

As on investigation tho worl^ of tho Committee woo 
illiimiry. Thi' pitiiLs wpni dmih-fl in thr ^HiUlitnmr'a 
favour frciD the outset. There was no oppoaittoa. Dr. 



MoB(;Ioy, Mr. Birch, and Dr. Itowlcy, who bcciunc nciivo 
opponent of i\\v New Infwiilniion, uti'g aummoned, but 
tno mattor wiis now- to tliciu ; they had not had time to 
tJolli'ct evulcn:*u wnil fonuuW-e nmcliisioii:* : n rite ihni 
was to firotecl for a lifutimL* and to tmuihilaU.- muu-UpoK, 
annouijctd in \70S. waa to ha adjudicated upon in 1802 1 
On tho (>th<^r LanJ, Ji^mvpr's fn^in^U wcro inllurntml ilfiU 
^tivi?, uEid li^od the opport unity to paraJ<^ ihutr vvliolo 
strength in hia fnvoiir. The medical testimony especially 
wibA unrcwrvcd and cnthu^tAAtic. 

Dr Jamks Sims^ urenldent «f the London Medical 
SocJc*ty. laid bciforo tho Uomiiiitt*>o a unanimouK roHolu- 
tion of tlio Soci'^ty \n JriinrrV fN^vour. He H»id ho waa 
at first advor^t' to Vaccine Inooulation, but hia Qorfi(Ji>nc« 
in it vra^ increasing cvciy hour. It introduced no othor 
■aae to lh(? buuian frame, whiUt it made aa t'pd oC the 
po»ihi1ity of 9um)lpo\, a dincane that proved fatal to one 
in MX of thdw it fttt/ick*.'d. He liad never heard nf Cow* 
pox before tlic puLIJwition of Th*- Jti'inliy.tmd m^nnhfl 
the discovery therein (^oiiihttJiiiiuLtt^ an the nii^^t ti8i.'fiil 
ovor raadQ in raedicint?, I£ Jeiuuir b&d kept and traded 
on fain aoerct, ho mi^bt Itav^bocomo the nchrat idai) ii^ 
the ktnfjdom. 

Sir Oii-HKitT Blank related hoir the New Inoculation 
had been intrmkiced ic tin.* Navy. H*; had had the m^n 
on hoard the Kint, iuan*uf-vi'ar. iiiocTdattd ivith cowpox, 
and l.hi^ii with «iiinIlpox, R.rid nrit imc* hiolc thn lji,tt<-r 
diioa-iL". Of every thoii.iiuid doathn in the n^juntry, -Miiall- 
po\ wiw aocountnhlu for ninrt^'-five. Takini^ London a* 
thu »;trmJard, 4'»,00H muHt pori^h anntinlly from wmallpox 
in the Uniltd Kijij^'doiu. Ah aooii an tlic prfjventive JLs- 
COv^ri>d by J emner became universal that large mortality 
ivouid ceibie- 

Dr, LrrrsiiM. n popular phjsSeian, a meiuher of the 
Soci<^ty of Kricnda, and an tntliii&iaaUc suppoitcr of 
JniiiLer, nail) \ut bail p^id niuch athntion in KiuaDpox 
sUiti'^tics. Taktnj* London and tho out-puri^hcH as con- 
tAining nearly' l»0Q0»O0O inhabitanta, he calculatol that 
oight a day, or 3000 annuuUy diod ot i^nmllpax. Atto 



in^ Gre&t BritaiD aikI Ireland t& hnv^ ^ popilpition cfj 
13,000,000, thiit would giv-c a mortality of not Icbw U 
Sl9,000 ywr tirMuini fmm MimlLpix. lie bad iva^n 
^ooinlude that about ^O.OIKI persons hfA tindofgon^ 
New Inoculation up to datt;. He Hifl net tSiink that 
^'unoint' cowTJOX yvhvn UioetilAUsd eould over prove fi 
Had J<^iiDC][ ktiptpljia rcnietlyaocrothoiiii^Kt havcdcri^ 
linniiTruic* imcuntRrj" j>nilil» from U,iw ili'l the Suttfioa 
iht'ir improved |>r<ictko of vftricbua inoculation. 

Askeil whether he had known nny inociiUtcd "wii 
■cmnJlpox ^Wqtiontly coutracl !iniall!>r>x, hii replied t 
lie Ijad two relative imicubtt-d viio aft^rwanb 
smallpox, (tnd oni?of tbcfn tWiyti. H*> hnA rt^Oi-xiilj atiirndt 
two taiiiilio-<i. in nioli of which n cluM inoculated 
Uiii lip n year afler tte operation witli emallpox- 

Ur> \S'i>ODVlLLe, forgiving Jcrncr'^ evil ticatnicnl 
citmo, liki< a tuLid Frii^nd, to ln-'ar wit»u?vi to llio noi 
)>ractiGe. Hd Iiad learnt to prefer vaodn* to variol* 
iDOCulation ftt Uie lIospiUL lie had, up to Janiiaiy, 
11^02, operated with cowpox on 7.500 patit-nu. Aboi 
half of them hud been aul-jected to tao Varioloua T( 
iHlli natUfactofy rrsitilt^. 

Dr. Uhadlev, phy.xioiiiii to the Wc^tniiiiAtcr Hcapil 
said hb looked on Jenner as tlie author of Vaccii 
inoculation, and Ixjliovoil no inf>dica] inan doubted II 
Aa acdildital moculaUun with cuwpux waa proved 
Ito^p off fitnallpox for life, U wa« mattipr of conrs»> thj 
irit4^nti(jna] inoculation vrould donoal^. Not Itriui thi 
2,000.000 of persona Lad reot^iveii Vflccine Inoculatii 
and he had never known on inslanco of any one dyi 
of it. r^m* in SOO dit^l of Hnmllpfix iuixrulaluiti ii 
Eoffland. and not leas than ont^ in 1^0 tbi:oun;hout 
rent of Eu^jjjc. A^ia, Aftica ani] AuicrJcn. Uad JvoDl 
aetttud in LonJmi im migbt have matk' £10-000 
annum for the fir^t ^vo ycara, and double that aui 

Sir Waltke Fahqithxie, pbyiiitian to tbo Pnnco 
Wales, had toM Jenner that if he hatJ fome to L4.mdi 
and ki^pt bim leurot, ho would have cniiurcd him £I0^0( 

A year. Hft had havr«v^'r ^ivulgvd UU soerH and lost all 
cbouoe of eTDOlumeni. liu remedy vru » |wraiAac»t 
Kccnrlty Rgilmit Miiallpox, And har! nav«i prov<xi fauil ; 
whiUi'Tanolotta inoctilfttioo. porfonDcd in Uic l>r^ 
mjmner, c(wt on^f lifo in t.liroe hunrtrpd, 

Mr. (>*Lixi:, surj;con to St. Thonon's Uo^itaJ. corro- 
boruUn] \}iv opuiiuit Lhat Jt-uuer vntM hwa i<antnd 
XIO^OOO & yMLT in LoiKlon by m«u» of hia eecr^U Ah 
smiiDpca wjLi Uiv m[j^t (I<64ru<:Uve uf oil tlbettw^ iIa 
8iipprt«aIon vas the |;reat^^ discovery ^ver inado in Uia 
practice of physic- 
Mr John nKirtTTHS. Mirgi.-on to tV.v l^rtiMMi'st HoQMhotd 

aaJ tft (JeoTKt' 9 Hospital, had moculatx"! upwardsof 1500 
pinions with cnwpox uilli^itit any untowiird nrmptoms. 

Ur. JAMsa Stu?&DS% Hiiir^i^uoQ to tlio Surrey Duipciv«ty, 
haxt imxrulattii between fifty nud aLsty wit3iout any 
uijnn', Comi<lorfid thfl^in porfoctlyeecuTO froniBm^tpox. 
A cbild of iiin<: months covcru^l with cncAfa inctea ro- 
tiflt«d all tbe usual reni«di<<fi, but on the t«Qth day afbor 
be bad iQociilatcd i^ with cowpcoc, tht crust bt-^fan to 
4tUap[irarr ami tlwr twt-Lftli day wa*t tTitir^ly gatt<L, 

Dr. JosEi'u Maksjiall related his e^cpcriODVu na n vac- 
doe inociilaUa in ilm ^nvy and at Oibraltar. Malta. 
Mornto, NapW, Ronie and OoDoa. Evcrywhcro wa;- 
8UC<Wiful Uulleved he ha«I operated on 10,000. aiif) 
iiev^r witti^^Aiitfd Ally 111 comt^iju^aci^ wliatov<^. On tbo 
contrary'. cHildrea m a vrt^k state of he^lli. after passing 
tliroiij;li the varnn** inr<H?f-if^n, ht^gan to thrive and be- 
come vigoroiis. 

Mr, JoiiK AuoTMoTOSJ, surgeon, tiad u«d .Tinner's 
remedy Bincj> IIVO in tjjjhty-ono casta. One third of 
ihi'-*e In*. ]itv[ iuucidated i^itb niiuillixjx, atid isnhjeckHl lo 
evory method of infection be could ddvite, but finind 
theiu perfectly proof a^nsb tho dUcosii 

l>r- SiCEY,pbyfticlan to thv Worc^i^r Hospital, tostiftod 
that ill the spring of l&Ol sruallpcix naa vptdecnJc in 
'Woro^t^r, He iuucii1ali-cl a inimlicr of children vHtb 
covrpox, aad oono o( ih&m took smallpox alUiougb con- 
aUntly exposed to contaglotL 


Dr. TjiOK:croN, phy^iicUn to the Mai^Iebon^ D»- 
p^Qflafy, ^ftd inoculatuil a, patic^nt with cowpox, ukI 
nfterwiiribi with siuallpox at twi'lv^* diftuniut Uin6»4ur* 
lau th>> past thmi^ yotttK without #irtwt K^i huA **vezi 
aliful wiili a pct^Htin in r^atiiral ^rajtHpox. vho dicJ. bi 
took DO hftncu When at. l*ord txniwale's id the Ni 
bo had oporatcd on upward>t of a thcu^^Qr:!, and 
complntcJy jiRLbiiir<i] hlni-'wilf. uui] alt Uir mrultc^-U pnult- 
iioQcnt in tliat part of En^-lan^. that L<uwpox. was a inU<l 
(Uaeaft^, har'lly ilc^.Tviiig thii nnun-. of h rjijw*w\ It waw 
not conta^oui; it never di&fiflv>^ the parto£]» novfir 
proiliieoi) blindnewi, ni>r extitea oti]«r disoaeeei It wa» 
oqually filiie whether during' tht^ period of pny^ancy, or 
the «Avli«st infancy, or exlrcmt- old a^ 

Dr. BxiULEK then f^ave h\n tntlnenual jndpment. He 
thouicht cowpox an extremely mild discnflc, an<l when ft 
patient hml propT^rlv ii;ulteK"n« H, hr w** jierf<-t-tly 
BOCUTG from the fattiu* iufecttou of amallpox: and 
f (jrtiicr, if l>r. Jeoncr hiui not choAf n openly and honour* 
atly to (explain to tho puhUu all h« Unovr upon the 
jtrtbjfrct, he mi^ht have acquirt^d a conHidt-rftblo lortuoo. 
In his opinion it wm the mo«t important discovery* ever 
made in incilicinc. 

Mr David Tayi-du, ?*ur;;eon of Woolton-nndeT*Eclg#, 
had inociifaU'd about two thounand persons with cowpox 
WTthont, It Mij^ht fiiiluri?, uor bid Ih' im-t wiUi nny uln^m- 
tiona, tumours, or othijr disoarit^ tolJowintt thci oj)crnt«on. 
Uo kiiv^v Ji^nntTs pi&cticL' in Olouceisbemure. It wan id 
a v«ry poputouH nttglib^^urhood whori^ tlif^re vra« not 
another physician wrthlii uxU<<:n inUeK tlL< IiaJ au^ 
ri?in<]erei) an income of ftlOO a year to devote himaoU U> 
the public ficrvicc 

Aft n final t^peejnien of thin ra^'-UcAl i>vid«ncc I ninr 
ciU Mr, Jons lii^a, tho petitioner'fi honolimar. He 
(MiiHiili^nsl Jriinnr Uxe jiuUnir of Vntviiip Intuit ilntinn, a 
diftcovery the ino&t valuable and important cvi*r mado by 
man. It vros a pcrfi:-ct anil periuant.'nt pviuinty agAinnt 
smallpox. He hjtd hmi%elf InoculaUvl about IlfLK)^ of 
whom a thousand had exposed tljctuAclvcs tofimull[Kix 


infaction with tnipunit^. Tben WW no dAog«r whatever 
fniin thi.- Nvw luocuIaUon anion fnMD igoonuKo nod 
ncgUtet. Oiif^ in ov«iy himdr«'! in:)cu]iit^ with smallpox 
m Loiiilui) dii^J, owin]^ ill thr ujiAbciltaotiicr jiiiu<jsi>ucr« 
ftiid tli« nece^it^ of opetatiDi<^ on childr^ tx an improper 
00:, If JcsimcT 1mA ktrpt hu dmovery to faimzwlf he 
might h&va mad« XIO.OOO a year by St; fcir otliers hod 
^t n,< much or tnoro by the practice of phj«ic^ 

ThU tiyviti^nee, bc?tl«r tliao any Kecuiulary docrfpUoa, 
will t^nabJo Uio reader to approciate th(> prevalent furoro 
ivH, lb fLfSncted the Itadcn^ of thn tnc<l]cal w^x-M. At the 
aam£* Iitem U U t4> W bum^ in uiad th&t thi> crraztt wa« 
supctlicial Any radical chao;^ in conviction or practice 
b ntivtT accomplifthod that easily or thu<t rapidly. The 
medical men who bore wltoosa for cowpox had b^Q bred 
to inofiilotion with BCnallpox, for vhicli fowpox was 
aubatitut^ Tho chaogo was oncntiaUy trivial. I'hc 
trouble* tbe daiigrir, ami the uiiuertuuty ^ff \HrJ[>1c)U-i 
tnociilattoii worv eonomlly rooognieed, and when cowpox 
wafi irc<>inmc!]KlpC(I a» a mild fonii of smallpox, it wv* not 
dilficuU lo appreciate th« au>ert«d advaata^'e : for, ait U 
wa* argacd. no one can have smallpox Iwico. and &« the 
iiilhl«st itltack of )imal]noic U art prftldUtivc* uf a ki^oikI 
attack aa the ^ver^t, tteref^re coivpox ( A'bich ia amaU- 
jK>:i in mild tortnt ii»itt prciCi^rt ha ^^ftiHrfi^Ally wh^ti 
moctilat^i. With loji^e fto admirable, it wan iD nowioo 
woadtrrful that so many wen? carried away; but uu* 
fortunately^ ftjt iu> often happciriK, mattcr-oMsict did not 
correspond to tlio ailiuirablc Joi^ic. 

The I)i:kK *>*' Ci,Aiii;xfi!: testified that ho liai availed 
hinirtclf of Jenncr"* liisccvcry fr^m the oiitneU Hi* 
ch]liJr<<ii» bin hotthteht^M ami farm ser\aiit?i were all 
proti^cted, A postillion poiiitivdy refused to W opt^ratod 
oil, and ci^hluKii iiianlhri aftrr In' caii^bt sniiillpux iti the 
ino«t virulc^nt form. Childr^^n wlio had undei^ons cow- 
pox wi^rc o^nntantly in the room where the Isd lay and 
suffered no harm. 

'llio KJkiiL op liimnin^irr hod bi« aon inoculated with 
cowpox by Dr, Jeiim-T at the age of six montlis. One of 



lib tnfticl-adrvfttits toolc smallpox uid di«d, and iht^ 
tSliivi^ during her illncNi wrw »> otfi:^i9«iv/: thut his kt- 
ruibt Wl iiT iiuivt? Ui amiLlitr part uf thn Iiou-u^ To 
Uftt thif n^ity of liis son '9 proUsction, he sent fir Jebiu^, 
ftmd got him to inocuUtc tiko b<>>' n'itli pox from tt« 
mAiil. Tlio chilri woa found to b4» proof, tor ttie inoctiU' 
Iif>n ha.d no cftVet — To illii^tr*i€ tbo validity of tlie 
Gloiie^^'rOiiro Lnulition, h** iv1nt4-d hiivr m. tnnn <»f 71 in 
bin .>tcrvioe hftd caui^ht cowpos when a boy of iS vbtl-it 
m]1ktn<^'. and in (-i:in?><-x^»(;ncc always rvTKoiuxl litmspir 
BOcnro from inoiUIpox, expoftin^ hiinB«lf to the diaootc 
wiih i^Diplele tDdifTerAao^ 

LoHU H^rs gave ttiinttar i>vldi-:ici\ Bui child had 
been inoculaUil with covrpox at the ti^ of thrte utontk*, 
aod lio wfi^ porfreily K7Lti<l1i<'l r-h^L lie rmiJ^l ntrvcr h^ve 

Tln-n Ihirre were laj' proctitmnerH, cif wlioni Jeiiiifyit 
nephew, tlic Bcv. G. C. JiLSNEit. z&ay b^ tfiken ae atn 
t^miJplB. [[c bore mtnca^ tlifti W had ioocuUtod 
with cowpox without a single unfavourable e^Ad, 
tla^ earlieftt infancy to oighty ycftra of age, and \ 
oiTCtimstitnciut i» wlildi it wv^uld not \w jiruileiit to usq 
vanoloun virus ;a£, for example, cbildron uurinf^ toetlilae 
and wornen in every »Ib£i7 of pregnancy. Upw»rda w 
t'vo hundred iii hU patienU liftd bi-on aTUrv^ardH ino- 
culatrd with Miiallpox matter, and an vt^ual ntimlcr 
exjtoaed to r&rioloi:s ofTltiria, and bi no iiMtance did 
finiallpox cnKUc. Uo ^fta Nitiafivd that aa aoon ma the 
n«w practic*? becanifl univiprnnl, nm^lpox would be aoni* 

An rarly data being A&uled fo*" "the dUemrery," 
Edward Ci.ut[>N'Fic» winn and irpint dMtl«r, wiui brouffbt 
fixjiii Oluuc-i'Atcr to liffirm tbat he ha^l knonii Jcnocr for 
more tliJiTi twunty-two year*, and ha*i been in the coo* 
itnnt Jiabit of hoarin^ hi^ n^Hica! '>pinion'^ and dia- 
covene^ It was in Uirr ruijiith itf May, ]7?^0. ihal Jrnnf*r 
Brst informed him concominf? the nature of cowpox m a 
sijri? prL'vetitive of sinalljH*^, nrd of the thi^-iry bo had 
fomucd on th^ ftubjoct; dcclarin;^ hia full and perfect 


wmfid^cethAt the virosmighll^P continued in p^rpeiuitv 
from oni; hiimiLn bciu^ to iinutljor until ^m^Upox vM 

It in nrHIcJiij toAti;^atiao Gnrdner's tcatiTDony affCsb- 
It jHj-^IUv liAtl iLi friijiLilatloiL 111 Ji^iniL-r <IL"<ciissir]i5 fin* 
fftfuiliai' riiral failli in co\?pi:iX, 8ir Bvt:t;Ai(D Hi^xti^ 
mcfitigncd to the Cooimitt'^'.* that Jpnnor hiul biraiighb 
a drawlo;^ tu Lon(^oQ ia 17^S of YarL^lo.' Vaociiuu a.!t it 
AppuarciJ en (hv tingfr of n milker* an<l h&d sbcwa it lo 
Jonii Hi.inti?T, whtJ advised him tj look farther into tho 
matter; but it welh not protend^ that he n^ku to 
llimtfir iif titn mat^ircHl convictaott rcvc-jilvcl to Unrilnur 
eiiihi yviim bu forts 

TJiu CViiiiiiiitibtTe hBapi cv^ulencc aa to the knowledge 
and ana of cowpox Apart Trom Jonu^ir, and tht^ vordic^ 
wfta j^'iven aa followa — 

T\iM iLh>ri!«r ;t>ii!f, Mi<\ (U nLwt^iilc property (»f iwcotiilu UKHmnt 
3iiiJtlltn>:i laftvUoLip wttt tiot a diac^vrrtt «/ Dr. Jeuneyt . fur in 
VBniDUd p<if Ia uf Ca^ltLod, LEI OloiiHeUiKuro and Dovoixtihu^ ^latti- 
cctlvly. tLtit wu nu opiuiou -jf tlmt ngrt cuttuut eluiouj^ lLv 
oomn^^i" rv<'|>]« cmtihij'^i] lu JiuiivHi wliieb th« cibwrvAlions <rf dj(» 
ltxoeulaIi>]'i Air tbo tiniallpox UbJnil to Mufirui. It spijnu'd uut 
ImpruLiabla tlifti Irt Mme ^^ery rtbre initoiricsB thU knowUiljC* via 
wnod ODO »•«[} fftfttcr, finU itjot iIlo Cowpos wxtf Dooaiuuiiicatflil 
•tifaa b^ liADilluiK the teat, nr t.T iuL>ouUtioii from ih« ooiuid. &>r 
A» parpoK adJ with tJio intaation nf Ho^arioir cucamjst the ditOfior 
Oif SmAlliici ; hill tho pnurbico 4if vJiLcli )>r> Joaccr JMMvt* LumavEf 
t« bo Iho CTicbAl lBVfiiit<>r i», tho iDootkUtioa from oiM huxa&n 
boia^ 1i> oDoUuir, and tlio loodc of tnuiafarTirig indoflniML^, ilio 
VMoeuto mattoj* wilhcnt any dimiutitioEi of itn spooifio powor, !■# 
vliivb it dooi not (^itp«(kr ttiht uoy poreoti luts ovor nllo^^ii title. 

Tlnj-<« ibc C'cjimiiittftr di!<tt]lnwml Jtrnncr'ji dnim, whilst 
indicaUri^' the only colourable* point of novelty, namely, lh« 
tr&riaf>>r from arm to aiui oF virii^ At thotauic timci it 
nhould not biiforgoLUm thiil iniiL'iiUtioii from iinn to Ann 
wilb " mild kmdH of amall|:ioi" w!w an existing' practice, 
and tb*»T"3 wiw liulr iii^nt Ui -ipcak of in Jinim-r dtnng 
the -uimu tiling with hot^u or cowpox* 

Theft* was no oppoaitioR — uo aevtJ'fi advoc&k , but it 

tuay bo hvid thnt f)r P^^anon Kisumi^d thftl oltlce. He 

v&H U<-ard witli im|Tatlvnco, and afteTwavdi) deiivcu-d hl4 


mini in An Bxfnnmatwn, to which wc iiKnll prcswntljr 

Th« Report to the Hou4<> w&s brouji^ht np on the Snd 
of Juno* 1^03, and wu condmivc u to the utility or the 
ditoov^ry, Tmlo*<l, the evidtnc* on thai head was only 
cut short bccauao it thnriit<*Di?d lo bo intc^rminablo. I'he 
judgoitiuL of lS(* fVmniilbs* rr»itnr*it<'il thr rtunmoii jwt- 
siMwioD — "Aft MOon (w tho Ktw Inocnlfttion becomes 
universal. H rmuft ahsoUUfh/ f\\thijftiisfi one of the it^jsi 
<i<atrij(!tivc difigrdors hy wtiich tlio huinwi raci? has l>eea 

Adiriml BcicKKUKV, chnirmftti of tho Corimitlire, emiw 
mended iho Report to the Houm^. Hd conaidcTud tho 
(Ibcovery a» unqueHtiunahly the gri^test ever modo for 
the prc-^cn'4tir-n of thr hnnmn ftpncion. It www prov^ 
ihnl m t-Ue TTiuLinl Kiii;:ilum 4fi,000 |ier;-.liL'd ftiuiualljr 
from scD&Upoi ; lut throughout the world whftt wa>i the 
desolation ' Not a. second utruck hut n victim vriu-n mc- 
rlftoed at the altar of that moat horrible of di^oa^e^. H© 
should thereiorumove that asitmof not lf>^s than £10,000 
br grn-Tikd t*> th« Prtitjoni^r, hut if th« H«u*e thoti^^ht At 
to adopt any larger mui". he should hold himaolf froo to 
XfAe for it. Why, Dr. iT<»niii'r'>* expenses in [rnstegc tUone 
had bftwo frr>m 25r Ut '10*. rt dnv ! 

Sir Ili^MU- MiLiJMAV i.lid uol tbink XIO.OOO at uU 
adequnti*. Ilftd Jtrnncir ki>pt hU socrtlt bu might liaro 
tna^io at lea^t XIOO.OOO. Hi? moved that ho tJiould tiaTd 

M.r. WtKDTiA^i ivud tho petitioner hat! ^urrcndorud hhi 
discovery to ]iU oinntryH uid wan thtrefiire entitled to 
romuncrratioD. Tho di&covory had boon tho laliour of 
jear* und Llir fnut of rxt^-nsivi? pmcUcf?. 

Sir Ja^I£4 Si\n,\iL« Er^ecike -was asHured that Jenneir 
hftd expended JCi'Mi) m the propa^ntion nf hi* diflcovecy, 
and if he had -£10,OOO, ho would U- Itft with no mort 
than £tOOO. Bcsidea, he had ^pvcn up ^ pmctico of X600 
a yi'HT Ui Ixmiillt hifi f^lIow-errttMin*.'*. 

Mr. CouBTsn" olwicrvod that the avidonce showed that 
40/100 nitin ^ould ha annually proservad to the State by 


tho Ncvr lnf>ciilfttic>n, Thc^o vroolJ fvtum £^00,0004 y<Ar 
to the ExcIre'jTii^rH and if tlit- P^litimier linil oTily a uthe 
gf that sum fcir one year, h<? wjvi imtitlod to jESO.OOO. 

MrWll.nKUFOrtCT.^tjiirJ LliHl.'L'riiirrlimlHii^raui^rt^rJi 
of twenty years incompleting hi* <Jiecovery, Ho tcas no 
adventurer ^icoking to pn-^h hinv^rlf before the world- TTf: 
had alrea^iJy atUIned to ^t*^&t cdebrltj In hia profession, 
and had soCTiticod his prftctico lor the public good. In 
ovtTV viL'w }ie thtHiglit ih<? hirytT sum otigrit U* Ik- 

Mr. GiiKV thought £10.000 would bfi no mon; thun m\ 
incleiEinity fot ^xpeu^t^st. Ho hcpvd thv House would vote 
for £20.000. 

l!r Banks «ii<l thewru-su no <^UMlioii ita to tht utility 
of th* diacovcr>\ If htf full mon^ nij^'artlly than other 
membcpf, U wn.s bccausp Wis pnmmount duty consisted ni 

fun riling the puhliy pui-Hu Thnt pur-^o wai a litr^e oua, 
rut it wiw iR^t u>l«Mljppt-il jnlif ^LpWM]rf^ Tlio Htrr'iiijth 
of the countjrylay in economy nnd 4ound £nruicc, H^did 
not nnn Uiat a autc hud \xum mailtj out Tiir »i:j IiiT|^ a »ulu 
ae XIOXiOO. The diacoverv lUolf mij^hl hv trusts to pay 
itaauthor. Ucnlwfiys looked on a Kcportof a Committor 
with jualoiisy, for it was corurolli.'d by thu frii'inU of tliis 
PotitioDcr. anil thcru waa nu oeiu with i^ulticicnt mo- 
tive Ut prfivid« th*f c<irn^ctivi^ n^ipnrrvl in ihi- puUiii 

Mr, j4ddis<»tc»\ Chana^Uor of tho Exchequer, held 
tliat lh« val(ii?of thu discovery wax without «xainph.\ and 
beyond <^JculJvtiou. So much, IiidiHjd, was not contested. 
Thi^ PflUtiun^r had n^etivcd the high^t reward hi ihn 
Approbation, tho nnanimcnm appr^jhation of thv Hoaiu; 
An approbation richly desurveJ, hJiicc it vfm the r<^u1t of 
Ae ^xticjft */iV'i>^v^n/ ■ii»« *Ab ci-wif/i^n of man, WJmt- 
ever mooe^ the rrourtK might ?»L*t fit to vc»le tui sdiuB future 
occacicn, his preseot duty wa* to recoiumend the smaller 
Auni of £10^000. In doing ^o. hi^ admitted, he Kurremlercd 
bis private Inclination to hU a^nae of public duty, Hgi 
ha^ however, the Mtisfactiou in knowing that thtq <\\»- 
cm^on bad confi^rrMl on Dr, Jt<tmcr u rc^ward that would 



riiJtiru for urnr, vrlilUl tho coiufoit ^f liia fftmiljr wo»ld 
|mi fiUkply vnNTirrrl in tht* f^xtofiHirm of prftcti<w that w<niM 
t*i\hnff III" *[r|^n>l>fktioQ of t\\(* House. 

Ill* i|ii<'nl,iij(> wmn tlion j'lit diat Uie wnnU £10,000 th 
■HIaihI |iftrt ( f ilin r^filutioTi ; whi^n the ComnutU« divided 

A >> a fiJ, Now AH, Migitrily a 

1'LiT rliMiimfdon in the Uowp of Cooiidmu shovaliov 

l9Vi>lv4''1 aL dincrption nnd r«[M^i«4l inilijirrfminnl^ly. To 
imii) klhKil Jiitiricrr, tltr aavbur from Miialt-pox. wm the 

BihIii, llMOfliui If alt hail oonaeutad togomajl togeUi^r. 
r liiirinini:. a flitrsvoo, oUiorwiM rational, hroko into 
|<nr|i1iiHin fury* 

Willi l^rlJ*. «4UiJiMlatitl ii»tfaiial {iriJ«, we boft^t ft N»vtoiiiad 
» \Umy . iiit*l«rtly will b<wjrt n JwuHvt * 

i ViDMiiliiriiEff tko TtJiu) *et on "the greet diaooverv," lli« 

Jm\^^\ i(f 110,000 «w not «xcc»W«. In the Ai^Jiaii 

|t«»i'«i titiMT It ItiimAnrl n mnn onuiffnaitA anil gvni^nJ fi^! 


I<l4 I^J 


Iht, puUlt ■! hr^fl. U dm imuUnva &f tin 

linn<r It i« to U> ntD«iiibvroi1 tbat tho 

Hikil linr^l, cmolty Iianl, tht\^ugh ^ht aiul 

tikfi ijiiurtrrn I mf i^elling at la lid, 

k*f tho iJcopk*"^ mi-Bcry. 

I #ft«.-i^ ., Juiu«j'. laot trtLJmly, 190* 





A raw weekn nfter th*? ftWAt*^ of j£ 10.000 lo J«nn«ir by 
tbo HoiKlo oF Common.'*. Dr. Pcainon piiblishc*! An Ex' 
aminoHon ot the report of tbd committ^^. Ho rlii-l not 
contest JcnnoT^M dum to ccnnidcmtiOD, but ihi; ^^round 
on wliicb it was a.t1viLiiU5(l. mtil on wliidi it wiis c«tieHl«l ; 
dravriD;* attentioD to tbo mjuini>r in wliidi tlie claims HCt 
forth ia Jrntirr*?t in^tUioii lunl Uxai rt^Juc^jil to " inr^uW 
tlon from on* human bein^- to anotlicr/' whilst a, now 
clatiD vr&8 invented for him, " to \ni. the mode of lrUL»- 
fcrriijg. intkJliiiU'Iy, tbt* vftocine matter witLout nny 
diminution of iL^ apecitic power." 

Wbat PrJvrsoTi Mt], turn riplitly hrld, vriut. ihnt t^w 
public apcccptAut;!^ cf thc> N17W Inui^ulation wa» due to 
WoodvIUt! and liinihelfp and uut tu J«mKr — 

TUoCavpock TnomiUttun inf^r Dr. Jflanor't book Vu pvihlfHfio^ 
in Jun«. 1708. wfiicli ccmUinfO hptoiD or pf^lit ruicv. tiin vhole 
nvaltdl Hh t^ijwrjAnev) wm not |>nioliBe(1 by nny penon ItiAt I 
kuow oC till .l-xMuiuy. I79fl, n»iUifir Dr. J«iuierp nor uTiy ithi-nntj 
thill T i^riild iJnd bfllQ|[ la pohMcdon ot oQAihir; tmi, Jn JjuiiirtTy, 
ITW. ;s couKtt(|aoui« of a cmmd kintLirr'- vhicb I hmJ tniititutiiU 
iiuiu^iliAtcly an«r Jcimor'i piiTiUt^Atian, inf^ruiatjou wu^t gtvcu i^f 
Ihtf C.ow(>4.>ck DiFi'^w brraJLui; uut lu Ivo Cow-^lubleB nc&r Tun- 
duu. aii(i fnjm lL«» wJitfVM Dr- WuudviJJu juid myi«lf cuUeded 
iiiAttvr* W qhitib, uj Uifl oanno of tbno muulliti 900 mtkhu luul 
fvwii I iL^uk) v«r« Inoankted tor Uio Oowpook la ftdilitlu& tit LLu 
MttD or fight oac«a of Dr- JeDuar, Ihoa the nhclo itock of fiicU of 
InoOQltktion fc«C3rv th4 paUio^ Bavidn ^nitjinj: on tbo luocuLilicoi 
mmelvu tu tlua oiMinflr, ■« ilLn«auiiii*f«d tlt» nuitter tbrotiuLtjut 
th« ocruEitry, tu pftrtituloi to Dt. Jauiicr li£xiiA«lf; miiI «vivciAUy, I 
wilLin ihAt lime Iwracd a printed letter, (lii«ct«il ta upirftid* of two 
hiiodred pmclitioiiDn in ^fTeraot pkrt* ef th» kingdom. oouUiniD^* 
llurcvd buT«KbAt«'l with U14 Co^ock ixukttor . . B7 tbc «1obo 
of 1799 t&<rot 'lOOO jwr^nnfl b»ijl booa jtic^ulntrd bj Dr, Woodvillo. 
ni|Mlf, uul ov oormiJou^nle. 

ttitu-' eaitaimit^ a SEafrriunC ^/ thf FrtnfiuU fl'ttftrriml Fntit f/ Ih* 

PiMMa ftko Afmrf to hftre ckand 


llrfi Mriod Mi* VAviDMni* to dMV tfaat a« CMm« 
■n-fB»ni[iiMlndhi(fMnrti<rri«rh>rn>t«trilfcii rfNimJiHil putoln 


C«mvt«wfaM «> loud pbcU^ BiMiBiwMy la |ncti»: uid I 
miimdooA b7 now of v Cfaui tij Dr, Jmdhcv tJandt 

On« etn on])r wy of tfaoas «Ut«nimtfi cf Pmnnn 
«g»ijM Jcontr, tM Ifa^ an nmple molten of 
iBpufn Umq wlfeOio Uat It u impottible to conUo 
p»«non'§ UMrtlon— 

IWt til* vboA* of JffiMr** «pOTi«D«a MUadoa to pntii or di^l 
^■M. Bwl * p*rt ^j «f lli*<c tttnxljf, rottr— van froa tomaa 
^UvcltoliBBMiim*rt; wd Botaadl tenf «lUrl>r. WoodviUo 
^2 wjiCff lu4 g>bbib»J Mvor&l liviidr^ ittuirM of Vftooto* 
ImnmrWiii? Mn vaa to sm. Iwd Iw taj mmiiifig to vol 


ij had to fiixl out for UieGDwlros vIiob to tftko vinag 
the cow, how to prMRTvv it wIhtu tAkrui, Kuv to 
loocaUtod &niui, wbt-n to take viniA fiom tbe 
faishort> iodo ever^tliiuj; that conatitutca Uio 
IqIw«co a snggMtioa uid ilq an. 
jon, too, M wcThBve seoo, L^ a I«adui£ p^n 
iMWfii'ii of tbo lir^t ]nfititiiticjii for tho Inoculaiion 
^Tlte V«Wiw pock, wicli which Joixntr hoU not only 
^j.-.— ^^tnitKOw/d liav© nothing to do: conoemlnff 


butmo^'runcittbcfAa. If QOdoeoaaUlBp-v^ 


rsAHSCHrs sxAMiSdrroK 


tkoCoirpockli»ILi«ttMi.CEfvlii<h I vrw ooo ol tL« lMDdcr», ooim- 
OMftciiw at tbvdoMof l?d9; wtiuibliidiiiatioaliaabeflaQiopnKi- 
oJpMJ <-ffioe 0iff lb« rafpljuiff Ibo worlj i& jc«»«nJ, ssd tb« Awwj 
And Kdiir in putinlar, wtto sutUr : Mii vbm n TVffUlu' T«icbkr 
fe k*ri ^Mtcb of tii« ««iMi iaoeoUlod. 

Aa to JcDooT ktt|)iiif£ Ui« aecretof Covpax and m&kiaj; 
ft greai fonvne out of i^ Penrxin n-pH^, first, that h^ ba<] 
not prov^l hi& rcmcdj; ouCouU, tl>&t he wouJJ have Ha^I 
to pt-nfiia4lt< i]]v fJuLilic to Ifelii^ve in liiui ; aiifl, l^iEfi). Uiat 
too raadi was known About Covrpox t^ hnvo mode a 
oecnt poniblo. lforco%'cr, tlio asscrLion that be uuj^ht 
bftVG i^jTi^d XLO,000 a year wd a fcrtune of jCUO.OOO 
wft» ftbwurd— ' 

81U1U % furtoDo uo voe #v«r aciiuitmI tjr pLtMc la tbb ur au> 
otb«r ovuolty — Ckt fitfuiiHnu ih* ««la«t vr«f Lcowd, ilioii« of ^ 
Tboodore UAyccDo ui lbs trU hau of tbo iTlb caa^iarj, and of tbe 
•im eiuAlcr tmc of Dr. Hatcilfro In tbe rttilj infl of lut ovutorr. 

Wben it wa^ further saK1, that eiperim^nta \n Vnccine 
Inoculationho^occiipicdtircnlj- years of Jcnn^r'flifc.t-hat 
they Utul C(Mt litin £of>00, &D1I that he hjul lurreiiil^^reil a 
pvaeUco of £600ay«ar in tbo popaJoiu Dei£:hbotiThood of 
Bofk'I*"T for Ui<T pohlic ln-nk?fit — he would not trtwt bitn- 
keif to eharact^ftu tbu allf^iiUoru, 

own ]x»itioD, rc&rAOu thit» dcfiuixi — 

bare ftclniUnt Uai Dr Jonant trU i<t on b»t the Inionliy Into 
Am advftulainu of Tk<«me Inocut4duiu ; but I nppithotM that tin 
pnMfioe luM bKu nIalliiLud almual Milirtty bx ■J^bi^f ivactituin«n ; 
aad Uml b>» iimw fartv, tjr ^hiuU I ooiuidar Ur l« ucw, bmvv bwu, 
hi Bi> iiplajuii. tlirpjvivit bj MibMqiitfjl Dbit«ri«rK; aiiil lltal ui 
ooiucqiicELfc of ttioM facte bftlog diapr«iOk], logoUMT willt Uk« v«ry 
juuplo cxpeiieJiM* of otiior peraoiiBt tre owo llio prowut AiUadTD 
pnicticr u( Ibo V*cic[ii« liiotfalatiocii 

Poanvod farther indieabiril uu what conilitiana be would 
hftve b««ii ndAGed to fte« Jennet rowarJed — 

A moc^ nor* ^igdaAtd and matt juM gnvoJ «f elaSiu. oimI u) 
•qwJly iHVEnmbU «IM lor fomuontiOD, wonU have Ucn m iemsM 
dUnotwfZ Ui*e lb* Potitioimluil propoMd a im« kind of Inoeak- 
llofi, a&d stflcaJlv fuRiUb*4 now iB<tuw« of tko taectu of il, 
iPgadtJ npoACkifu; of wtflflh ioa»* wot fc toagbl lo 
wfaifih faomiodon had ocij bom locally kDora to 


svrv Jr«viT«rte of lb* AilUbtt! 

Km ift iMiui4r>mbla >«biH|Dmit ior^ti^ 

f^^m- mtkmhodjot tridPAo* hud ti«OD 

.^_ .. faad bMa dmownil, M iUmoa> 

Jfloiwr fthould hv rew4n}(Mi, for 

^tf Pi}Arat>ii n-antetl notiiiDx; he 

tiM t^ juJgintTnt or the Hou«4 cf 

_jt« »b<«Jil biv« r^i^^nbcci the facta 

Hfl obgwrvcd — 

labnir Cimt tliK mcmboR ^ th* Com- 

•4 OtmL audi uici1utiv« diLimi w«r* 
« ulij kftVe boon »u«i ftji lo luTtt ^4te< 

^ lk» kmu^ of wurnB hnf hmn wUh- 

jaJlCNil h> he noi ijttLujf, or fW4n aqib* 

' VPULi; Ul it iA rjLUiJ:^ that I dliflaiia 

M»AtB* 4Cliutii^ ihu»D with v|u>ik 


lUw ro wfiicti Pi«rAoiL lifld been 
. >ii li« Imd rocch^, it is 

anor and hiinsclf, he ci>uW 

. . :tt< r itccomry and AWtrnoe 

ifttion; biiindulp.'c^ in no 

abiisi'. Hi* Hi-t t'ortl; tho 

with the imperial sim- 

Wherc othi?i> liad gon^ 

of ^knity, iio hold It 

cxtimrlJDn of SnMl[[>ax, 

KpiirU i>f ToiJur^t and iujury 

' (H«iAth couUimpt. It WHS 

^,,,.'u!d vrmrrantMich alwoluU 

of panic uri^it]iiisij 
i|liiut until the ftky oh _ 




be folly, bat the proMt oC truUi U aometiroea Im- 
fctivo, wh&U:vor the <lupo^tioa of the mnU Poarson 
ik IKlTit at LtiR Umn tiy liU £ivnn*f)fj££vn : it enicrcd 
into far t<}0 many dfrt&Ufi ffvr £ooefnl ftppr^eiunon ; iA^ 
it wiL« cmnTAmnnt to Acrf»iint for hU rijb|iiViti(iri aa due 
V> jealousy iu:d envy. Jciincr AtUmpUHl no rapljF, and 
ramed profound dWam. Ilia hUmiGc wa» judidoiw, 
t It IVOM not from diuUin. 

At thU rifly it i« GAjgy to see that Pcfir#on ju a^liwt 
Jennur |iIuvcJ hU part b«dly, fcbiliu^ to r«oogni>« Iun 
proper advantage. Jeiini'A pru4iTriitttoD in Uie /ni^uiry 
ttt iJQS WM not Cowpox> It was Hoftwgroaiie Cowpox. 
li tnift a dlMiHMf <>r ihr ItiirMi- mi>eu1at«d on tlic aytf. 
Co vpox p«f- M be ^xpruaaty r«jecUd 4« vmIom, having no 
iipccific cifect on tli« human constitution. Pcanon and 
WoodrUle enL^Utn«4 Jnnn«r'a praicription in gooJ faUli. 
Hwt tned to g«n«Tat« pox on Um cow villi frDin 
(bi? Iion^ Init ilid not soceoed Reluctaally Oi*y aban- 
doned Jcnncr'x prencription, ond re»orted to Cowpox^ 

WJiiUt IVai><on aii<I Wooilvill^ were wltbaiit prtTjudice 
a^u>t UonoTL^raKC Cowpox* it vnu otliorwUti with the 
public Thu origin cf Oovrpox in Homcgroee was rot^ 
il4*t<TiuUA, and Iwl thv ori^i^n b^n mmnt-nltR-t). it U not 
itu[irobnbIe that tUc New InocuUtJon would hasl^ proved 

Thirt diHicnUr P<araon niJ<I WooHvillc, the chief pro- 
niotvT?i tit tUr- Ni*w ImK-iiUtioii. cJ<-ivttd n-way. Tbey nad 
trietl ][orei>j>nradf> ; thoy con^i<Jerod th«y had disproved 
JenncTK iwu^rtion oino^nitng it ; and tncy wnv abl^ to 
ajunre lh<> public thai tbt>y inocnlat«d with Cowpox.nnd 
nothing but Cow^x,aii<I had noccmncctioo with Il<ir«c* 
j^reaHC wlifli<'vor, Th*' public -wriv imtiaftud ; and Inocula- 
tion with Cowpfix became thi; rofiC, fb^iionatjJc and 

What did Jcnncr Jo / Did he vindicate hU prescrip- 
tion, the fruit of iblrLy yeara of inccwant thought, 
cibien'ation ami experiment f H<f did not, On the 
contrary he drL^iip^il it. He said not another 



Ill 9kikA \m>vvwM lo ctftUn Ci>«|>ox ih» employed bj 
>v«4v.ii( itt(<l WotMlvillv^ » hk dncover^-. !■ Iua peUlicn 
t^L iVv^UMhiiii thun* v«fl no nootioci of HocMgnaw Ow- 
. >T ith " tto beacfidal cflpot of rcmfa' 

t , , .^L thorowiUt pMf«ctlf •8ear6 tfaroi 

llTti ImUi I '. L4»olSuAOpO^'*T&9Mt forth - 

Ihi ilku Hh-nitLni L>f Umh^ moDoy, 4nd profcedon&l «di 
HiVHi Wi> kftvo to mollnct Ih&t Jcnnvo- w«ji in* 
«tth wUl tiQ cwllod ''the food hope of eojoyin;; md^^ 
I 1 hft was BOt ftlov to rocDffliup. that if he 

..^nttttCoirpox his ' fond Iboiw " vrould be 
«(M'k«it Ihii ntmtnnettt mA^ Mem ittcrrabi** tut the 
(hni \-\ i\w inuixKk-iDKtidn U louitreKtHt kfg« lo Any oiH 
villi will toktr th<i troobJo to compare 4tmaf^ Intjuity 
fVH wiUi hi* Petitioo to lh« Hoaso of Covmo&s m,. 

\^fMi^ fitWti} to armil tbe ini|H>ili)r«. He might! 
|tA»ii Mtil l*» Jeuner. " Youf Jificorery wa* noiCotrpox; 
\\ , vv^ll knouii to cTcry dodiTKinirf in your nejgb* 

i , ,.ii j \*'ixr ]>r««crlption vea Horie^^t^aj^ Cow 
\i*u tH'Mil^iiMiLixl Towpox, which Cowpox huiMVcrtfai 
V(iiii| tri"»tf''^ itiUi iK« by WocMlvillr and m*f. Rem tO- 

tM;ii lli<i*i'|jriMiNc Cowpux; niftko what jou caq of Hj. 

||,( I r ,. I'll taken thU coiintOr he wouM haru Gxe<l 
i]i4iir*ii 1^ ^4^4 (liviirnn-. hucli ui it VTAA. and have dettrivi 

I ■ ' 

I 4ImI >-tfnbli^)ivil hU ovrn and WoodrilU'a 
, ,11^ ltd- New Innculation practicable luid 
L III III draw a firm lind between Woodville 
sLLiI Jt'iim^r, and to in^iit that ihcy were opcxAl-' 
HI f uiily wUh a dittervnt pox,b(it with a form of 
\\\ ItiMi iii|is>li>4) iuiL9<3l«4i8. ThroM^ t^iis dofo-ult, ho 

I I I til inliiidu inl'> a {irnviticic that w^a not 

I ■ I iiHi' whoTo ho hai.] not hown, and x^thcr 

I \\m\ tinkv/otL 11 u to be admiUcd that tlje 

I vi*p> all Eiirolvcd in Fearsona £^'nnina- 

I t wtH'^ iiii^ftw/, nnd rc^uir^'d picking out 

.UltltlUmi Lo givi^ Lhtiiii rir<«L TniUi U 

au't '^iT^"' 



tnith, bdb Uvth W have its n^htFo) lofincnKc h&» to bo 
made pimtn. It U or little avail Lo Iiati- a ^txid cftUM ftt 
Uw if Uie moAi» ara wontin;: to pJ&ce iu soodiMss 
niAnifitsl Afki! |^Aniin<»iiit ovir oiriitriitiibn to t-Vn* n^titruT. 
Thb, too, ma/ bo obttn'e<l : PcAnou vtts doC m coM- 
tioa to ofi«r Ui« in&iuier of refli^tAnM speciflexL To b*v« 
Lurncd JvnnorV Ifink, it wouM havo l;<^'n roct'sswy to 
dbcrctiii Coirpox; and P«flrwD wa^ cou^ntitto-i to dow- 
pox, J^nner Wj b^ti famiUju- froin yo»lh vriib tJ]« 
oiuiymiuda' faith in CowpQX. Why then did h« not 
advtirtme it& viHue ? Bc?<^iJ-<t \t had he«ii proved to him 
tbAt tho dbimnftidA' contid»ioo wa« illtinoTy. His rveom- 
mcndatinD of Elorvc^rvafle Cowpox ftttcoLcd hb diatniet 
in Cotvpex. If Pearson had aek^d bUDself, What mdoood 
Jenncr to act ondo Cowpox for Hovs^t««m Covpox ? 
(he ODftver would have rev«ded to him a whole s(>ri<'* of 
faci6 to tJi« dbcrodic of tliat prophylaxy of which he and 
Woodvillp hftfl con«ti(nt4^ themwlvFK wlvnmti.'X. Tlmn. 
fetU-r<.Hi hy bi.^ own propoeucfiuon. I't^onon wait trnablu lo 
deal tlTi^ecually with Jenner wllhoul incurring a dis- 
ODcbantnif^nt fat^l to hu ovtn ontcrptiso. 

Whon we rec^:ignt&e that J«iiner*s pi^scriptton woa a 
dU«ih»c of the horse oomuiuoicaUd to llic cow, which 
Fttnon ocd WoodvUIv set niudo for Ccwpox, tho con- 
troversy HA to the on;;malor of iJje uftw of Cvwpox for 
uiomilniiun hiv-* Mignitirjin<*i», \W havi* tji iwwrl, irf-r- 
emptority that Jtnii<.-r haJ nocbim lo tlio xmo af V'owpox 
whatovrr. It i^ ink- tlijil \ii^ A'Uniivn] thf elmm in his 
OrM/itt f/ e/* T'iKCjJK Inociti^tiQti in ISOl, and in hiM 
Petition to I^rltam«iit in 1KD2, hut thuM^ who ntf^-T to 
Kia I%'px\r^j of 17^8 will require no farther proof of his 
idodty. That Im claitn to tho use of Cowpox waa 
rrutn^l can oni^ h« ani^rihwl lo that inclukncc, iiu 
cptjtiidt! anU ir^nonvnco on the part of the world wiiorcon 
ijuacks prenuEiie ami pn^piT, 

It wao Ponmon anJ Woodvill'*. I onc<- moro nspi^at, 
who dili'iuvcd and popularised ('owpox; aiul PenntJira 
Inquiries l«ft no douU that tho faith in Onwpox Oi 



iivi^wnttw of S^iiitllpox vrn^ widely utilcrtAiniHl ; &n<] 
hud ih** j^tibetdtuticn of Cowpox for Smallpox in tnocolft- 
Ui^i wM u mcro ijucntion of time And ncddrnt. Mr. 
Jlown'.'of Bridporl infoniieil P^arHon tfinL » Minpion in 
hia iKTi^'hLourhood itulfcrod dL^cicdU in praotico D>rcau^ 
it wi* rfipi>rl^i(l Uml hr 'iniKin]ti.U^\\ with i'*JWpox iii«U?ail 
nt iftimllpox , ariii the p&peia of Mr. Nasli. &ur;;cori> of 
SJmn.tftburyprovciJ thiit in 17SI ho ImJ the projoctrf 
Cowpox Inwiilalion lii^UncUy bvtor*^ Utn. Tho «vid«oce 
of Jti-iijaiiiiii Jcflty. farmer of Downubay in tbe I»l4) of 
I'urliPfrK. haa MwaiMy ht-m inUfix us most cnin'Tviiiivu in 
rolfttiiii to the imuiarioiKu of Ihn Now hiocuktioti in the 
cominon mind. Ji^^iy wns iiLviu^H to iHCTidiin hy the 
fonductunf of th*? Original Vucoluo Pock In^titntiun, 44 
ffniiiil Struetr. Golden bf(U&rc; and iu Auj^iint^ 180.J, ih*sy 
IjaiJ liim vrith bU wifo iirtd Iivokodh uni:UiT cxftntirLfttion. 
Vn tb«ir report* it is aaid — 

^\> tJiiiil: it n mt^Mer uf yuiioo to Mr.J*tty, ttnA liAEt*£oi&] t^tiic 
jm^jJici, tu ntttot. Ibat ttmoa;; athor fooU h* hu afFM^dftd ddci«i^a 
Hvi^lvnoD «l lilt lisvLDg VB-eoinftteJ bit vriSa nnd tvo lontf, K«li«rl 
btii LUnjuniii. in t^m y&u' 1774; who vcr^ tLflrobf raudtfod 

C|[4 iUdfliilati^ii i^if ItiA twn hotil f^^r Uia Sir-i^ilpiit 1>» yoiuv i|^ri- 

li in lo 1>o observed Umt iiiHUdcuptibilitry to Srnnllpox 
yte^ hy tm tueaiiti itifrL-i^iicnl apart fruiii Cunpox ; aua att 
tt>nr t4 <Smiit]pox puTdiMpjsust to (tttit^k, lio, on tho oLhet 
luj}d> <}^mfitlcrtce 111 Hecuxtty. whether hy Covrpox or 
ollic-r tharm, would tend U> *ixeniption. 

Jfjtty'fi rciLsonA fov hin cxpcrimunt wcro ttiniB ^tpocifiod — 

tfi< w*« Tfli] ^l »n(t«rt*k« tij* tiov^il jirAoLiti' in 177-1 Ui ociiiol 
U < MrritJl|]OX, »t Uiat tbiM pHTiklonl nt V^tniUKUir, fri^m koni 
i\ - ri f jiinjcm of thp canntTy OTnr itint^c ho waa a hay (ni 

J I i! Ihftl jtci^miK ivLo TiJkfl i^DP tliTongh tli« Cowpnnk 

k«-^-,,M i.'i ;. (q Hi^< by Ihkiij^ it rruiii cown, wtfra fnvnMcptibl^ 

^< ' ' '■ 'Z lDr4p4lilo of tftklns IliP SmAn[Mi. baring ffOM 

Um t^iiwfock many yan tufoto. 
nivwini; oMlHJ iucUvidwLlii wbo after Uio Ccmpock ooidd 

pp4 J/«ir>iiJ aihJ -Vur^yiMJ J^vrM^f, Ootolwr, !W3. P. 511 



^•r ( ftnd from ^U oplnba Utot by thd Covpock luoonUtw ha 
fluoh u *^ Lho EnJ, iniLi.lacc»« Iuod. nail many IimI Immoon," a* ho 

prtvalonl in DotH<>t^liin>, wliiah Jdety Jes'eloped in family 

pr&ir.tJcc. The repcrt proceeds — 

The nsmitrkAMj nj^oroiu h*nltb of Mr. Jvftj. hiv xtiTn. itnri Iwo 
Bcmn. f)Li« 31 ye«n rabMciuvul ki lU* C^wpvch. ftiiil hin cita 
hvftltliy appfajTinco, il tljiit Ijtuv 10 ypcn at ai;v, affuird a imxii- 
l&rU iHtTOiiif |in>of uf the liaziziloaniaoa of that *9octjoD; but thg 
fmblia mmt, with nftrli?iiUj iDl«r«et. hatr tliat Juiin^ the lato 
Tint to town. %lr. aahtti Jatjr Bubmiitod pobliol v to taoijiilatioEi 
fortlio 3m&]]pov in ih« loont ni:on>»H nifLimi-r: ah J timt Mr Jcaty 
abo VM «a^««l«d Lo Uio tiiihl of touci^I^tiuii fur iho C^wj^ook aftw 
th« TDoit 4fficncioTin xnodo, without citho? of tiicm bum|{ tnfiDctod. 

It in curiiJiiH li<jw (fvklencti conforms Uj pTcpavtcaalon. 
Dr Pearson rtn^l hi^ ajwociat"?!? weivi p^rsLia<lei) that a* do 
one could hflvc 8mrtllp(jx twioc, ncitiicr could cmy one 
Haw Cowpox tvFiV'fi^ Jmiy had Cowpiix wlieii joiing, 
and vlion At throo^coro tboy found nim iiLBUBcopUMo, 
thf-vUmk it forgrnntr^dUint ri^-vacciriJiUaiiwjL.iimpLjj^4i1>Ir!. 
Rotert Jcytiy, wlio ba^l Cowpoi tliirty-onft yt-^an hvtoni 
wu at the a^mc tin^c inoculntcd with Smallpox, and a^ 
that hkewi»o failed to take, tlie exporinicut ejiforccd tlio 
d«mrtd ondiution. 

Having Lunieil «niLHu wdl, |iraiHcaiid itortraiturawiTt* 
bsHitowud on Jeaty — 

1\w Qiri<tiuiit«DCfK( in vlurb Mr- Ji^Hty pivTOulr iofltitiiitcd its 
Vaeeiiit« P^ek iDitaubttlon in hJH uwEi fniiiilri hiudoIj, without any 
j]ir«cod«i]t, but lunrvly fn>]u rAa^iixtiii^ ituoc tlio aj^ar« of tbo 
■fllMtioa uQODg ooiT», uid froEn knowing ItJ otfMta ia tiio ounal 
wa;^ Kimnig ni*)i. hia oxtoaptictc firom tho |ii«vntlixu popiilu 
pT«]iulio*«. 4Dd kJc diM^^ard of tb« clamoroiu r^proaohot of hia 
noilHibonns vill oatitlc luin, in our opimon, to Uio ro«p«ol of tbo 
pabW ^T hr4 np«ttor «tr«nj)rtb af m^d. Fiirtimr, hU poiadnct in 
ajuu fiin^itJhiDg aooh d«oitlva -giKKdti of tbo jiarmmuiti nxiti 
vnioloua tfftipflcj oJUw Cowpook, in tbo proHnt [iHUi] tlupom&nJvd 
tlatocl iLiinti m mikny foniilita. by Knbmittmg ti> IddcuLit ion, justly 
^Imixv" iLt toMi th« ^MiJliidfl of t1i»«uaoiry. 

An ft tovUiooay of our pononal roQactl* arid t3 oonuii^mcurat^ ^ 



^atraonllitary a hd u OuA of prvTantiiiic Uio SmnHimx by ioocm* 
lenicUi pictuTfl of Mr. Johtv \k rninleil W tbat flic^Uvut wxisti Ur. 

J. C. CAUfne, 


lilv. A.- Dft^itt>K, 
J*9- Dr 13iwtw 

Wuja.&3f hAV<ao, JSMrvtorp. 


^M i9fpf#mic^, J$M. 

In the churchyard tti Worth Matravers, Dottct, t3iierti 
I* ?i gra\f-Ntjjiii« With tMs iiiAcriptton — 

SjkCiiKii to TiiK Mkmo&it or 

BENJAMIN JTi:STY, of DowsBil^r, 

vvno ctvxmxxp Tttu urK 

AtBtL 16th, tSlQf AOttt 7Q TXJlU. 

n« WM bom ftt Totmbatcr, in tiui Caantr> nod rnv an ujit 
hcmMt ouAi fAftioubu<l7 noted fcr bnvtog boea tbo firrt 


iiud vfIio. frum lun crvflt rtrarjfrlli of minil, nuJ* tli* ^lEHTtiinoiit 
fruui tUv Ctiw i^u hi0 Wife azid two SgiiiK lu Ui* yoftr 1TT4. 

JesLy ift friN jucnily plnjcd off a^'nin»t Jt^imur, an having 
ftnticipntvd hint, but undor a uihuLpprvhcnAign. Jeaty 
inocufat^d with Cowpox, nhariatt the dairyriiaUin' faitit 
that It pnivont«t1 Snm1I|^ox, Ji-nncr knf^w th&t Lfae 
dait^'itiaitlci were wronj:, &n<l that C'owpox tlicl not avert 
Smallpox. What he rticoinnmnilnl wra Cowpuv pro^ 
diiQod by HoTttOffToue. Prjkrnon and \Voi>tlvilI^ du- 
n-ganlcil JrnnL-rH tl-cuiiiiucikUUuii and mmlo n»p of 
Cftwpox like Jetty, which juiUtiliilion Jtimor dici not 
icsisb; and not only di^ not rt^MntJrut clrumod aa the 
f utfiluient of his programnie' J&nner should iiov«f be 
euftbrcid to get luixoa up with >7c3ty, and tho counm of 
liiK proc«dijrrr Ik- thi'n»lty oliHcuretL 




I am cscplicit to itJjrntion because the truth is not 
recognbtc^fl aiid uiav Ira ttccouiiKd incredible. In nnotbcr 
way tho fact* wiay bo thrown inti> relief if we tnijuiro. 
How wouM Jennet have fared had he applied lur a 

gatent'? Suppose hU aeverftl pnhli(Vi,tHm* wrrre siilmiitUHl 
> a patcnt-a^^nt. In whnt inuiiuur could a Louablu epuoi- 
ficatiou 1hi nvoU't'd from tlitsflc matt-'iiilA ? 

\1^.— The Inquiry. 

Xl^^.—Furihtr OhMrvaiiant. 

SlukftOA off fram HJ^n*' 

ii» fffiou^ to comuirja 
ropitto; Aod noommradA 

Claim of duoaTor7 nod 
n A» of €oirroi| previoudy 
eondema«d am npimoiu, 
and ir<irM*.-rMuie Cowpox 

By no ingnmiily coiiTd a v^lid pulf^nl Ih; got out of t«)krv(o 
dooament* If Ilor>^'*;^'rt>a'ie Cowpor wero aoleeted aa tho 
lia^].^ of clairu, whnt of th'"' rcpiuliati^n of Cowpox ? and 
It Cowpox, what of ffofse^ri^a^tf Q)u'pL*v * And if Hon*ri' 
greaflo Cowpox, what of tho a8cription of ita virtue to 
CDitrntcin tvpuLflf And if Oowpox. wasiiof. L]i(tri>Mmiit.t.nfi 
of the Hou40 of Common* in 1802 compelled to dUalbw 
JcnDer'^claim to the discovery, and todcfiiioand limil hia 
it to the propagation 5f 'tt^ viriu from arm to arm t 
wafl» however I*<«irson and WoodvtUe who firat propa- 
gated Cowpf>x frcuii ;tnii to nrmt JcnnorV start bamg 
mode vrith llor>o;;TvoflG Cowpox» But allowing; him 40 
much erf<di(> it J» novorthelcis^ to be Ten^frmbered tfiat H 
wait at that time a frof|ii4>ni proctica to inoctihtti* with 
Smallpox froji iinu t^ af tii l aJid the Hubntltution "f Cow- 
lor SraallpOK wo* a triil*i for which to pay ilQ,oao 
dissolve in ccfttaaiuei Oif adniiraUoDp 



ORSKHVAn(»\s nyt the no^rnoN' tx IWI. 

Ohk of my mi^rllcal rejwiem obBpqrves — 

Tb» Houic of CommotH in 1803 w« pommiit*-) to m vftriftty nf j 
fltUavuujocN \iuU nllciwiue fi-^r iUciv. > au linvc to ansount f^r r«^ 
lAtii m-idviiov ihciL Cuw^iux Lad sfrnt luilaeQCu ovvf Suinlljiax ; for 
yini ihUivly fVi ii'il jumui E>] coiibfiul tliat il hiiA nu in^ltjv'ftr? ovrr 
iJlAt <litiitj£»i>. tud tbftt (lie •TiJoTJOO bofurtt Um (\iijj(iiitlL<u wa4 ft 
DulAjrin IJAiufi arUluuioa anil Jclusic^. 

Put tliuH. it 13 Bs difficult to Jeal vritli ihe objoction 
aa it 11 to provi^ a nf^gAtivt!, It is not for mo to deSn« 
iho inilucnco of cowpox over --tmiLllpox, but for thoso 
who believe m lU pronhylnxy f should arifue that u 
ill-hoaJth IradH to ill hraltli, ami as corruption broeds 
corniptimi, Umt irHJf'u]?t.t*"l f'jm'ri*x wnicl-l gimeratd ft' 
hobit of body favourable to enmllpos, ar^i at tHo oamo 
Llmo tend to excite imd intcnsifv otl;cr fLimi^ of dU^aHu. 
I -n^ouM ftUo ajik, What Atv iliu <fXtrava|;&DCva to b« 
allowed for ? When tlicao aje ilotcrmiutfd we may lIiph 
procof^! to dtMCMisM wbnt nn^ not «xtravagAnt It is a 
comruon fonii of cvasirin t<> rimku a gwioraTtjtHifcWon of 
gniK in oilier tu avuiil thy pain of npt'cifiL- ami I'VpltPit' 
c»>nflom nation. It ificoncL^tW that tht Hcmw of Common* 
in Itt02 "' tomuiitted ft variety of eitrava^^aucBs," juuJ 
xuadur thifl ftpp«araro4' of candour tlio chief oxtrava^ranott 
ift implicitly rc-aMcrtt-d and carrit-d ff ir ward, nam t-ly, that' 
Snociilai-jd cowpox hail nn inlhirnoe a'Kevse to smallpox. 

In tlie " variety r>f cxtravrvganctt-*/' few, I ,nipp^iao, wcjidil 
hcHttato to inuluili' Uie ftHHvrtviil aTirnral HTiinllpox iiKirULlity 
of tbu l.'uited Kini^iom, Sir GilbcTt Ulane pronouncud 
it +.\O00, whilt: I>r Lf^ttAom i^vc it il* ;*(i,00()— a Avidi* 
diHorvincx' in iha play of fancy! Dr. Letl6oni» who claiinod 
to hnvti paii3 much attention to li^rc» connected ^itli 
Bmtllpox, waM pliuut-J to eonveri un extrvtue London 
mpvis^iiy, nam**ly. 3000, into the onlinaTv murtality, 
although in Homp yrATH Jt fdl Tjndf^r 1000. Tlipn ''-itima* 
ttn^ t^c population of London at one million, and tho 


VOpuIntioD of tho United Kingdom a^ twelve inlUiom. 
he iiiultA\t\[c({ ^00 bv IS, nTitl evoked the a^tinding 
Dfttional iWth-ratiT uf <%,000 i&nDiiitDy from tiniixllptix, aU 
of whom wc-ro to bo aave^l bv Jonaer's prtMcnption 1 
But whfttJiPT hi* h^i (jikori tli« nvpnigii nr »*.vipti t,h(» 
lowest metropolitan uii^riality, tho oamputation would 
Lave reiiiaim'd j^casaly fitUaciaus. LcmJuri overi^rowJad 
ftncJ ponliffn^iifi, wit-t n^;j stftU'liir'i for th<^ (;;<>n'>i-al popnla- 
tiQii, urban or rum! ; and tht? ad^uinptioii win moaitrou& 
that Slim) Ijpcx.nno tori ouaiy sporA^iic dmeiL^e> was con»«Uuit 
6nd cfiunliy difFu^vcd ov^^t the latnL We oro vithout 
coTTiprJlicTistve vlfnt HUtlnticH for ihe Lirue in ^uustioii, 
but arj:;iiin£; from tbo London of to-dfty in contimiril con- 
nftrtUiii witli Old pmx'iniNyt, to tbr? Lr>itdon uf Ih02 in 
oomparati^i^ i&olation, what do wv find r Whv. smallpox 
prevniant in Lo&flon ^Ith littlv or no nmAlfpox In the 
country E In ih^PaU Mall GazetU oi 31it Mny, Ib7S, 
wo read — 

Tlin rlvikfFLm Iti wljjrl' th« Bm^BOOi OpIiHoito of t)}« hifi hi^-11-Ii 

jnx> hu Ircuu UiuJiunl In LoitaOTi b rcry rDumrkublu, Tlti» 
XrttrKff iioJuU out tliht JuHd^ ibr wvek ouillnjf SOcU Mny, CI falA] 
0>Aco were rcKibtcr^il in Lutiikiti &iic] ^ta aiiburb&u ilioVnuLfc, ivliuroAa 
u<tl t>TA! vt\* rvci>iiIcLi 111 Mi\ vtihtt uiuvioca lan-e trrariucul iowcA 
hftTiui: All HMXL^ifn^ Linnuf^itioL &bo<it oquftl t« UijU of LorjiUn, 
filfiO* l!u b^iDtUijf of iXiD ytu Iha btal euin* of SmallpLVX ^itl;iu 
fifloM mils* cJ Obahu£ Crgga bnro bvcm l,18t. trhilo tut 8 Lave 
ooOTXTTttd iu tho olbctflcci othfiT l&rffo tovnu. 

We find simllnr illuAtration^t of the spor&die chov&cter 
of nniiUpox wh<*rover vrc can Qit at the facts. In !S74 
thoro died in LiWon 7S5 rjf ntpml]pr>x, but cot one in 
BimiinL;hftm ; 3S0 in Livrrpool, hut nr>L om* in ?!pnouth ; 
^7 in ^alford, but not mit: in NcttinKbam ; VJO in Mao' 
cheflter, £iid bob I in SheHield ; 24 in Bri&lol &nd 4 in 
Leodn; and so on. UTmt vciiAon ik there to hclicvo that 
what U trnu of f^mall;n>x within our own rxpi^riencu waa 
othflruniie in the erperionee of our forefatboTft f 

I wttd that few would hf^-iitate to inclu'lr Dr, Lott^ontft 

30^0 and Sir Gilbert Blonu s 4rr,O00 among tbo e:ctTav&- 

eukCM of 1802. but i for^Mt my^'iU. Wo have a National 

Htnltli Hocii-ty with iUv Ihiko of We^tniuii^U^r for Previ* 




d»iii ftii<) M ntvui^r of aotabUia, ftiutocrftUc, phil&ntliro- 
I^Ot Bcli^iUlik, Aiiil Uu*Tmiy, AiQoni; iLt coajmitttHT and 
AMUuWr*- Now UiU ,S<ick'tyiiBii<-i&liAn'i-bi1Iof a«lvf- 
AUil wAritUk^'n rt'ldin^- to niikallpDx, &p[<tovM too by 
U4MI UiiVi^niitK^kt lk«ril tnd theiv wo &i<t Mt foi 
UiiiittwOoualtli^ initUcr of foot — 

\\\. %\tnm ^v Sow hanl it b for a coBvefiieiit f4bl« td 
\\t,, Hvvit wlun kfiLiwu to be hht, und bow rc«pccUbl« 
,i|t|(> wlU kiiuj) ropmting it mt long as they fuiey It b 

Uui^l^l u WAM (he (fXteiiAMMi of the rstio of LodJod 

i,t \h# jKi|>nlatioii«of ihu tToited Kin]^ain,fl( 

,uj tif Um) world, tli« LoDduQ dj^oue Itaelf 

' I \i\i^ wArnuit for tb6cxtr«au» tennK of horror 

,1^ witEt vrhirh it waAd«acnt>cd. Sinall|Kix did 

' : tleiAth-mt4?« of l^ndon ^ wh^en Himllpox 

y... wJi'ikt npd tcoat prcrident. the totnl mor- 

. UK uliKStly abetted. Ah tiuig lu Uw «»iitarj 

. I rf.t. h'Ti^t city Tomainexl iinthau^. fi>v«m 

\'n\ «ml Hoiftllpiix trnWi'il fvVf^rs, and 

iverv from one form oCdi»c«Jb^onkDoUlor« 

>>|il(i dii^d thcitfUDc. wliA£ Jid it imttcff 

.1 iiiiJAt preralcDt vtut oavtfr oooounuiil^ 

,< UiAn 10 pOT c«qU of the toUl London 

i ^u *oinp y<'jmi fnr lem ihun ^ pnr wnt ; 

'< I ri»iiif<inbi>red thAi the larger purtton of 

, HAA itifiiiiulo inortAlily— fiitiallpox Ivnuig 

i(y of CAJWi » dU^uo of thfl youii|[ ; 

I vthmabJe on that noooaiit^ but Jc^b 

iiio othor fbnns of xp^otlt 

t the adult brcftd -winner and en! 

vi the tnlk About sTiiAlIpcx H ^vu 

,lut^L«it h;^ Tto HtiiiL^— U»t it was 

Hii^l iiii;j;ht fcpnrad to Any ext«nt if 

^bnt' -wtvs there to justify «uch An 

V iimlly i:othiDg in London cx|>4jri«&oo. 


Sin&tlpox W1U1 &[wayH pn^orit in London, waxing and 

waning uiiil^r Honte iinknowri law; the deaths mtngoA 
high fci f^DOS in 1772 and fdllin^aj? low na 52S in 17S7— 
the extr«in« of the p^^ntuTj', Wlij' did 4000 never die 
in any year, or 7000. or lOflOO ? Wht^n ft fire ia pxtin- 
guiahcd, wc knuw it Iijlh m^jb witli a check ; and if ^mull- 
poxcau&y«1 30fl2 d^ath^ in 1772 and 52S in 17^7, and 
ftmallpcx be lilic liro, there wfta, wc rcc, a chock ; ard 1 
twk, What wHJt that check ? Thi.Ti? mny hv ^ixrtvivm, hut 
nonu for unrcecrvod acc4>ptance. What is cort£.in \». thftt 
$11 liOndon MiiiLllpnJ^ wiu m'Vcr ivn illim'itAhln fLdticlioii. 
It had Uujit*. futd It waa only In th*> rhvtorlc of aJarmisle 
that it had nrjiie. 

AnJ Lh<j cht^ck to tho Uis^tauc; (whatt^vcr it was) lay iii 
the hodicM of the dtu<--iis. arid not in their therapeutics, 
Tsolatinn vha mn>ly n.ttf^mptpd, nnd in thinr rri>wd<u) 
habitjvtion.-} was imprttcticJihV, Moreover they had not 
only thi? nnialliiux a|>jinniri*tR tu thcvr hvjI rjuiditiniih to 
i^ontend with, \>\it the di^ciuoas propBgAted cind ditTii^ed 
hy Lhr iuficiilntor^^ What wi; hnvo to my i*, tJinb whilst 
in the London of lant omitury wu LtiLold smallpox en* 
doiaic and cultivatcdn yet in no year did the mortality 
thcTL-fnim rxci-t^d 4,000; und further, tli^t witli jbo mudi 
to favour and atiTuuIate Uk' liiaeaae it waa a diminishing 
i|tHLntity. In thii wordu of Dr. Purr — 

IjiMJiIat] Sumlhioi iLtbiluoJ Ita iiiaximuiu ULoiinliiy nftrfr icni^culB- 
vmcc-iimtii;ii >va^ itihouvvrvJ. 

Wfi shall fw^ AS wr. proceed how the nittiiral check to 
smallpox (whatever it wo^), th^f iiumumty of thi> uj&jority 
from infection, ond the decline of the disease were all 
elainiul aa thiJ hluKiwl ri'-vultH of Jenner'a prescription ; 
and now-a-JayA it has pa^at'd into common place, for 
which ovidrncif in thought ntipi^hliJoiin. that wilnhitiit that 
prescription nntallpov mi;;ht huve illitjintablu uxtt^nsion. 
If anywht^rc a variolous L-piduniic in alight, it ta :md Uial 
but for vaccination it would hav^ he<in severe ; and if 
dCverA. thai itn iiiti^auity would have been doubled or 
tr«btod save for tho action of th« aamo prophylactJCn 

^it iMto]%efi«eL 
ttftiBaDj' addtwed lij 

H*MB wdgrtaking; tot 

^< vcll-infurtDed 
.^ ihe Coinmitlov 

v. Thr ««cumy, wKut* 

^•UV for, «Uil len ol n^ktrj 

, wvr^ evvr tiLulr in 

-, lb* T^idily of tbo Vi 

; cmiricUon with ii 

». Ipgoc was in iudf a& 

-V-«ld fflil &ft«r 

if tbfr Uood bftd 

^tini,', The 

. inf^ctioD vu Ut 

i,VDrcf]knUy f<n_ 

Htio«6 gf tif«h Taking % 

Ht tfOddoD. avch &a Dr. 

.0 lS.ttX> wen 


9000 died (th&t LA otic in aix)> thcro were in tliv 
lion iif inhnljitiinU 1KSS,000 who c»ciipi^d. How did 
thoy o^capo '( A uiulUtud^' uiu^t havu cumt into imme- 
(Uftr,j> rontMct wilb t-lip- nick : How (Hrl t-Ti**y remain on- 
jioatiied i T\\a cnic^ttou U uimptc, but it is crucial. If 
am&li|rox vh'«re Uk« lire, and uim, wumeii, aiiil diilOreii 
liko futfl, why did Dot nil hum I Under what prophy- 
laxy did tlioy ahidc ncc-um } A^;iin in this connr^ction, 
W9 mtHt rot lose si^ht of ih? niagic of faith. Things 
hbeiii^ cqiiaJ, two pcrjtonn exposed Co smallpox, one c»n- 
fldent tliaif h« wiLJt tiivtilm^rnhle thruugh vaccEnatton.juid 
tbo othor approhoD^vo of danger, th« chances arc. that 
ibu fnarful wtiiild \m nltAckntl whilst the fearless vrodld 
have hi^ faith justified in immUDityH 

In cooaiderationa thus obrioua it L« not difficult to 
nudtir^tand how the toittmony dulivfrcd to the Commit- 
too had aafitnblaiiQe aa of veracious Nature. Anyone 
who has studied the history of remeilies f>r thp various 
quack cricA within hh own oh:»orvotior, will know how 
ea^y it ia to w>njura up t<wUuLony, witTi aaHevemUonH 
prosumptnoQa to question, which by-andbyaro graduatly and ulLiinAti^ly cli.inppr'Jir in rorgetriilnr^vt. I 
hav«, therefore, no dUpo^ition to be hard on the in^^n of 
1802. IVoju our vantage of cj^erience w« «oo how they 
H-vrt- Il*>] astray, and recojuni^e the prewtm of tliv influ- 
cnoM undur ivhich they acU'd. Moreover a remedy that 
iKjfv* llio priTinisi* tiF rplii>f from thn pi^st of smallpox 
inoculation cnmi- with btronj; at-duction. What a p<,4it 
that inocuhuion wsu, liow it woj« lo&therl.aiid 1tow ii wa^ 
viibmittod to under tlifi ptTrtuuHtcn of duty ftn> writton 
in the donitvitic m<^uioin) of last century. Evt-ry 
lor among the uppfir and middle clashes was per- 
VUadcd that it was nL^ci^'ary fijr her children to undi^rp) 
the Vflrioloiii ordca? — an ordeal that involv*>d th*» delih- 
erato introduction of amalJpox into her houi-ihold It 
waa hatt-fiiU it wax iiiLtiliiraUf!, iuid ytt it hml to W 
endured I The doctors minimised the Tieka to the utter- 
moat, but what thoy really bclifived plainly appeared 
whcji vacdnation preaontcd itself ai an aJt^matire. 



propbecy In the Report of the Sel^ 
lioti.4c of CoraiDon* upon tho Vaccii 
ilatiwl 2.Sni Miij", 1871, wbi?rt* wu rv^ad— ' 

Smollpcii iincbccknl liy Voodiubion, U ctl* r' 
wail d<Btrut?t[i-e of a11 liJBaMM M rflEE^rJfi ih- < 
ihv proportJQD of doaUiB jlou'IIjc tbom ftltu^i'.^l 

Tour Cf^iJiULlton twLtivv tfml if VHooinAtiij-i L 

What is beyond cvidflnco in boyoml 
t1i<? lEna^natJonn of M.P.'t^, ciull Uioci 
unfrefjiientlv prevail ov>?r their inUlli;:' 

To -'*ct <U(i(!<i the mav <jf ti^^tinioii^ 
ner's frion'Ift l:*efor« tlit^ Commons' C<>Tt 
«Ojnoiimr-n rlo^-^cribcd 06 ft hopolo^a un>' 
AiiHvritr 111 suEtlt n Uumtiji, that ^xpor^ 
tie *?we»ntial part of tJiat tontimony, 

littlif left tci ACCOUDt foiv No wvll 

practitioner now bulSavoK what the * 
to bclicTi:, that to be iaocul^Uitl wiUt 
«DCiiru from Hiiinllptix for Ufi>. Tli« 
ereditod, is suly^^cL to no ii^any quii 
priiiiitivi? iiuK'-iiliif^n^i ivitli euwpox * 
auoh protection nut worth paying U^ 
mg ovtT ai the groateaL liiarovjTv i 
Nor would man}- n^w a^lnjit tliV % 
lotia Tcwt which thuti carried c^mv; 
forep. Tntjeuljilioti with **m4]|po\ 
Wii oporatJon, aikU that it thonU 
with cowpCJX. cfo the poisoning 
worked off, was in nowiso eui ' 
racdnated suhjccts U> &maHi 
tnanii^r ilrra^^li^v ; and it 

f-nsmoN m 100;: 


-nxJiiCT^I to tlw 

■juac^ks, but by 

TOiCttc?, wc tnufi 

uttiiiwtcJy suptr- 

ivn with >jm»i.ll|Kj\, 

, wo liAvo hajJ, and 

juUl tjiiljr uuw rvciblJ 

lliftt "Smallpox do< 

Tlifl Kmnmury mL^wcr 

u»l)«T of nia,]ikinil wa^ 

and the pn^povti^n in 

n*t»etUiijii of Dr. LlU* 

f n bod year cf IjondoD 

Kvitn ]j] nil nt>cjL>viiiiif].l 

il in London of »ti&llpox» 

lAiiB nob aerioualy utfucttsJ 

i>\y^ obMrvod, woro fnerely 

'*f in ^omft otlitr form cf 

ikifi^ntly re<iuc» the death- 

LT^ipTOvcH ftaniUry condition 

.'iltAtioQ over JoTiDor. "the 

i:( ninAlI|H>x" ninl ovnf " Lh<* 

1 1 croatioE of mau/' the aun- 

l1 it w&s largely factkioua — 

'," lu Cailylc would liavi< Hjud. 

NO tniraculoua buudact^jr at thv 

hy A majority of tJirce id a Par- 

i.ioro t^&n 115 inomborH could bo 

Ip'trPiltor Fox ibunght II. woTtJi 

Xor WHS J«MincT ttoatcd dis if his 

iiidokind were .tobctly cruJibcd. 

:,"tht' world nevor reco^iaei^ its 

i^t the obf*rrvn.tkn does not apply, 

i:-LTly tecox"iiw^*^U fl-nil recidved priiUo 

ji'jrmrift* which posterity hesitate to 

■U'm Vtke priiiHu, thinjgh pniFifse, wfv* 

<rba!. SointJ expred»ed iudi^'nation at 



Qatioosl aiibecnpdon, btit no ont took tbc iiuti«iivc, 4cul 
tha mtifinal gratituile w^ not put to the t^c Evefi 
tho £10.000 wu pftid tardily. Writitij- to % friofi<l oa 
3rJ Jonr?, 1S04, Jfrnnnr Kadi to mbitj* thkt— * 

TIk 'fir^jiKj tflD »<OihoM* lU p^mMt of vk*l wm Tot«J lo 
me tvdTMrvkxot ^^ now thdra uo now ottccn, a»d itmfjrjei 
b« VDT7 loK« bcibro > goj^w FMBhw mo froda <i»t ^mrtT. 

When 4t lai* the tnnnfty wa» p«i 1, nmrly £1000 wns 
deducted for fro^> etc.: vvl, having Uju repuU: of tbi.' 
inuii^y, he vnu coondered public property. A« Dr. 
Bokion T««ordft— 

ThBUMplD <4 Kncland MODiod to UiiAk UiotUio tm at i f ipla of 
lib lifKij fuirl niiriil liml lM«a pnreDuMJ Iqt llm Tva TiUkDHUn> 
POD^nn; hjieI lavij »□ uqJdM wtd unganonmi tntmntlan cl ihU 
fooling wu coiiTByail to Idm, Ts « mlaci Ifko bU. IhU wbn no 
mull uiDuykan}. He wu dAllol ujic^ti for BxpUufetiouJi Rod 
oplQiaTu by uvvry pcnou wbo Oinncht n dixwl ooumuaueatlon 
wilL tliv Aatliur uf VncriuAtiun an uouoar worth Mokinje. wLilc 
t^jr.v tiii^lji );»!« ultvavil all Uu IciaraialidU Uivjr vruiM la Iua 
pnblJjtljuil wri1iug«. 

So mudi W&4 mAtUr of course, lut Jenn«r had worec 
to cDCOuntcr. He tfiok tlt« 6nd talk of hi« mrdiCAl Wbd 
polUieal fdun^Ja an »ftntux, bulc fiurcwdl to Berkeley, 
&nd sot up a^ LoncJon phyajci&n in llt-rtford Slre«t. M«y 
Fair, The rusuU wl* bavo in hi» qvtu word« — 

EUlod nod ftUnrcvl bj tho npeooh of th« ChanoeUcr of Oio £z- 
eluqiMTi 1 tocb a lumM £a LoDd<^ f«r bMi j*ftns Al o bicli ranS 
Bftj fuRiulic4 >t ; bal my fimt yojit'* ptiioUco oonriiued cm of cor 
own tomcntjr aad itoprndoaoct aod ih« bldtj- of Uic UUtiflero 
ivediotioQ. Mr Tool f«ll «IT >»olb id Qumber ^nd r&luo ; fbr> OKtnt- 
ovdioAry 1o t«lJ, aooi* dF Uimo fAmibM in wEiiofa I bod booo bofbw 
omnlo^od. now tout to Ibdr cwd doi&«*4ic 9ai)c«0M or ttpolfaflOOfioe 
to InovaltLto thoiv olulda^c. AJUgltig ttat ihoy could uol dunk of 
tronblm^ Dr. Jmnvr vliont & (Ung oxoeisUd m oaoUy m viMCiiw 
iaocnlftiiriTi. <Jlhr>f«, vho itkvo m« anoli Um lu I ihooght mjvalf 
ontitlpd lo al iho fint tno^lati«n, rodvcod ihtm nt tho tcoond. nod 

Hi?* Tf^ea did not aiQ^unb to £^'tO b ymr, and h« 
pK^vDtly found ItiiuKvlf noCliing tho letter for thi> par- 



1iam«ntaz>- gmot* and involved m mvc finondft] diffi- 
caldM. He wroU to ft friimd^ Sod November, IdO^*- 

nw Londao uii<:l« U n|A tu rl<niil our b«a| fimltiei^ I do not 
lataod to riik U)i« trjisr^ of luinH ivi t1d< «aj, nnT^** onwoonilly 
for tiia tiiiiaa^ffiTi of boiinaii, Tliii |n;Mla kftn no* lh» uralU«t 
hffM tn f«r|Cdra «idi ft tMiidoa cf inv. T luva tnf«lT*d no rawud 
fcr i0ijv«iiif thMb bow to natavo oaa at tiiv grofttoft nbaUda to 
bnmiu) bigpfaiaw; Iml, vu tbc coalraxj^ vn lowJod idUi ji tax erf 
more thfto £400 * 7*ul 

And to arujUjtT coirisponJeiit — 

I bftvo Dov dciiijiUuIj nuid* op my mmd TMpMtiBfi Ijaodon. 
1 h^vt don* iriih tt. ftHil Ywru agAin ooramuiM^ aa tUIaiio dtuflOT, 
I fouQfl »/ pnru not nqtul t^ tlio dnkin^ of ■ £icm nuniiLlly 
fvlileh h*M actTUtljj boMi the oaiia ict at*cn^ edkwvIvs T«u^I nor 
tbo gmt^lTtdo of to* piiblfo d«wi ving tneh a Mierl£«a. How Liahl 
litor vhMl T liat* dnD», tH« InfU f hivo j^ono Ihroufh. %ti'\ ihft 
ftDKUtio* 1 bftTO «Qf1nf#il £■ oJifi^t'nr^a^/'T lA^ otrrrld a yrftitrr tji/t 
fJhHt *M* fVrt fintiavffd OH lAd Ur^rti l>f/oTr (•tftUW lllll I'llrftl of 

•gotten), to b* throvQ fcj with « hm^ nmuni!V»t1on nf ray 


It ^-&i Imid : Peopl« who attributed to Jvnnur th« 
tJTVAtehi discovery ever mftde, the pre«rvali(Jii of from 
34>,000 to 45.000 livcyt aiuiuaIIv in thp UmK^fi Kinmicm, 
iwd ihcAalYAlioaof th-; huuioiinicc frMQntnAllpox, wr^rc 
lodeed enliUi.'<l to havedeiik wJih him iiior** liitridsuriiely. 
Be had sytiil'^xtlibcrii nnd CAiidid fncndA. " Your UbcT' 
hHiy aiiil iU^iiiilt-xtfttt-iiiiPja t-\t-rv uin? inujit juimirfi/' 
vrroto Mr* tkirkioin 'iVavcra, " but you atC' sadly 
dc6ci«ot ID worlillj Vi-iAdom. If jrou bad undertaken 
tb« e^tbictioD of the ^mallpoi ^our^lf. %vitlL cmdjutOTM 
of joor own appointmont, 1 am coolidont, you miKbt 
have put jt]()0,0()0 ill your pockot; anii tlin glory would 
havo been as ^uat aiid thi^ bt'iiofit to th« connnunitv tbe 
aitDe." Hew tUt £100,000 vs&h uM-d to LajilalW litm ! 
and yot, as Br P«&th)1i poinlod put, ncvor nny fino 
showed on whftl practicable tecuiA Uie iimtiT^riHi: ^^mn 
could hare l^ccn i^aniod by mvana of cowpox. 



CHATTf:R xirr 

^EXiffCf!, jeatooa <ti Pc&non, wu Aiutioiu to sttpM 
th$ Jn^lituUoD fcir the InoctilaUon of the Vaccine PoM 
«:»t*1>li4h<MJ by liim in 1700 ; but Jcon^r unm wh«t ScpuI 
call "» fecktesB cnaturiB" whcee vi«bi*M mnly {ssue '* 
fruit Aft^ Lib saooew in Purliamoz^ ho diJ not roi 
in London to iiaprore liU opportaniUrA, but rcti 
to dovDOsUo qalot At BoFkilcy and Clkr^lt^^tifuim, His 
frictida, however, wctc mindful of bim, aD<i Dr. Uai 
Mr. Addifigton^ Htirgvoni, Briijamin Travor^, and Jo] 
Loajxr nwt in Qu«n Btn.'et, City. 3r<I Uccembcr. T 
luid mnlvnl Ui i^tnbtiHh n ".TlCNKKitEAS S<K:i>ny for thai 
Extinction ol tbo Small-Pox." Mr. Addin0on Inuia-j 
milted Vbt reeotutioD of the ixiciHin^^ to Janaer, Aaying- 

Wc Ijok to POUT dirootion uid uAutiuico, iwd Ctftl vary di 
of loboviDi; whtii it bptobnblotre may b*vo the pU«M[rc of i 
joaiQ towo- 

Joacpb Fox of Lombard SSirett.deiiiiAt and enthiufl 
nrnnolrr of Uui new inocubition, olvo wrote to hitn, 4th] 
hoenmhtt, solicitiuf* hia co-opeAtioa — 

Tha olfta whicL U tn agltAtioD l« cf Ibft mail axUsMln* . __ 
Ubonl Wd- li u oTac oipMtod Uuit tbo Itotol coimtoii&noa wQl 
bo fiftinwl ; but mucli Uopoudj cpom thoo. AD ^ro logfldag towud 
tlio< M tbo proper iicnoa lo \ty th^ lbiuidfttioQ->CoD«. It n^idd ha^ 


w«U if thia «»ii]<l Ix) Jone in lli« aoufu of Ih* pn<t«)it yi-Ar, 
liBMtjirly ft« it i4 ihu iD«>Donble liiii« wbau tb« pnutlo* rao«a' 

But the &aao-loving J<?iin*r vtw noi lo bo Orawn- 
vrot« to Ui. AddJn^n from Berkeley, lOtii Ueoeu 

Taut vtry oliU^j: littler fouud xi]« ju»t rrluniHl nhh myt^ 
ftuJ diildreu Lu our iiWr^dtil LtitUfS wbrrv I iirLtuuHtnl ujjrtvlf & fcv^ 
wtwkA uf Jutiiintio c;i^iufurt uftur «ujjj« y^i^n t]fV!ai in vuu«l 

ThU 1a tlia |mlE on ono liile, Ou tbi^ othc^r U tb« del _ 
protiioet Iwld up toiuy view of im Iiliial'luliiiicut fur tUo prooui 
Hon of UniverBiil Vncc^icv luoculjiititiii— -uu ^titabiifiliiDbZil to * ' 
I have tot yeKni Ivcti luoklui; furwnrd wltU a lonx^cjc ej^ 

1 B««d ftot fio £krtli«r tolo «qilwikUoi3, aqJ «liaU oolj t*j* Ibat 
H be iDiOompAtiUe nilL tli« tfoaftroua Jcii^ to DufTor mo lo 
BUui ben for Um time I liid Jhllcwod myEcLf, I will MrUial^ 
tataniy wish tbo vubca ^f aty frUndA uid ^ lo (owi3. Yet it mavt 
b«Ol)ft«rT»d tbftt ] kuLblj c\jDcaLr« Hud anUntly hcjHi thnt my 
pmttico vCl scl b« ftbcoluiolj iMcca^uT-. I Lave wntttm to luj 
fritvd Df. LvCtHDi uii re^DMlctl LSeu to Uava tli« kiailaoin to bo 
fa* fu KB pueh A (bdos U aduijuiblc \ my roiiroaoatativv, lo bu 
JodnaMitta Ibo f TB M ut ootscui^Q I can pliiuo cvciy i7Dntiii;*]jc;ii^ 

Thtt UtUir doscribiw th<i itinn. ELo did iLot Uko to he 
troubled — DoLcvcn wUcn iu-I.j«]|i aloud fijr tlic5 &Uv'nnc«- 
nwnt or hia own gloiy- As Poaraoo observed, " If Vhc- 
dnaticti hud been left to Jcnrkor, it woiilti nuvcr havit 
poii^i? lo anylliEng." BeiijjuiUTi Traivoni alao wroto to liiiii 
At tho »mfi tiiDo urgin;- iho titce^f^ity of hi^ f rcjtc'uce &n 
L(rtiilciiiT, liut lii'Wiw pill. olf with ^ilm^*lr^lXu^M*Aaad with 
•xpect&tJoua ci a^aiHtaiicu from Uitr jniblic puteo — 

tioTvroi&tat, J liAr» no doubt, will ^^ivij ditit vupport to to jiiH 
■Ad lAlld«kU* aa nndwrtftkitiK' t uiu wurTvnluLl in tbln mp^eKticiL 
Vv > lo]^ eoDTCVMlkiU I hi^J wilb Mr, AUUott, tipookor of lltfi 
HoDM of ConUBon. wlw laid thut aiur tho invoetigitioii of ths 
hriuiDMitftry CdnUDLttao bo thouglit il bccaino b publto doty lo 
Cortii lii«tjtutioni fo4r UrahiiUtn^ Inoeiiliitioiti. 

A* Jcnner wm not to bo hod, di© promotora fisl to 
work without him. and thnir triumph wil» coinploto whon 
«l II rae^in;^ in tht> LoudvQ Taveni oo I7tli Fehnjurr, 
IttOfJ, it wjv> ftntoimccd that his Majesty had graciously 
ooiidr:<m?arLdi?c] Lu Wctitiin thr jiAtron nF "Thi: IIovai. 
Jkvxkrian SoniTV for tht* Exli-ruiiiiation of tho Small- 
pox :" that her Mfljc'^ty hfid with great benignitjr 
acquiesced In the re(|Ei(.'at to Lvooittu patroneHs: that bin 
Royal Highncu tho I'nncci of Wales and their Koyal 
HlghficetswM the Diikr of York, th^ jjukoof Oliirence.and 
Ibo Puke of Cumberland, liod cvtnc«HJ, in a most flutur- 
iog manner, thv-ir wHTirif^ne^s to accept th<'- od[C« of 
Yitt-patrona : that hm Oroce tho Dtiko of Bedford Ti&d 
conMitt^ to fiU the oUilv uf presideni. ; ftiid that riuiiy 
pralateN, nobloroon, and ^nU^nien oF the h!ch«t rank 
and respectability )iad Agn?ed ti> be vice-preaidcntA of the 

The approviJ of the iVinc? of Walctt wan conveyed ia 


& l«tt«r of tli« E^t] of Egremont, over which Baron, 
Jeriner*a biocerf^litrr (wTiting ivhcn ihi? Pnncc bjul b!o^ 
ecDicd into G«or;^ XV.), bunU into worship in c«pitaU, 
an foJlovTA — 

Tb* goKiivuw u)d boueGofiiit iciuJ uf tba TUiurtHoait vriUr u db* 
p1ftjiedin*vary U:ie; uid Urn wlioU i* Iroly dm.rftciiTi«tirtif IboM 
GTvnt qonl^l^u wLli^ eoutiiiii« U> aJil luttrif U» Jii* iLill uum 
ExALTKij Statiox uid «lj«d >o muh crrofl] clory on LI* lisiaM, 

Subscri[itu3ii[i fluH'i^d ui finely. The Oorpomtiou of 
London ^Ava X50Q, the Knst India Conipftny ilCW, tho 
Duke- (>f ittnlfortl JIhjO. luid giilnovt Ion. Gve, two ui^il om; 
w«n> coatril>t]to<I vilh & Jiberalitj th&t att^t^ri tlN 
fervour of the common crcdaltty. Bub it xfos iniich 
e<uW to get mdUfj' tliftii to a^lmini'iter it witli a. nice 
aHjuhdnont of means to cnd^. Tht Jonncrion^, too, wore 
tfvi'r-ur^iilKfiiL Tluirc WAra m. Mrdiciil Puiiud] ami a 
Board of Directors Tlxti Mcdiofti Oounoil conaiHtod nf 
iwonty-tive thjTMiciftns and twt«ttt>-tit u Sufj^Eia of tlie 
tirit omincnco in Lorvlon, with J^inn^r for prcnidcnt 
and Li^ttBuU) fur viu"|irtAidtnL Such iiirchtimAtu coulj 
nrrror woric, find nt tho point vfhet^ real bnaineef wn« to 
be Lninnactcd, nn officer wiw jwlcclcd of cxtrwntinary 

John Walker wt^ horn at Cockerruouth in 1750, And 
wiLs n M^]uKi\-tA]tiMf "f WiHidvillr, ?*iiliu-.|ii('titly |ihyM(!uui 
to thd Loudon .Smallpox Hoapital, Aflor a rankblinjjp 
C&recr oa blockflmitl^ (^nsmvcr. and reboot- master, he 
turned hh attcnUon to iut>dicuii^. f^duuto<t at L«ydcn, 
ttssocdatod with Krendi rovchitbniata in the j^uiae of a 
mumbor of tltt? So<:icTty of Frit^nd^; tbi-n nccompAniod 
Dr. Marshall in a vacciuatiujie croLie to tiie M«<lil«rranic«n, 
from whence, after & variety a! ndv^nture^ in war and 
woathoT, ho appoaru^ in London in 1803, hahitod aa a 
Quaker with a long beard — nn a|jpanti<in in a dean 
■liavrrn community, Josopb Fox, th« dentist of Lombard 
StrMi. gave him the u.'^eoV a port of bbi houAc, and th«ro, 
in hU own word^, "1 Mt nn oiy VArnsiLM for cbo 
^loriouii cnii^cJ' jU soon a» the J^nncri^n Society waa 
uitUaUTd, Walkur waa put furwiird hy Ju^rph Fux anil 



oth<T FrifiiiU a» iDocuUiior- in -chief, and W«Tk«r insflr- 
AppUcaUon m th^ foUowio;; Xertwi — 

To m JEwe«nu!( S<k:utv, 

IVJ«iid£.— Pcduftt than ia imt a^ay iudividumi vrLo Las irrraiUr 
rMVUDlu be entifiu villi tUamltntA j«u«iakuijr in llie Vftcdolt 
loocuLriiuu thas iu/mU^ 

DFUm iMEft. UMiiHKtk^of Itlutf bMnUiocUif biutinncf aijr 
lift, kOil I aia jk^rtlj LadobUid, duriug undo of Uio U«4 xuonlLiw (o 
Ih* Mttl of tndifidul tsccobon of yoor Soeiiclf for bcinc onAbU 
to cociiaweB, T1wt1^*« «"( paiienU bo uie trom rooiole and 
ditfairt pAria of Ibu oxIoeuow Cl4j> lalioiit for naat of uolLTietj, I 

jfttj I olbr In joa mj nmce* in tfiEi wftf : iuiing iLa Lufiuicj 
of 70W Inililojfo^i, ytn cwocot do mo * grMl«T plo«ncro thui «o 
ucreaae myfiomfcerof pftlioiilai for wbof* I iMV TWMiohto torn* 
[ oc^J euilir do tb» •ABto feff bnadredo. 
Afl«r thi* dodanlios, I ho» yoa -Hill cOB>id«r Ibft pntODt 
M nttllftfr «uMft>&ibIo cor L&lnKire, bat r^ilior m a 
of QAiraf eainf cmJ ta Um b*ppj c«u« ta vfakb y» an now 


Jos;r W.Luax, 
» lom^rd f'rtftftf, 80. xii-, 18CS. 

Vbeo vHc day of ehetloo anivc<), iour. out of mimy. 
:pmn «cIcctcJ ui ojxIkfaUca, one. of thrm being 1)t, 
Aer,^ German. stronffJj NOoviUDCdMlod b]r the Queen 
id prince nf WilIoh ; t»it tlif? Frifriul^ stCKxI by tbeir 
I. Mnd Dr. WaJker vraa &])[K,iiited RcuiiivDt IiiocaUtor 
Uie C«uLr&I IIt<uM9 i>f (bo fJodely in Salftbuty Square 
itlitttaUr^'v^f £2COay«u,oodftadeuidk«,aodliUnj 
to takfi fcea for prirate " rAcdolftUoD-" 

The promoteoB of the Sodeiy, opmidDg under the 
igc of Jenncr'* nuae, revived io hold their annual 
ttival 00 hb birthday, thtf I7lh of May ; and at ihe 
diDiier in 1803 bo waa subjoetod to fliUtcries cnoui^b 
toni any man's bead who does not know Utc rccklna 
'tj that pr^raliaon Bocii oooaaiooa. Icwas tha 
ktioii ooanact«d with tbc fonnatioA of tbia Sodaty 
Lt aa mudi aa anythini^ Induced Jeuncr to »t up aa 
^ 'eat-«Dd phyncian. Tlie attempt of tbe uiiddte-a^ed 
oounbj doicbif «n tbr ncnuton of much eriin hxiiaour, 
and bia eocMqaont emban^amcata wtrt tbc oonccn of 


faifl bitir^ for nuojm dAjr. Aptri from the iolitrreot 
clifficiilticit of the ent^rprW (nod&l nitlwT than mv^ic^l^ 

aA&iduitj. Wr^pcd up in nts wife ai>»l f&inily. bii«ti»is» 
waji aln-ayft »«t uim6 wb«u they clAim«d bU jilf>xtioaftt« 
rviparil ; &iid to l»Tc Londoii for Oluoomter^liitv fur ttama 
^ootOKUc CAiuw uaA Sc hU «yo« proocKlar^ th*! r^mred 
Qodcfcnci: — All which ici^ht b^auu^lc, l>iitit comtAtitly 
annojr«-l njwl fnintnilp*! hit AftwiatJ**; ; anil It U not thui 
«liembcr«d that any man c&n expect to toftkc way in the 
worid. Wlien llie anniversary in 1804caineTtmii(l,Jrnnor 
vas U BorkeI«y, and when prcESood to atteod bo vrroto — 

TbM^ a poft-«lvii« Mtigbt briu dp fnjr bodj, mj Kud wooU 
be UA Uhmd. On* tma$a of ray ^T bMaa*, nmomg nanj otiMn, Ja 
lb« tmi «t4l4 ctf Itn. Janntt'i U^th. t muboC Imt* fan- ena Av 
■ daj vrith uiy moifcft b nt^ teaUnfla Mt Wwai, *!ia boooor 
tli« gfartiottt OMH* of VMafaiatwa bj ^wininlhifl on lb* ITUi, wiB, 
i trait, admit mf apeAcify, It k lay inUotiati ti» oofivet » fow 
jltimrli Taoani^ on that <Uj >t mgr eottt^*. I idwD ato iboai 
aODM ivait b*«f, iw4 tciiMAlIni; a bom or two of fooi OoCobir, 
Wo tfiaD oloM lb* dajr Mb Imnpm of mak-pvndi lo tbo boallh 
ort1i«FHmd«0ifnafuia1nraliluCn>»BaisdAQ«lKV; andif Uvova 
DolforUutadbpodtlonocnifpoof Willi, «v AboiiU toar IJta baflfc 

ir JiMuivr w&i* lille and tielNtndulffi^nt, WaIk«T 
wrorw. Ho irna a fine Bpocimcti oi tlio OEXCa, j 
Posie38od with a Ui^t for u'liat he cnllf^I Va^eiolation, he 
haiahn>wof brfu^^ nervi^ of gUn^Vaud hatitn Ukoddck- 
wi^rk^ ThirUtui htAliuiia wi^i>:t i>peii(.-il in LuiidiKi wIxtto 
cowpoi: Vfts inocuUtiod i^'r^tiii, and in oi^bt^n nionUn 
WaIkco' wu Mc %o aiiiioiuicc that l!f.£^ patients bad 
baen op^rt^t^l on, and than lO.^.'i? char^^^s of viru« Iiad 
bfNjndianatchcd to the conntry and foroi^ parts; ivhcreou 

Tba «(r«c1 i^f HtM* tidrtloQB WM Inuaodiatelj peroeiTeJ hv a 
■trfUiw iLn^auUou ot tlt« numhcr of doatbi from smBl1pi>i triuln 
lb«BUlaofU<n1alit^. Inld03t]ieTanioniitodlon7g: iolSlMthay 
war* tmly 402. Tli« cuutiul will a|ip«ar elill ETooter wli«n It b 
ooniddorvd tiuL Ibtf iImUu BinouaM l(» 2409 la Uj« ytM^ inoo : ^nd 
thai Uu auauai aiotagv of draUi« for (lAj jv*r» [in^iioiuly wm 


< BUOB^ Hfr ^/miKr, Vol i p, (77. 


The |>ftaaA^ ii Qotenrartliy ma r«pr<«eaUtive ol mair^ 
vtmilftr pftAsage^ to the lilenlura of Vftcctn4tioit It might 
bo <lc9cnbc<J m duhooctt. but th<f craft » «o tnaipwcot 
thai the vplUiet would W t?9Lir«v«gaaL Th« profaoble 
oxptonfttion b, that VftmnAUon had eoDQ« to bo nf&rdod 
ajt tH» iuu|iti!>*ioii;iLly iH^nrlirUI UiMt ttnjfthin^ miglib lie 
ivs>>rud in in favour. ^lA thAt an^xiuf vru tru«. Else 
^ chilli Ttii'-hl have &skcd how 12,000 or 24,000 vaccina 
tlom could bj any pondUlity atfecl an iinm^Utc diminu- 
tion iiL tht deaUia irom auiallpox in & poptiUtiou uf eight 
or riincf hundred UkOTiqft]>fi. Hnron vi^uld al«> Icftd Jiui 
TC^crstoeuppose thatUioIowmorUtityof IbOt. uanclj 
622, WA^ unexnniplcd, tJiough with Uif* BilUof Morlalitjr 
befoTt^ hint, hu mi;*ht hnvc m:cii Uiat the itojith^ ui 171^7 
Tell to o22; and he knew U^atp liie luw Cgurt- uf 1804 
wan not mainUun^, but roM to \6HS m L805. But 4U 
remarket!. «n^ flftri^rmrn^, if only it he fnvo^irablc to 
VaccinalSon, U expvet^'d to puH uiuattr as v*iracioua, aiid 
the public er»1ufUy jn^tt^cs tha cxpoctation. 

IflfL UK I(Hik nt tlu* r^induTi Bills for ownHTlvo*, taking 
the last ten years of thf> 18th and th'j firal too yeara of 
the 19th O^nturies, and try to discaver what th«>y toach. 






feU PIHMll 





... \ 

■ IT^T 

.. U018 

.. ijie 


... 'jkj^aia . 

. 1A68 


.. 4fiO 


... 'ilJJU 

. 2392 




. . iy,34i 



,. 17M 


... «i,i7y 



<. bW» 


.,. 101.^8 





.,, 17,014 





... iH,i^a 



» IW 


... IH,1H4 



.. 388 


... ?a,06S . 


., ^7ia 

.. MR 

im,mi iMn ifl.wio -jtot 

It irt ti> bo f)hrK?rri><l, timt wc have not here tho record 
of thv dfJiUiH ill Lh« wholis uf Ltindim, luit mrrrlv thp 
Titjnihi*r of intrflimiral intorment^j which dhiuniahtfj wi a 
niimhrrr of L^ftVf^yard.-* became gorged beyond capacity o! 
deccmpr»Etion and assiinUatioD, and r&llof wuh noug'ht ia 



Ktvl Tilnrytffbmu^- It t« only thiu tlmt i.h^ fjimiMlstrin^ 
numbi^T of burials (which nrt^td from 2S,<K10 to 3O,U00 
duiitiX iiit^y yt»ars of the Idth Century) b* l-rj be aoccuotr 
«d for. In this light wc h(iv<r tdcoRsiikr tho following 
t&ble, Yrhvrv wv note ftwci buri&la, IcM »mtiJlpa3t, le^a 
fov«arfl, btit more mt'Aslw 

niiTWii r-Din 





kll i-ii>«M 





.„ 19,871 





». IJ.870 





.., IP^S 





... 1T,QBH 





... 17,GUG 





». 1T.D88 





... lajm 





.. 10,064 






,.. i^esn 






... 19.WH 





iSb.TtfT 13,fil» ie,aM fi8SD 

From whAtev«r cause thers wtu» an dbAUrociit of nniftU* 
pox, biU it yma n (ymtinuniiN Filmt^tnptit wbirh had set Ia 
before JcTin<?T "vaa hoard uf ; &ud at Llic ^unto time w« 
DDUTit r<>peat that at this iTay (when all ^wear by cHa 
iiQilT of Nature and Ui« corn?Ution and convortibitity of 
her fgravL) il isi ffroealy unsciciiLific to pick otib !(]n»J1|Kix 
from the zymotic din^Afi^s fttid deal with it bh aJU bi<le- 
pciidcnt entity* It w a fcvrr lunoug fever*, br^ and 
prtJiiagat&l in tlie same coaiillttoiis. and con nrvcr b« 
atudled apart from ite asaod&tos ^-ithout aorioiu Bda- 

Those Bills of Mortality, aa compared with the mor* 
accuiati: ttaii^tira of our own dmc. are of litlk value: 
butt ibuch Aft they are, ihoy ate constantly rcforrod to.uid 
Hiffir items used, ob by fearon, as protcxta for taont jm* 
wftrrnnluMn iuwi*rti(3tiw- Any iumirufto of Vaocioatlon 
on ilie eimallpox moTUlity of 1^1 10 w&b practically 
nutliiu^i:. Vaccination wa& limited to a few Lhou^^vub, 
and thoMT ehietty of Ui« c1n^«c« louit Mihjoct to the <liBCB£i:, 
TlicK'^^t M.'cthm;: mas?iuf iiietropolitau N^iialor, in which 



Uid vaccino UnceC If Uic ncnr pmcUcc (lid good, it vu 
in diAcr^tin^ tnd disoouraf^Oi; the «ultun of Miullpox 
in vmrtcilotiA inoculAtioiu 

To return u> the BorAL JoTKcxrAv Socnnr. Itc 
hsJcf oqhUjs wore of brief duratiooL BaUiudttna ttbftted, 
sabaCTiptinvkH f«fll dfT omm of uniJIpox after vnodna- 
ti<m CQHU) to be bcu^i of, And wriuiui iIIdom and doftib 
Coi]w«liiatt upon * d>^ l>tfi»^i &iir] liAniiTtnfi ujn-ratidn," 
OpporK^nbt w&xcd bold and could not bo liilcncofL Hioa 
j«&IoaAifA tu>d dts4«a>fiouH bcga» to opRniU: withia tbe 
Sjodety. The finnndal secretary AtTore with the nediool 
secretary. i>r. Walker's habit« and ccocntticitiM, viowod 
at first with amuwwiNit, exdtod [rritation and JU^^tt, 
whllat JvDoei<s oo^-goio;; modo of lifo and impecuiuotitir 

Veiv n. KOiiras of huoiuUI and ilUtvuut. T};*^ climax wjtK 
rooclicd in IftOS wh«ai Jviuicr and Walker vox\> oot upcnij 
^ lo;f:Hcr]>tiad». and a light lo tho death ouaued. 

Walker, it U to bo Mid, novor troat«d jADn«r with 
remvcct Liki* Ptancn be took »tock of bi& liirtibi, nx\d 
did not mto th^m highly, and woiilH rot lUten lo his dic- 
tation. *' Vocctimtion." he nr»cd to ulwrrvc. "*in extremely 
^mpl^ BH to fact^. whilfi, ha io c^uhu^. It i% nulr^ly uat of 
tiko reocTi of medical nion with all thoir thoorio^" Jcnner, 
OA timldrnt of \}in Muticid CiJtiiicdl. thought hit hojl a 
ri^bt to bu obeyed, but VTalker vu tho l&at man in tho 
vrurld to yield obodienco when he had formed an oppoAii« 
conviction — 

JeuiKir [vrilcH Borvu] ouhmtImviI it bU duty tu ftdmr^ai*!! Iuiek. 
%m\ rt'p^i^Wy r«|irwaol«iI Ui Llm. la the lut^nt fri«»illj mancjtti 
tb« lulHcfjinvriiig l«ncl<Dcyofh]M ti]UL>vatiou& Tboio ronioujitrHucsi 
Wir» EiETAvuIlliiir. waA bft ooftaid to hmv ika^' mEOtaaniofttlaQ with 
Dr. WaUut AfWr llioflumcierQri605; nubuuttiitc mUwr to louiivil 
in ciltiico the Calc of tlio Society lluw «om« bdW it v a puUio 

Of course such forbowancc coiild not last loni;, and 
inst.rLiH-ions i-vHiird by Widkii Ui Un* Xutlm^hHiu Vaorine 
Inatitubion in Maroh» I80C, woro riac]e theocea^ion of an 
open rupture. Jenacr brought Wnlkcr'^s coQt^uct under 
tno eorud^knitiorL of tho Modfcol CoaocU^ and bccured \m 



OOlukiADaiiotL The qtie<<tion was tlmn rofwrcd to the 
Qcflera) Court of the Society oii the :2ith of July, when 
It nmliun that Wn]k*>r hv iIUtilW**] from bis office w 
noipitivodbyft mijirityof throo, Wnlkov bcin^cujpportod 
by Sir Jnsoph Pviiik^ imd ,f'*riii«r by Dr. Sims- But the 
viotory wiui not i^a^tiaf&Qtory to WalUt^t. and on the Sth 
of August lio put an ^nd to the otnfc by [Kn^ing in hu 

Kuron's aolenin aoooont of tho contest mtut &pp4l 
evCT*y ing^numn r^iuUT. .Trrmt^r, it. t* uTitJj-n, rr^nrded 
Wttltpr'jt proceed iiiir* a^ of " tbc most danjfuroud diiiTVA* 
tor" a?* " plfttiii;^' in [)i.'nl tht^ nafoty of thfi pmctice/' and 
"ae lively to wreck the Sooiety '; fto that had h<^ not' 
ri?tit<til Jrniipr would have beeci conipened to v^ithdrair' 
)Uft count*rLanco fronn Salisbuiy Square. Aj* w<» read w« 
^xclami, V^liatnvcr did the drearlful Doctor do f llcic u 
Baron's aii«w«r — 

U ih iiLLiitfOdMJiu/ t(j ai«nUoii tb*iipaciflo luf^tanoeBoTmlMoaJ 
wliioU WDTU uioUuJMd. They regudod •tqu thv ^"uy naaiw of Huj 
affaoiktu: tho metiiod of mjiniitfng tie pnatole*; IbodiihTttcteno 
comet Toooiuation ; tbe pr««(tQtu>Da to be obwrrtd in ODDdudinj 
Uw prooliop. «tc>» «tCi 

Mooro i^bitc^ tlic offence plainly — 

W(UJc«r'c meUidil of tnkini^ l)-mtib wat to oul opon tho TDucUftf 
uui to wipo ovil tli« «cvnt4«(ilH with Uut, in onUt lo prccura 
fnab iMTivoc. ThU haroh lr&%Untiot <^ iiifiLiLti xv»vh tli» r«vt<r*« 
that vbloh bawriA dlrMt«d to «uij>loy; aEidAal&cwaa iuihltVTu1>l« iai 
UirMoluboa.itWAAat limgthdftffmBdfMtfeuRrytaTemova him.* 

Turning to the i(ftf <>^ VTnt^r, by Dr, Epp*, wo bar* 
the ditfcronco 'tvnxt Twcodlcdora and Twcudl^ddrj »^l\ 
fiirthfir illiMtnil.i^d — 

Tvu itifferuut uji:rd«i hnvo Wu aJi^plBil iu lakiuu tb(< muttor 
iuiOOolBtiou froui Uin vncciuiLUd xnhJ^c^C: vjuv. Ij lUAXiUfr iiuucluj-va' 
roiuid Ui» outer jmii oJ iho pock, Dr- Jctmcf 'ii illchIc ; Lliis uUi«rf 
by roBiOKiaff tLo cnut or «cab froiD iho coatro of ihn pock, wipiatf 
ftiit tli« fliul bfiQoail^ itt (tritl thoQ tftldsg tho ia»tl«r> iaduodaaEBi 
aIqIt. irum imj pEirl of tha whole i^nUntAD<« of th« pao^v X>t. WoUcar'a^ 

* ffiHarg awi Proftist </ raaJnoC^, p. Sl^. By Jvkn 




Aa tn bnvk rth\ wan gT^neralTy, the ostensible ofTVncr; 
it naroJj the true ur entire oflencc^ so when we ruvert 
to tho tveiiU of laOj'C wcs JUcijver tlijkt VacomaUon 
boing r>i]n4 (?ui, luid that Walker served J^nnorV 
purpoEie Ofiportuiiely as scape-goitt. Walktr's behaviour, 
too^ constitiiterj W\rn r canvenienfc victim. Many whtj 
CftTcd nothing for liii iuckIo of " toking lymph " htwi boou 
LurL hy hift »i:arii uf tlunr Hf'lf-iEii^HJrLnjK^D, hui) Wi^re 
nsdy toasust Jctmeriaofiectinj; hie liumiliation* lilr. 
CUnc, tbn .HLirgoniir nfti^v li-'stining to innny [im?cclic>« 
Bgninst Walker, aumiatid up thi? indlcUtunt, "All they 
compliLtn of arc his dt-ras and iddrr^* A nfival officJ^r, 
nieettnj^ WulktT on 25th .Ttily, nuid, "l cuun*.' tu tAiwn 
to-dftv to hold «p my LaiiJ in your auppofl* You nnd 
Jnum^r tht not Kgrpn ovpr rtmntt trif!p«, niid yntir (*tii!itiu^ 
wish to turn tUo fact to your hurt, but tboy hxva bceu 
beaten- la tlic* man whu luuiichcH a veattKl the only oau 
who con nnvigftte Vnjr ? If Jcnner wero to liv© for fifty 
jears to com^i. He could nflvcr liavc tbc authority of your 

Jo^nc^'.'^ victory over Wnlkcr wm uttorly di:^aAtroiu: it 
destroyeil tlie Ruyhl Ji?rini>riiin SucL*t>\ Tbr* substantial 
npport^re of tho Society wtre the adherents of Witlkor, 
an<l vniU him tSry nriri*il*^l, *nrur»'i! Hnothnr housn m 
Salisbury S*iuart\ anJ (jaUblijshod The London Vaccina 
JnWTiTirnox with Walkt'r for ujoaa^tir. The leuinMit 
of the Jifnni:rittTi So(::<"ty uppoiiitc^l Jftuio* ShT-ridaii 
KdowIcm, a youn^' Inah ^urict-on. aa Wilkcr'n wucct-aaor, 
ivnd for dUtinctum piirchM,Mid hini the degree of M.I). 
from St. Audrt^Vp'ri. He hiid iht; nur^vity ihnt Witlkcr 
difld&ined, ttiid littlt^ tdw Ijeslde. H^ ii^gl^icted lii^ duties, 
ftsd noon the traffic in tho *- honign Huid " was traUMforrod 
to the nuw tntttblt-ihtiirtii. tntiniatf^ly tlm Icahr, fiaturcn. 
Bnd furniture of the Jonnerian houeo Wt^re diapoeed of, 
aaj a rovrtitt ctfoctcd to huinblcx officer, until in IMS 
what rtiualned of lh« Soeloty was iucorporatoi in 

Walker cititaineil mui^h ibvtiMtnnni? from rif tin? 
Socktyof Friond^, and the fact affords Mooro (Jenm'r'i* 


ibe RojmJ Jconeciui SoCM%5 dt^ooed of J^anec mi Ui 
l^rty, TlMnna* J«nn*r to pnmd* for: btonU 
«it£ decency be foamkto -. uyl thtn ««a « 
vacofawi wErui lo be kepi up. for vluch |«)de 
tfopcprilHiCT on Walker's dvi^viuvT* It m m vain to 
i^ipHl mhtah to & henovulnkt {raUkv vbose ean&beim 
had ffooe elaevlMn, «ad wboK ■nfpte&ons iv«t ucoils& 
U im tbonfore dc4crnuacd to icaart to OorrmnicBt foe 

rt^tUt^f r«Kvdfin, f^ suaul 



GODfiideablft, ssd ve sh&IJ aim to wb&t porpooe ii waa 


A ntw practice wuiU a new tiAinc, ^od it ms Kraio 
iiRie Ivrum utiG wttA tunad fur TiimraWiiiu willi (7uw|MiiC 
Dr. W«lk4>r made uh oF V&ocioiiitioo uid to Vocdw^te 
ta ItiOS; 1>ul it wm^-t lUdinnl Dunning, mrgvon. of Flj* 
mcKiU), vho inuodoced Vaednation aiid to Vacctnate 
JdUKT writing to Diuuung. Sod April. 1S04, ohMrved— 

Tilt: u-tf*I Icitiui VnraLulion moil to Vftcdaftl*. an undoobMlT 
yucuH. auii b« *uclt 1 ioxiuuimmmI tfaem >t a miiiliat of tli* Bojrw 
j«ob«tUa &x>Hj. Mlian au V. D. iirantat aJvutwotKl ihm m 
tiBpQrt«d trotn lfa« Cociliii«QU* 

TiitiCinftljOli ia uut an yd a Irrm a«rrptrd rvrrywhettL 
Ataotig tbo un«ducat«d V9 b««r of Wnf: " cut for tbo 
GOirpock/' or Atuph- oT bdtig " euL" 

Whiht VftcciikfttfoD iraa a tutcful word, it waa, and ia, 
often iJiimppJicd. Jconcr'a prefdiptioD of UorscgreaM 
CovrpQX vtvi E'^tiEit^ton ratbcr than Vamnfttjon ^ ami 
when virufifroin tliulioraewft»<rmployedDc&t,£qumatiiOD 
«M thi^ lu^rIlrat<f ilnugtualion vitnout qtlMtion. Again, 
when virti^ vrtta g^iitmU^ from Small-pox on h«ifriB, 
tbe BuLaequcul, uiuculatMU uf tlie kut^aiL Hiibjrct w&h not 
Vaccination bot Variolatitn, <>r at lewit VaTiolovi? Vac^ 
doatlotl. Tltc rimti in puUic aic iit thin tUy ilcnvcU 
from IIoaraegneaAeC-oM'pox.C^wpox.Honepox, Smallpox, 
SaalJpox Cowpo3c. etc, etc, iDoculiicd from arm-to-arm, 
in Bmea ^lorigeJ and nuu^an^ab^, u calW Vawina- 
tioD ^ byt it ia A^ccination in faith or fancy, dviiicnc^ 10 
anything ImbniK^rtainty Itfiuj^ iiiEAttnirAhltt, 

• Bftna** Xir« ^J*m*fr, toL EL, p. 33fL 





Bakon relates ttn instance of Jonnor'a p^T^ooal &b>niM» 
ftm! thi? nn?iitAl tiirtnni hv ontliiri<<l m jirospk^ctof a festival 
of tlio R-nyal Jcnnoriftn Society in which ti<t won cxpcctc^) 
to tttK*' pfl,rt Spcatiiiiy to Bnri>u ho aaid — 

1 can roniimrn jny fi-tliii^jH |j> tlrtoie cf no ona Wt Oowpcr, thi 
port. wli^Ti hiK iuUilliirt nl lant KB^i* W«y to fiij< f0*rK ftf^mt Um 
vT«^cntlou tit h'vA iiiyi\in m tli« Hoow of I/)rlF4, 71 w&f rMiliaf 
Caw|iur'« Lift. I beUuTu, that tiarail mj isnu mmims* by iiiittiiiif 
fiifli; iu vioH of aty^ dativori For waq/ woolu Wore tn« mmfl 
T IwtgftD to (» ii4fi:ht«a, uid. u It P^pnuicbod. I inw ACtoi 
d*pnvod butb uf Hiiir«titu and i(ti*L<L>; jkuJ wlifln ttio cT&^ cmo*. 

and oiiiLtfti. T)io moating wit* at Iwu^Lh iulvmiLitwl by & dltMjlo- 
liuu uf L'tutkiuoat, vbicL loxtt tli« U^diiiic yauulu kr the conuLrjr; 
and trbftt wu At flrnt mordy postpoptd wu ulkuut«ly abumdciind 

t^unit^lhiuf; of thia tiniiditj^ wft^ no douLl duo Lo liU 
c<>D^cioiin]i^H of jiLaytiL;^' a dccoitfol pArt, and to tbt 
appnij'Friutlon uf Imnijur and reward to which he liad no 
JLialefairo. lA\io manymhy men, Jenn^rcoiiM be iiuoknt 
with pen and ink^t wna faco to face coura^ to which 
he w£L.*« [iiit^i[UAl; and lliis timidity, with utliL^r rMiHOfis, 
accountor) for hii* faihirc aw a I^ndcrr physician — aa " Um 
Cowpt.ix Doctut." aa hn ivft^ c*>uimt>ii]v du»iTriI*n<I, Tlvxe 
who^tf titiCouragt'Tiieiit had helped to fead him to dUafitcr, 
ilimo who were plcn.<4ci] to bchcrc that ho had tautflkt 
mankind ln>w lo escape fr&m fimallpxH and sovtrral othi^ 
pTof«Asional Itcthrcn, were all concemt,>d ti> help him oul 
of his difficultpiiss, mxf], if [yi^h^ at thr piililii^ f^vpon^e. 
The Diichesa of DetfOJuhiru wroto tJ Mr. vVn^'crstein — 

[ had not fori^ht yacir hind izttcront nbnut JfluuL^r. I P|>oke to Iho 
Duke, the Prinee, iind SJor|iotlii nnd thoy will aII J" whfit yon tbink 
bofkb ; hut Monseth \i\a undcrtokc^n to mcLke inquirice Mhctlioi it i< 
not pjmblo to Vring bi« cuo n^alo boforo l^iinmDnt. Eio thinki 

• BftTon'i Lt/''^ *i^ JniP4r» vol. Il p. IB2- 


MtttpCli^, I lUalrviJ hiai bj fiod oet bov Pitt wu r4«% liwtiii«d 
ttt i\.o mittUr, ftiid ! only TAJMi 1tj« r««ih of Ihttte libiiiiHM to 
mil* to jon^ 

Ac the Bamo tlca^ Jenn^r lumdelf viu not ua&aUv«, ud 
QWiugcd to Afivancti hi^ own uitor«»C edochuJIj. He 
caniid to Lottcloo, loth Maj-, 1^5, ftiid aI onei^ saw Lord 
E^reuiont* miJ mUarg^ apon the Joaaea he had incurred 
in thr- piiHIie nnrvice; thp r^tult b^n^ « lUtarmumUon 
to appeal afresh to the Ubcrali^ of l£o Hotiao ot Cofn- 
[Don& Moreover he rtJicce^M in winning over tliv 
Chancellor of tho £zchi>|t)rr in th« maimor be thu« 
ilcMri1x?« — 

Dnriaji my raudciMM tn toim In iIm tuiunier of ld(U, Lady 
Cn«rv t-iuipfmAd [b oonniiAtioD to toU roa hov inndi Lonl Hfiuy 
Putty viviiMl i/yr • wmfemnM trith dqd art ttic vaedat nlij«c4 ; nnu 
UiBt ■bf' Wf>nld Lkf La brlitgiu ti>g«lb«r. W«inet al bn vflb al 
HuBpctAi^. vid ««ni « rdtv into lb* nutter that bii Ejmdddiii 
convlDDfMt €\t ihe tnjnrj I iiufi a[utaliii?d. Dipr«v«d hu ibtttmlaa- 
tioQ to bnii££ HULtcLJiiuir fonfAfvl iu ilitf «iugiud|{ hhbIimi D^Csn 

Iba mMtkifi anivti] Mr, Filt tL^l, *u4 I-unl Hgary Pitlly hec«iiw 
Owacdlcif of Uiii Ki'-limjiwr. In ib««*riy pajriof laoo, I win 
H4V l^ix fiOnUiiji, kiiil fitund that LIm anfoar in iqt cftimtt bftd 
Aoibred Da ftlAlamam;. Thb tm woo liUr proivil by hU Lurd- 

LiirJ llenTV hrou^ht Jenner'« ca^e before the Corainanfi 
OD tho Snd of July, and rt^itcd the fabaloa*! metier cols'- 
inumi^lisl U> him with tbe^ furut? of per>unal cunvictton, 
Vaccinalion was a proventive of sutaJlpox, that Joathsciae 
^Uacasc which ^prc-niJs dfsth thnraghout iho vrorlJ. tt 
was In 1777 that Jconer obtalnMiom* obwure know- 
led^ of the peculiar rirtue of Vacctne ; anil froin that 
pfnod W meditated prnfottnclty on tb« fitibj«ct> oocumu- 
laUd infonnatiQD, and iiv>ltUit4:d cautious and dcciaiw 
«ixperiinent«u At length he p^rrfec^vy) hu diHcovi^ry. and 
published it for tho Mnofit of mankind. Lord Hcnrj- 
lliuii proeeedM to i^Ulo (Kl* triumpTv* of Varrination, 
not onij' throughout Europe, but China and India! 
Wbcrcwr the practice wa» inbroducod. thero emallpoK 



dimiuisfiod ftnd VB&iabod. TheTOWsVknnn, for in.-^Uincc, 
v/hvvv Uw aven^ mottfility from i]iiiall|itix wn.'t »35 
nnnunlly. Vncdniitioii wa^ ouLimnnco-l in 1700, and th« 
DJorUilit)- dropped in ISOt to 1>1, in 1S03 to S7, mad in 
lRt)4 to2. Thiiftin Viennn t^crf• vnwun fumual ibaIvaUooi 
of k:(^ liumnn bcin^ Tlim undoubted fact had tuftde ii 
cle^[> ttiipreshion uti ?ii«4 D^ind [a» w\{ \i might *] But, 
&i(Lfl ' vhnt triv) ^loin^ no much good abroad waa noj^lcct^ 
jLiul ilUtru-itcd III IjctiK-. ]n Ui« CiLy of IrfiriWitii the 
death^i from ^mallpoic hiul h^t^n on &n avt-rfef^u 1811 
ftnnuafly.aml thi.^ tiiorUiliU- hnd been grndually reduced 
l»V Vu(M?iTmtiuii Lij (it^. TTirou^h ihi* ilifTiiaion of the 
di^ofl8ir bv N'&riolouf^ inocalntion, the di^atbe liutt yov 
(!«():.) h«;j l>ci-ij rni^rd from fi29 to Ulfl3. Tbi« dreadfnl 
dodlrucUun of lifo, ej^pi^cialty shcckint^- wlicn a ci:TtttiD 
prcv€Dlho existcii, demibndcd their iQOFit bt^ncius atlcn* 
tion, and in tho situation Itefolt Lound lu propOHo a ptaD 
to hnng forward a mafw of evid&nce, to «Ijdt the Unilb,, 
and enlighten the public H0 woiiM thei^foie mov^— ' 

That La huinblo AiJdr««ft b« pr«ut}t«f1 ti> Ht< \Fnjp«ty. pnijiM 
Hint h(» will If^ «rn^r*itiHly pl»»iMrt tJJ illrunt Hin Hoyni CiAl^|*«| 
I'byiacmrjit U) in^iuim inU tan aUtfl of Yaf^nfj 1 rmcniUtion ia ttu 
b'nil**! Kinflilon, ftnd to Kipnrt IhfliT opiniirm ai lit thft iirogr««< i| 
b^a mniln, and Iho enniui'- which have rptanleil Jt4 g<ni#vmJ 

Should tills report from the PhyHicnana corroborate 
favourable opinion of Vaccination cnti^ruined Lv forpign 
nuticintt, it must greatly lend l*> sulnjut? Lh(p«r prejudifioi 
a^'ftinat tht* priicticc^ which have boon fomented here. 
And in that citwj, tJie House mny coniiidRr wbetli*»r tho 
ingt-nicua Dincovcri^r hns boiMi roJaun**ml">d conformably 
to the lil>um1 H^iirit ZLiid (^h&nLctt-r cf this coimtrv. 

l)r, ilATOE^vs Bccondi^tJ tho moUi:»n, and contr&fitod tho 
Eiafety ai the vnccine wiUi thu daiiic^rs of virioloito irui* 
culatioa. Hf? had no di^nbt tho coiinfir irmild ha:(U>n to 
testify still further its t-mtitudc to tho Itemed physician 
to whum they owi?<i th*is tatwtlinahle hcUL'CL 

Mr Wk-HKrkokce did not approve of tlio reforcnco to 
the Colle^T; uf Pljysicinnw. He wonid have pn.f^^rivd an 
invcstj^tion by a committee of the House, ai^d ciiiolhijc 



CQj3LuiUU« cf tbe Uouat! <if LoiJa Tin- o]j1uiiju& uf sucli 
ucbtftMfd p«Kon« woulfl l>o Mioni cungi^ninl to th« fool- 
injC^of the |)4;opU. luic] Far more Afttipfoctory ihtui %ny 
mediwil report from Iho Collo(»e of Physicians- The 
!ftlUr might be BaapcetciJ of bcirj; intiiioJiccf! l>y pro- 
fuwioiittl [iiulrvi.\i, wliri^Uh a ru|K>rt fn^m t\m [^jrdn aiitl 
Oomifiona wai»IJ bo uaivcmaily rtMJoived aa procoodin^j 
fmin n. pun* ili-^ini tn pr^TJiutr tin* y^<':»'rnl gimci, Tt did 
not Burptisv him tbat\actiiiaUon bud mado loaa progress 
at borne ihjin abroad. The robiataiicc wan due to thait 
CLjrii>UH princinlt* in thf* buninii ndnd wbicb nccopt* whut 
comes from oiar with adtiiiration Vfliibt what ia fftmiUa^r 
i» iirn;|pcti-d and do8pi>4rd, Tbp roiucdy would hv Found 
In ditTu^ii^ inform ^ttion tut to blK; coiiiplvtc rmocc»i of 
in foreign c*juntfiea. Tliey would timi ills- 
ftb^itvL piTJiidicpA which uro GngOJid^r^^d and 
foftt«rtd hy ccrrt^n nrlhAh avid iciUrcatcd indtviduAla. 

Mr. WiSDiJiw did liot concur in tb« advioe of Mr. 
Wilbcrforect to rcfc-r tho matter to a parliAinciitAry 
coaimittt*!'. It was it ijiK^tinn ^nr iiK^liirtu inr^ii. T^i n 
committee of Uio Houuc the odn^ niiKht bv anpU<Kl, 
Nf jfttUti- utfi-itiirvj/kbr^n. Ijj-t tht'in enforci? witfi tlieir 
^provaJ tho report of tha phyKiciaiu, xn<\ then l«t tbcni 
pi-occc<l to remunerate that mcnLoriou^ individual to 
whom !*oc"i*ly ow*d the ntmoBt gratituda He could not 
help thinking; he Itml not yet received what ^'Ar< due for 
tho rKpenJio and trouble llttr dEscovi^ry Imd cost bitn. 

Mr. ^AXKfi wii* of a i^orptiaU turn, li^ wiahed the 
motion had l-ern madi* f^'iHirr in the M^vkinn^ ri>r ihrn \\r 
should hftVfl supported the 8U;*^'ettion of Mr \Vilb(Tfi>rEx\ 
They winhcil to Isnow Vfbetlicv Vftcciuation neatly dkl 
Aftbtd rpft^oEJiblG socurity from snmllpox- It was uot a 
f]ucKtion fof iiicdical cicii for which die Houat? vraa in- 
com latent, Tlu'y wrre as f^apahl** of di-t^rminiTig tb^ 
point, ajid Bottin^ it clearly before Uio public, a?* the 
jno?*t learned body that ev«r cAisted. He wlslivd too, 
since tb^ motion would l>o carriod. that the lloydi 
College of Sur^coiift ua))jbt> bu unittrd with the I'byii- 
daju in tile production of tbe roport. As for Dr. 

4odv^ 1'i^ uu.4mJ »«•. jU Car t^ fBfanrf^lM 

tiLo r '^ gf Bvf^^vDft Ui Choi <if tbe 

k w^ -«^Ui*o«L TW Colbn of Hi jacM— 

^MPV#lMmf»U«,tt'Vi»U I1m« be Ufl Av^to 
lliii nmuunil<A \m ftvftnlnl ti> Dr. Jenntf- 
iMitimMtt dboof «ty, 

Tbv £uotluQ wta tbvD |/ul from duo Clwr ■&(} 
to viMfiiinoMy, 

It U imWUm Io MMri^ IW. the rqioct of tiie 
of Pk/viciMM wiu n OMro furni*lHjr tcwvd & 
jrnlii for JaiuwY* rdkr lU Uy bntvy <ni tMlt^ 
And urjuv wm mif* maxIoiw to bo relinrpd mm] 
ptwwiirw Umui MftAin iniuntiAl n«mbcn of tL« 

pUriii*'! f'>r <Imt i>rk<L <luat^pw4, uul Lord Uonrr P^Ujf, 
iilU»w«4| kifkxlf t'l 1t« |)flm4Kl ftikt Applied nitb ^in^iil 
fi i'' >Mil iiuKlifT niM) liAvo often to dvltvi^r t» at^ 
t wIiaI tt I'i/iikmuiiicali.'ii br otbeiR, tavl to' 
>- < > i< ijion*i(il« fiif aInunllUm of wlileh Ibey aro iiD-'j 

ri'i ' !■ 




Tub Report of die rUyaicians ap]>car^ on tbc lOth 
April, Iftft?, a %'i»rboHe (]ociirr»*nt, wher&in fiA8^Tbion aii'l 
cjonjvctur^j w«ro awkwardly inti^nninglcd. As to the 
extviisi^n of l\w pnii-tici*> it wuh tttM — 

Dttrin^ ol^t VDftn vhit^h b&'fA «1ap«d t,\Tit^.c Dr. JonQormodA 
Lin ilif<'ti%«ry piicill«, tin? pmt^ou of Vafwlnftltan hwi Ikwq mpid, 
Dol ijTiIy in hill iinrtx of tlic Uiiil^ Rininloin, but in uvery qnnrtvr 

Uioij^uiiilh liHVv Lv»<[i V!L<vm&1(iE] ; iii our pciuiuftiiona in tbu EjiHt 
Ibdlc!] upwnnla rrf ftOO,l>lO, nml amorig tlin nalions of Kriropa tha 

Profimitioii^Lt miMx u&vit atibiuittcU It Ut Uio fulntt trinii^. aud tlic 
IJubUi' for tliG cnoit {v\Xt luivn received it witliuiit pngiiJic^c. Tlic 
IfldLimouy iu tU fuvuur biu bwu uioaL ttrouK iuJ Utufaotory. and 
lL» pnii^ticu i.4 U, iLuuji^b il Ltu rectiwd ik cbccb In HjiJid (ju&rt^ts. 


Ftoiil tluf Rt^pf^rt K nppffarL'tl IIiaL L1il* oppoaStiuri to 
V&ccinAtion prc^cooded from tho JnocnlntoTs; and tho 
ilocutitrnt Jimy U^ dirscriU-il fv* n elinrgr a^nin.^t tlio old 
pnctlcu Be much &b a poeitivo defunct of tku new — 

HowcTov bcnefldil tlio laooalation of (bv SmaUpoi may bavc 
boon to todivik^iuklj, £1 &ppt^an to bavc kept tip a oonAt&nt hujco 
of ooato^oD, nld^Ii ban Icon ttio monuc af iticrovtiug tho Dumbor 
of di>itUi« by whni in CAllod tho nftturnt diMuu^f*. It oiuinot be 
floQb1«d thftt UiU tnLHohiikt hwa b<on oxiieiid<\il by tlui imconfiilaTat* 
mitixijut- in wbicL greftt miiabiin trf pononft, ovon iiiico Uio i&tro- 
(luctioD of VwdDatioD, ftn «Tory yo^r isooubitod viUj Sjiiallpox, 
bnd aftciivftrtlf nqiunid to attend two or lluw tuao* a-wook nt th« 
jil&OD cif movulatiotr. through tvvry at«gO of Ch«iT illUfftf- 

Scnic InociilntorB awKirt^d that Vftccirmlion produced 
" ut'W, uiilMiir<rc>f, mid muii-^trou-i dUi^Jvien/* aiid uiiults 
use of pictures to axcito terror and disgust — 

Pnbliaatiotia with tMch loprtiabntiLtionA haro {nhtu vidvJy atioa- 
lat«d, [111(1 though tLoy CLnRJiiritod «itbtr in tfroia ij^nc^rkfiott cw 
vUral mwr*j>rfivQtAticiJ, yot iiAv« tL»y I«>aaaaod Uw <N>u£d«ao« of 
uuuiy, ptftieiLlftrJy of tb« lDw«r claudi, ld Vacciaatioc* 



WhatoTar Uiatharactarof Vocciiiation— had Ihc ckiui 
lufKto in its fftvoiir been a Iriio L-lairru hUII tbt^ chkt 
teaiatanoo to itH practice would havo coiuiii^tcd in th<t 
common Aptiblo' — 

The loffor onUrs ftf *oeJfltj? Can hftrdly T)o tn^liicnd Ui ado^t pre^ 
cnutinuB ajfiiiitit oiilK whJcih may bo at d. diiit&noo : nor ci^n il 1>u 
vji|h^t'U!il Irum tlit^ui. if llitw prccikuliuart lie iLltdidt'cl viLli ctppawt. 

iiflUhm' ViUr-ciii»tiaLi or 1t)ucu)nliuti k^rt'^ikni hL ad/ tiiJ;i< Iv fiuvo 
been sDEioraJ, ut;il w h^rit il^o uAtUM uf tWTvr luMt ptM«d by Uic puLUc 
Latd nflapHHl iJtto imlilTtJOEicti. It k aot om^ to niggoot a runody 
for ftU cvu » deeply irapUukd ia ]jutaau uaturo* 

Tha sU4;gf«Uoii tcaa, how^vi^r, nimli* tliAt VaccTjkatioa 
nhoiild to ofTorod Lintw, but at tho Hamu iiimi it wan Hm 
opmion of the C>Jllegc tliitb until Varlubua luocuJation 
nil* iBijporwhdod or prohibited, "it would be imposidbl^ to 
prwuiit the cou-Hijuit recurrence cf Naturftl Smallpox." 

Tho recomineQdation of Vacdnation gratis provoked 
the wroth of Dr. Moaclcy — 

Grklix! [be ololiuinod ' ; Wl^, evoTj por^ga liaows that far jMTa 
pout tn ikUuont virJV itrDDl of Loudon, tUNce or liotudH oil th? hidiu 
of buiiwiti ur ou ^IcUiodist*' shoiJiH oi in npoHivu^tim' ttJDiJoira. 
baY« iuvitcd bha itcuurnat multititdo to ccAtuituu* Vacoinntton. I 
liaT* «c«D a* mauy gratiii Cowfoi liAod-billt, j^rAtiii pii&. ffv^tla 
patb«tio vai'iDciie vad addjr«tfc«ip luid ^^ratU Atitkin cLdvortioDinvtit* 
Dti wcruld I(<nd an os- Wh&l doH the CoIJckti tliiiik of (be iuouitt^< 
buik J«iui«riftn pl»Md| diufwrtod uo wkUi »iitl idj^yt^^ bud luiijms 
bUtb« blftclqnit^ pubUo li4>iu«« ia iaw-n and Ovuutrj, aiilI Uiume 
up Id Ibo nbijp cr iiorlaiir of ttyacy C<tw\fcj<^ ia Ecj^^LT^ti vitli 
Tbnir Mj^oc^ti' KankOK and tboM of Tbou- Ati^udI FueuI^ audA- 
oianBly oEobloBonod cpon it ? * 

The ikport of iho ColJcgo ia interesting oa a historic 
coiifeH-tkou and a ruirk <if pro^n'^M. The j^^LyxletatiH who 
drow it vip wcro th*^ aitmo mva who in L400 profceeod 
tJ;ttir unllnLitod couEiJcticci in Vawiiiation, wbiUt iw yi-t 
thoy kn^w Hitlo about U, procLaiiuing; In tb<> newnpapcm 
that thoy considered it their duty to declare — 

Tfuit Ihi^M pentin« wJio Tiavc had the Ca\iy\oa are perficUfi 
wtjurw /rtfta ihefufarr inf/rrli'm of the SmaUpott^ 

* ArPtfv a^JVrparfvi F^einniiith. Bf Bcujofnin llOBOley. LcwdoAt 

Fiont A profession so anqua-litic^ an ftbi^olute nrtriictfv- 
tion wfts not to Im exjiecled ; but experli-'iiCf* hml lk*gottei] 
caution, and tt ia inJ^tnlci^vo to mmiirlc with tvhat quali^ 
ficatioiiH the rrin-at fmtn tlip origionl poniUon WJi> 

attcGipted. Thus— 

Th» ti»mtrHy ilifvwtti fru^c YLOcination if not a^iotittifttf ptrftei 
it, iu ttaa^liiF Ao o,a aaa parhx^iA ba cxpoolM firom any hmaka dia- 
ooTory; Wamonff HovdrU hiuifkoil tboiwakd ouioti* Q^ith llionmlti; 
Cif iffhi«h Iho Colfci^D boa b«00 mkdo opriirnintcH. f'r' vfrintbj*)' <i/ 
aUrQtdfinUtrt4 ha* httn nipprmh^f^ tnxtf 'i, ik> uin«h no ah In form 
DO nvouiUiU otg*0tio3 to tb« e«n*r»i tduptij>D <>f VucofiutJon. 

TbfT TUporlwu not tho iloHvorjinco of m<rn pO!V0n«d 
wiUk Lhc c-^iifiJence of IBOO: throu^'^out there >vaa 
mftnifest the fnilin^ ciMivtctir>n which evades rwponsi- 
Inlib/ luid .scc^kn fgr coitHrnmtiun from nourccei oxtcTrtal 
to \tAe]t After a Tefor«noe to the Vu^oIoub Test, the 
Report mn on— 

It RpfcflTB fiom umnonxia obofiiTfttioaB o^mmiiniatited to (hv 
OellecQ. th>t iLoBo wIjo have htea TftcoinateJ ^e MroarD from the 
«MnlniD^> ^' «pj(l«iii)0 SmoUpot, Town* siitl UuLfioU of cvoiiti^ 
^a vliidi VuciojitJCD hofl bdcai j£«aanl, Iiatd »ftoc^arU iuid 
^^^■|Jl|M>x provalaut on nil »idoEi i>f tlicm vrtthoot volCulDg &Kxa Uio 

^PBi^^n. Tlierc axo thb b tbc cvidoooo a foir axaic|il« e^ 
Cfidftiiiic SiaiiEJpo.x hnnDf; becDi aoMucil by * cxTi^AlV*«cuiatloo- 

The liability to confotind coinciflcncc with cause wftft 
not tiitknown In IS07, and D^tj^^ht ha^X' been su^<^tc<L «« 
a possible explanation of the cessation of il vatiuloua 
ffpi4i-[Nio«Hitit<-i(ipnnuM'ons!y with VatvinnUon; Although 
ut tho jiro-sL-nt Juy Vaccinatiuii, whcii Smallpox Jn opi- 
ttenik-, ih kiMjwik t'j ii:i Eittli^ «}r4j LT)fL.ii iiivitf? and uxi<«iul 
tho nmlfuly. 

Haw tbu ^^eral (that vraa to aay partial) VucdiiaUon 
of certain townu and country dUtrict* wciifed nniversal 
CJTcmptJon fr<;m SmallpoT, the Physician.-! failed to 
oxplairin E\iraort.]inary tales of VicBrioiipi Vavdjiatiuti 
wore ci^rront and pioiinly rcrcivcrl. If a fraction of an 
qrhm "jf rami i*iMmamnly ImpjifMii'd Ut bu vatvirml^^d 
(uaually a fraction l«tet Hkelr to bo tronblod with Small' 
pox in anv event) aod Bmallpf^x did not breok out. or 
did not vfldely prev^all, the salvation of tbeoommmnly 



wafl ueribcd to tli<* Vicarious VaodnatioTi. The pheilO- 
Bionon Imk, Etmngn to mij, <Htca|>ocl tho AttonUoQ of 
tb (.'<>! ci^Uius &lt)Luu^li ui«cliua) iiii3D curuttAiitly aitcMt ita 

Ruefully WAS It concctlE^d thai Vftoinflticni was not ui 
ftbflolutc* ^ro£«rvAtiv^ fi-oni Smallpox, but the pain of 
Conces&ioQ wa^ froftcncd with the plea of uitigotloik — 

la «bnoif «TCijctt«v vrhpjT ^ouUpox hMPQOOCMd«i VaoctiuiliaB, 
flio dUMUQ hM v»i«ii mtach ftum it* ordmair ooone ; U has adUMr 
liP*o llwMnw ID Tiolo&ooi iinr In tbe <l(LrfttiOD of ito trymptoiiu, bnl 

SauUpoK had boon dopariTod, by the itraviotu vaodiib A«i#i, of 
aU ita twul fiudjgitity. 

It ^08 without Miying:. that such h statomont was 
f|rincVii4Ti romnnpc. How ctmld a phjwicinn know Chat 
any cbaq of SuiAllpox ha/l been m&ao miJ(1cr by V&ccina- 
tifm ? fur hnw could b« know h*iw HPVPfn the r1i»<«nw 
ivoulil have biJOft wiUiout Vn^cination f Any i^oiind of 
€iitn[ifuiflOTi WHrt WdUiing. SiiiaII^mja lh atl i-rujiLive frvcr 
of wido dcj;;r<>**fl of iHt'*ii>iity— nHpht as to bi a tnvial 
Ailnurnt, wvcru tut to Iw iiic-viU.ljIy fntaU "So true," 
wrot* I)r, Wagslaffe in 17^2, "i>i that comTuon obsvfva- 
Uon, that thcro U one sort in which a &ut^i_^ CMinot klU, 
and niiothi-r which (*vi.'ii a [jh^'sidau cannot en ri*/" Y«t 
«very coac of mild Smallpox cflcr Cowpox came into 
fiiKhinn wiw piflrnd to thn r.riTdit of ^'iirriniUiun f 

the t^cnrlty Vnu^aniKlE'in ftfliirOn, wliiln nthihrft hiivft nonHiil4ir*rl it in 
ht nr ft tfimpnr&ry nftinii^ i^nly; but if nny mllAnrp in tA h^ p1u»d 
on ili« iiUUmnntA laM bnfnri] Uio CciUogn, Ita f cwr of pmlofltttif 
^iK^ JinniD.n br>ii- frnm Suiolliioit ihnuffli vwf pcrfret tjnietatt U 
Abunluitlj ii]fnd«Dl U^ rrcoiTiiuetiil il 1o Ihc pmilMtt tnd dla* 
lunionaU- Tlifl nfiiTilou fhal Vttcidaiilicin ufTi^rrh hot ft tontporanr 
HMPUiilv k flnEH"irt«(I hy iii> jknald^fj to Iffttnn^ i^or by Uia boa 
irtiloh htvf] hitujirUj L>ccuriiiJ. 

TJi43 analouy of Njiture wa^ a trtHtchtrrouii ^tipport, 
whitab the Fhysiciana did not foreaco the Ltmc when 
thisr ftiK^owion; ^niild plpad tho fact of tho tc^mporary 
noouriiy of Vaccination oe a n^EUon for »yntoniti.tic 1^ 
Vaccina tiou. 


li Ifl not difficuk ti> Jucem between the Gnesi of Uie 
BqHfft % spirit of donbl ftod be^it&tion. Those vho 
fittmcTl it hfiH g'on* too fv to ttim back ; there jtms 
JeojK'r on Uivir kuicb; and a public t««4j to hoot if 
there was anj opeo apostftsj. The o^llo^k at hom^ wm 
nut rnnnimging, hnt thAm mm iUt\ Cimiint^xt^ vc-^ mom. 
tlio wide vorli itMtii wli«T«iD to oov«t tho reproaoh of 

They could cot b« l—cmriMff [tdd the PlijiMuu] t^ th« «c> 
Annallon tlMj novtre not only fkooi ihB inlroihictktt or VAcrinAtioE 
Into •T*n rart oC CuKpt, bii tknmghomt IJW r««f Cah' ischCi q/ 
Jtfii ami ilMfrfco. 

The vast Continents of Ai^ft aoi) America! A ilce 
phnvvr -a vor^ line phrasct. with more oooifort in it than 
McoffW* nitj^ht inmgtno^ 

Id the Ecport vro ilct^t one cood service, namolv, Uio 
exploftion of Jvnoer's Dctlou aoout &pimou& Cowpux- 
Wnen VaodnAtinn wiu fitf-t brought forvrard, ca£o.« woro 
adduced of Sr^iallpox aft«r Cowpov. Jcniier at once 
uwrted thflt th«r Oowpox in i^uch inntanc^ts muAt have 
heen fpuriouri, fat SmcilJpijx after gv^nutnc Oowpox waa 
[mpowible; artil Spariuii<i Cownox was thanceforwerd 
friMl;^' uhhI to hftrHo ittqiiirerv and to account for faitiirc^, 
S^iiriouH C»wrK»x »«rvi^l thfi ttmh of tta* Vaccina Uirs 
magniriwnlly, but hy and bj it boji^a to have awkward 
coiucqucDCGfi. Genuine CowpoK was said to 1>eWni]cM 
— it was the Spurloi» Omt wa* ineffective or workid 
mischief ; and tli'^ Juoculaton pliod the terror of Sj>urious 
Pbx agaliitt VjLtviimtioiL Tt thcrtrfijrif boouuH rn-f^Mnry 
ioeloor SpiiTions Cowpox out of the way, mid Jtoner, 
befiiro the L'ijIh^L-e of Rij>iciaiw, prewed upon tlm priint^ 
' owned up," a<i AmuricanH itay, and authorised the fotlow- 
ing explaaation — 

Borne JevUtiQias CroiD tho tisiuii «ouT«o hATo oMuloaatij ^Qorred 

IB) Va^Qktioc, wtiL«h tht^ Antliorof tIio|>ractioehMirflllfii ^purioaa 
ConBpcji, h!/ which th* pnhlic have ftritu tfihI^jJ, at if tk<ra %rrri/ c 
inte And a /aUt Coiupcif ; bul it JVpiifrftnT iha,i nc^lliiaK ■"^^'0 wju 
Koant Uiftn to oiprtM UrvjipilMitj or JUT«r«DC!« from thftt comiuoii 
■ Ibnn aad ptogroM of Uio ^vcdai> piululo from wliiob ita oSoao^ u 



ISjuk I Han ns m ihhd AAfiilfla of Spotkiafi Ocnr-] 
pox t7 Jcoiur. 

Fint, in the Imquiry ot 1798. b daacribed 
Cpwpox H eniptioas oo tb* «cnr nadcrind ^ov 
yoMto, IpvodociB^ no etTsipeka wbcn iaocchted on tli« 

Tno Oowpox m gea*T«t«d frvkra honKi^Ticftve, wid 
honegnsiF ud1j\ 

^$«con4, in uU OM^n 0f ik^ r<icc)«« /i»«iMidft9it of j 
1801 ftll fdoreocc to boncgnwe wm dropped he 
iMnU rMuoM, whUac tlie «]di4«ae9 of Spvnodi 
m rMOoerted "AS A01D0 wKtin of >potita&to«9 
upon t^ cow " 

TAini, b«fon» the PliTEicvui? in 1807, he KCDOvod Ifae 
spQrioua dUp^w frmn thtt cow altogttbftr, isyinc, aoildi _ 
nwmraet latMint br SptmonftOowpox tbui YWMtioiKia' 
lU«* furni uiiJ pro^resa of vacciue pustaiW on Utt ^nns of 
Ihd vaccLRftted ! 

In Ahort, to rwy tlio phr^jie of Bctny Prig> *Tbai« 
n«irer mw no ^vurious Cowpox." Slipper)-, very sUppetjr^ 
wu the immorUl Jconcr. 

With the report of tho Roy&l Collego of Phr^idArui 
wciv delivered lepotto from tb« LondoQ Collc^ of Sur* 
geoas. And from thf- F<tiiiVit>rgh «tul [hjbtiu CoUeg«s ciij 
jKmiciftne ftcd ol Stir^^eoviA. 

Tlib rtpurt fmiu U»e London College of Sorgeons 
constdoK'd Riofit urbiAtUrActoTy, and cootd it; tonor havb 
bvcfi f<»r<v«oca, the Jcimenjux-i nji|£ht oi^vcr have A^krcl for 
iL 1100 clrcul&rs wvre ^apatdied od 15th D«cuilbtf;, 
180G, to ftll tho members of tho Collie whoso 
waru Icmiitfti Sn Uw UnlLcd Kln^^dofi), submitting 
foUowuLjc quosttoott — 

111. now muLj tMnooB h4i« JOQ -rMdnoM f 
Ifad. HftTC ear «d yoor pftlMnto luJ ffokallpoi ftQ«T Vi 
Sri. Uftvo Mij taJ «AikU ooeuami in jvw ttftAvam m 

MdVMHM of V>fe«^OAt£nn ? niid ffst^irhatan ttwjf ^^ 

Mk, [« lb* fiMrttco of VAiOciadjtko iaoMMiofi or ilnrrairinit fat 

jQOTMiitbbouffbocd ? if dcctMAtagi to what catuo do joQ ica|^^ 

To tbu 1ID0 drculan cnly 420 tcplics were reoeived. 


Whv nmrly two-tliinJa of the mombers fcfrprt silent whon 
ftt Uic OiitM^t they were convcrtfsil in tnulUtudL* to V&c- 
ciuatioTi. vran l^ft nneipUiiie^). Tlie iL'jilies weru thiu 
imorUod by tho BoAtd on I7th MArcb, 1907— 

TVi« T]ii»Lbf-r of pATKiiiA «tfkl4Hl In Rnrl) lAtkm to Iiato bMn mfi- 

Tlt« niinilifir of riuaa (n Thkh Rmjillpnx hnd foUowiI VjMdEia- 
tion U &f;. 
TL« BorvrJ tijiuk it proiicr to mmurk iiuJur tins hcoA. UuU, ia 

linn. Ihfy |ia^« incltidtf^ luitLH l>ul IhuM iii wliioh tha luVjuct wm 
vAOCEDAtttil hy ili» eruvMin rvporiiiiff tlie fMrtii- 
XLc bibl ooiiMi|iL*aMft whlcb hAve ftr^Atta from Vflcotnilion atv— 

60 OA0tn of frrupUgu of ibu ^kiD, mnil 
34 of icdubmatiau uf U^o jum* whoTftof 

Vaccination, in the ^ealer D»niber oF Counties From 
which rc]>:irU h&vG boon roccivcil, fkpponr? to be m- 
Cr«»Htng^ io thff Mct.mfiulU it U on t.liit iliMrrrtjuH*. 

The principal reAAons oaii^cd for the Ueuroarifu aro^ 

Ia«lAiLe«« of SdAllpgi kAer ToooiiutioDi 
Soppopod bftd «DiiNquciiieciai 

J[^>pcl]&^ iirvjuOLOta* 

The report of the Edinburflrh College of PbymiciAns 
<lisownoil nc^iitoii^triDCt^ viitli Vficcinibtion> the procUoo 
liFUtij^ i'ntiri<-ly in Uio IjailiN of ^itr^rtnim^ &fii] uilicr pTftO- 

Witii It tiffWi howATor. to pubbflh their ficnri^i on of UioimmoDdo 
bontfilJi nliiclj have booo, nod which will ia fiUTiftii U^ Uorivoil Ut 

mvil itfionliaaomly vkctod Dr. JttuDtfr on lioncnwy FoUcvr of iiicu' 
CoUojf*, ft aurk of cli&t£iiatkin which thcj wry molf conftMr, uid 
whirii tbo^ c{iaAD« almost cioliiiivol/ to ror*igu I'byiimmnt of Ui* 
first Mcitiimc«. 

Thtt report of the College of Surgeons, (hhtt^i) ^n1 Miirdj, 

18Q7, left nothing foir tho JoJinm^ina to<lccsir& TfaeEdiA- 

bor^h hur;^i.>tm were H^it-iHltL-il fruui tlieir owtt experioDGO 

ihftt ViLCcination con^titul^J a periDanitnt security froti) 


SmftllpoK, and thoy had observed no ill canRoquonc^s from 
ihn prncticc VACciniUicin commcnc^'^ tn Ldinbur^li in 
1801. iLitd WBA now HO i^^nt^ruJ tn tlie eit)' — 

Tlio-t Tot two nr th»a yonna |>BJit, SmixI!pr>T hnA hs^cn rcckonod 
rqtber » tnro ofcanocco, ovan UBODgt]iolon-ct orilrr of tho ]>>]ifthi- 

ttffa Amniif t1if> MgTivr ntrkh cf t1t(* InlihlitlitnU IhA i1i«a&ut K 

Rjir^v unlcsH in scmi« ciiiarlcrs obaut a year a^o! Wo 
turu to thu mport oE thti Edinburgh DisiaenaaryTor I80&, 
nri*l tbpre we tea*! — 

'Jtliv [i>nll)«»in» tli«QM# Itmh TtdfortunnUily b««n v«7 prcTklabt in 

And tlu!i ooincidcntly vritH cxtcnnivu Vaccination to 
which apparently there was no active opposition T We 
hnvo ftlrti> to rcnictntior in thvs connn.i-tion thn f^latcmcnt 
ul' Prifft'.sHdr Alc'xmidi^r MoTini in I7li5, Umt " th« liibft}]!- 
tante of Scotland ^nocally hav^ Smallpox in thoit 
infancy ci childhood; very few aduitd being seen in 
thin diftcow"; and that in Edinburgh, with conditiouM 
stronjifly favoiirabli.' to Suiallpox, Uiu mortality from iho 
dis(«>u^ wcvG on an averft'i^ lifntTi^ iTKin^ thi^n a Itiindreft a 
yttx, Tiio Kdinburgh phy^icianfi knew riotliinjjr practi- 
cally of VACciiitttiimH firjd we Het bow lliw Surgeons, who 
did know, ?)hAptJd their evidence 

The Dubliij CuIIk^h <»f Pliysi(-hnw e.t'lioed th« fa&hion- 
abk opinion '^ that CowpoE Inoculation was Kaf4>, and 
fully answered itn purpose" They were "willinfi to 
allow thai doubtful ea^e^ had occurred of Smallpox after 
Vaccinntion, but on minute investii^'jttion* these .vippaiod 
inxlAiier.'* originati^d gi^Mcrully in raisri^proHt-ntrition, or 
tbe dilhculty of di&cntn mating; hetwcen Smalinox aad 
ntbvr i-rupuon?*.*' lather awkwardly, seeing how tho 
opposite opinion wan in vo^ui»> they pofuuacd thc-lr futh 
in Variotoua Inoculation — 

T|i« 5mal][K)K U rvodrrbd n miit^h lau rarmldalb diwnac in 
JruUnd by tin- friHiutiucy of TaoculuUoQ for il, thnxi tn otttr pnrW 
uf Hu» Mitjtiiity'B douiiultiuh, VpLuiu prtjuiliccb lunuiial [uut^flaliua 
fauv« |iroTbiUd' Heuotf imtviitH, iiut unuAtiinul^t oli|»ct to th^ 



intnjdiiotioa of & »vw iJimovoi la iUe k1iii|i« of VuuDftlioiLi fin- 
rtrniiu to trvL^t t^ tbv i^rnctic^ vritb th« caiHc«i« aqJ tAT^tr ot 
tirliich thay arc vrcli ftcqtuiiatwJ. 

Tin? DuMiu Callegtj of Surgotjiin fllii^wmi tliomH^Ives 
more fully Abreftat of the timo. They hod nothing to 
Niy for TnociiUtion* Ijwt tc^'tlafird their conGdonco in 
VAoclnaiion. and hinw lt8 prax^tlce was lnerea^lni{ in 

IrclanrJ, From 1800 to iJiOO a total of li,33r> had Wn 
*' itUHiiilnl.rd wU)i \m*<"itnj iiirrcrLloii " nt Ujh DnlilSn 
inatltutioiH, and uiaoy olaewhi^ro — 

CovtiDX bft> bfloa fxmd to bo a mild didcaflc. and Tiaroly niUmAtd 
witU anngcr. or cny Alniraiiig BimiptocE)* (uiit tha feto oww a/ 

Amnu friiin iLtculmlnl crIrcmHAUurtw ! Tlius ^w» the 
divine illuminalion of cxptrrienee vailed aad deaied! 

Foclliiud witli tliib budget of quuHtbualle uvidtncc. 
tho Govvntnivnt pr[jcnutjctl to duiiu from Ukt Houkc of 
CoiniuODn n aecuiid inifiowmcut for Ji-uncr. 


WlilLsi" the Koval Coltpg^? of PhyHicTftiia wpr^ preparing 
tbcir report, thcro -wtui perturbation in the politic&l 
uorlJ. Dull JLiiJ Li^ott^J Gt?or^ [IT. refusing on thr< 
protect of hi& oath to conoedo to Koman Catholics the 
ru^ht^ of <ritixi7iiN, & chnngr nf AcIiniiLi.-itmttun rtiMJivl.nnil 
Mr, Fercvval^ a man after the Kin^^s own hi>art, replaced 
Lord UdirT Potty as Chancotlor of the I^xchr^quer, 
And procotid«4l to gtve ^flbct to the plan for rulicving 
Jcnn«r; a purpose for which tho report " On Uie State 
of Vnrcano 1ti<x^uUtioii in the Unitt'd Kingilftm " wa« 
niervly a blind. 
Oa the 2dlb July, 1S07. the Iloufie of Coiniuona Using 



ia CommittM of Supply, llr. PcitcevAl. mawd iTmt Dr. 
Jenner be jiwanlcd a seeoivl mm <jf £10,000 for hb 
rti&tchloAA diitci>vorv, SmAllpos wa* oiio of the f;fniatMt 
tLinitilioiia of uiniiKim^ frmii vrhich lEardly Aiiy one 
ascaped. For thta dri>adful maljuly, Joaner had iQveiit^d 
lb preventive, iinkin7wn before, or if known, wKicli had 
never beer publUhid, He did not t>n>ivrjre tldnk the 
Comiciittcc would coiuidcr his proposal cxlr&vGtgiuit; 
imWjl it Vk'iiA taUut %n net iif jiutieL^ tlrrui ol' lihc^mfitv. 
Tlioao who had rcftd tlie Ecport of the PhyaiciaDs woiud 
recoffDiKe the immenito n^vftrta^es of thi> new pracUca. 
Aa for iU inconvonioncctta thc-y vrcro nst notlung to tJi(M 
whicli atbuTtdcrd YarlolouB IiiocuUtcou. and the 
mlstakt^ r^corde^l were (ltJi?toignorAnc»? and cnwli 
It might 1m^ objcctid bj tho«o wlio aclhcrcd to 
MaltliUH, that nothiog wfts gained by savlit^ 1ive« 
pc«ttlenco; for deaths wtsto not loascs where tncoiut oE 
mibiiHtiaict; wi-n* iu!ulc'<|uiiti^ ; but for btn piiH hi? wciubl 
di^d^ai-'i Lho arjiraiuent evcro If U were l^u<^ It waa 
much Irttf.-r to fellow tbct dictat^n of tliHr hf-Artt^ atij 
preaicT^'e Hfo whvnuvur it wa* withiii their powijr Ho 
bad ofkti heard that tlie true ricbcft of a alate wore itei 
inhAbitauU. But hvi waiihi not atti^mpt to DK^nHord 
Jcnnera award by tbo number of liven that IiU iav<]niioo 
wouli] prw»**rve to th*- world, If hi.' diil so. what sura 
would they have to offer f All ho need say wm, that 
Ui« £lO,D<)0 prujicMed n?pn'MtitL-d tui mure lliaji a 
moderate &oknow1eJ;*ii]ont of laboiir and ^'onius devoted 
to the service of hnmftnity, 

Mr Suxw I.EKKVRK oppofted the motion. Ho bad 
thomght the foiuicr apphcfrtion for jCSO.OOO oxce^^ive, 
and had conciirnnl with tba«cwbo rvductnJ it to £10,000. 
He had moreover aequie^ici^d in th« amaUet aum faj 
lefliBoii of hi^ fnith in tin* rqxirt of Ujp OouiailtUro of 
BoitRo on thu Now Inocuktion^ but he now diricoV' 
thattuaoyof Lhtr^tflttmeuLflhi UimI ivjkjiL WL-reerroaeooa. 
It Rttfi^tod ihat Vaccination wa* jlh ipfallihlo preventivo 
of smallpox, whilnt tlic report of the ^urgeonn now 
admits JiG failures " The iSist report stat^ that no 



cHutsso folli^wed Vjicei nation, whi]*4t now it U conf^^ed 
thftl [tcrofuU Jiml othtT uUrmiug nymptcnia are itu 
occaMorml ?*».'» jiit^ ii ci-^h ! Tlin P'-j^irt tlnw prejiiUicial k) 
ViLCcin[itii>» niivcTtholc^ fiTi^'Ui'.s iii it;i fiLvniir, ami he 
wouM Mkii io rJLll M'line^neA ti> LL^j bar uf tlii? Huunt- wJii> 
woiilil tjmko iQMufei^t still further its incons is tender? and 
InocciLrAi-iiv^. At thw late pericKl of the vcaniQCU it ww 
cot nght to vote away fiucli an nmcuDt of public money^ 
ISucb " Ifttc |>criod»" arc, however. iJwajr* selected for 
job^] B4*.ird4<H, It WAX gi>nfnL]ly knowiJ that B^^TijaTiiIii 
Jctity of Worth in Dora^Jtahiro discovered the* 11*10 of 
CDWpox long buf*»nt Jt.iniirr, nnd if thi-r HcmM- wa,^ 
naolvcd to U; liLuTiilt thv revcanX &)iouM bo Hbarod 
wiUi Jesty. or with Jf^ly's fauiily. lie ahould oppoas 
tho vcit«, bub ho did not nay that he would afwayft 
do fto, EJH purpose was to gaiu tiuiv for more careful 

Lord Henry Fjcttt, who had tiTEit moved in the 
inntUir, eume t<i bin suu4:!<?sKor\ Fiiiii|»oTt. Ht- hnd 110 
doubt a^ to tlic c-Hicocy of Vaccination, nor as to Jcnntfr 
bcide itA ili)ter>vorvT. liis di^cidty w/» tii tinrl n, ndi? 
for the jtiHticu of tbo case; for whoever considfrud tha 
Tftlu^ of the diacovery- moat perceive that it would be 
llD|)uuitblL> for th4?m to deal girntrously with the di*cov*rtr. 
Hi* service to maiiUiud was entirely beyond any financial 
iwtitnAtff. It wn.« nhjectL^rl Uittt Wwirntion wivi not 
infallible. Hti rcpbtd Uial ubsoiute, never fail i^ij por- 
fectiou uo^ht not tu Iw tixpecLed fruiu any buniJLii dr-vicu : 
tbi^y nhotild rojtt wnll sati^tio'l in the npproximiiLion to 
infallibility that belonged Uy Vavciiiation- Ita daily Ihmic- 
tit« were fiurabsH**?. MHlliti]<I*>s of Keam^n, soldiers, 
lUid citiM^iiH of ovciy dcacription had been navnd by it. 
and In contempIaLlnu It^ future t^rfeebt on the Iitiii>an 
TACc, the mind was lost in amasecnicnt and ^railtudc. 
How tWn should Lhry im'-Miuif* Ui tidk tif lilirniliLy 
towards Jennor, the t'vnoiactorl They should reoo]li*ot 
bow ho fttaadn in the c^licnntion of the world, how ihoy 
■ were acting In view of ail nAtlooa. and how thdr awn 
I characters were at atakc in their demeanour towards 


bim. As to Maltbus thoro wii« a mi^nkpprohonsion. He 
had taught notluii^' tlint forhwlr; l\ni rxtinctirn iif An 
Infectious disoa^^ which ao i;t^:'£,t1y r^iiucvrd human Lappi- 
ncs.*. In their concern for V/xcdnation. tho. Hciisc shoiild 
not forget the mischlof t^iat was still wrouijlit hy iuocu* 
Jation with smallpox. ZeftJous as he wo^ for tho uev 
pTA(!ticit, hr hiul no wUH to mr^liltn with whnt oUi«m 
uUfl^ht iniftifmo (howovur absurdly) tt?udc<i to tlnrir own 
pt'c^urvaiiuji Mul that ui tlit-ii familiaH, but no oae bad a 
ri;;lu to »*tir3n,n^>r tho livo.-a of other*. It ww provod 
LcVLJiid di^^jHik- Lhat those who wurc liicx^ulat^a with 
^nmllpox diti\i>4i3d th? fatal contagion by ff^jing abroodt 
or being cnvriwi abroad. He thoo^ht, therefore, it wob 
nut only the right, but the duty of tlii* SlAt^^ Lt> oblL^^ 
tliosD who were inkctc^l with smallpox: to keep ^^4^| 
diitjri until c^oniiilt^li* recuvpry. Hi- would not mo%'r wai 
amendment to tJie resolution, but would have no boaita- 
tioii in acccdin;^ to a lari^irr amn. 

GcuctntL Tari,^os canUi not withhold hi^ tribute of 
praise From the authcrr of this b}t^<itaiii^ to mankind. To 
his knowledge, it hjui saved the lives of msny in IUa 
Mftjiwty'a ?»t?rvico- l:^olUicrrt could march and perform 
*TVory military duty when inuh-r the pro<?ywi of vaiy^iua- 
t^on. It had boon said thjvt ^oiitlonion iu tho anny had 
im rcrtjiivt T'lr nnylhing wivn ?iii« in war, but he 
thou^'bt tbat many oflioors kn^w how to admire Jemtei', 
the prr-srrvor of Tiiillionfl, and to allow that In future 
ag^K Ilia glory would exceed the touo\vii of the grcgitOTt 

Mr, Stuiwes BoirRSE denoun&^d the nractiiro of inccu- 
laljniT out-patit^ntft at tUo Smallpox Hospital whetiaby 
thf liiscft^e wa*^ syNtcniiitieally perptitiiaU.Hl and ditTuned 
tTu-uughout the community. Ho thought thc« Ingl&Iaturo 
woulXbe aa much juatjlieJ in taking mtfa^uiea to [i^c!^^nt 
tbin evil by reetr&int, a* a man wouhl bo in snatching; t. 
lii^^brand cut of the handn of Jh maniac as he wa^ 
going to set Are to a city. 

Mr, HaWkin'p Browne confenscd with j^hatno that he 
had tutvd fur £10,000 iitnteiul of £tOjl)QO in im>2 ; but 

JBKXEE EELIGVfa)— 1S0T> 3*7 

at tbat ilat^ be litUo knew Hie extent of Jeuner'a vemcd 

to tht\ liUTnMi ructs 

Mr, Edwahd Monum did not think that oven what 
hail X'ffn kaM 4EitllrLi>ntly %t*i forUi t.hi<\r ili^bt of grjiUtude 
to Jcnncr. HU disicovery afl^rduJ o ruxisoHablu cxjiectu- 
tiuii tff the t.vCHiinmatiuu uf humllpux, ami tlie iiiBiit cif 
th^ trAiiAC^nfi^nt di^^covorv wiu all bi^ own. Inoculation 
tn the old moilc mibi^tQd the diaeaae in a fcWn And 
epnad H in full fury over nifinv. It wa:= therefore a 
ctiT^c to mnnkind instead of ft blffMing, The Stn&llpox 
HfiH|>llJLl in lU procltcu of tuoculalion, xvns a soutce of 

Sestil^nco and a miilbiplicT L>f vicEim^ to thi^ doplorabJo 
inU'iiijirr, Tlu' jir^'iiiiiim-iiL (li.stiiir^tioii tjf VacfiiiJitlon 
waa that il j^rt^borwd itt^ Hubji.-ct and injured no one. 
This uLiipeakalk hloAsing they owciJ to Jcnncrj nor haci 
the \vtLti ht]proi'tiuoiit bt^L'Il t'fllicU'd ujMiii hU origEim] 
and carefully- matured prt^criptii^n, Tacy wen? IxiuuJ 
to ooosid^r how hk^ Imd nbnoilonivi tTm lucrative piiri^Liit 
of hifl prof<tijiit>n, and rturT<jndcTwi many yearn of his lilo 
for the good ijf hih country' and niankiiLd. He would 
thi?r<"foTo siitmit an amoQdmaut to the rcjiolutkin Wort* 
thi^ Committee, tltat tlio grant hv £20.00i) iiunlt^ uf 
£10.000. to mark their Ben»o of Jeuner'a meriiB and to 
pla^c him in a atfttc of indcpcn donee. 

Thi> amendment waa warmly aupported by Mr, WiJ- 
bcrforcc, M.rH Windham, JSir John Sobright. and Sfir, 

Mr. Pkki-'Eval, fia CliuiiooUor of the Exohe<|Ucr, ntood 
to \iU ii.f*o)nlion. Init witli intHlTVjri"nt ar>^uiii<^iLl«. It 
win wilh^J^t prL»eL*Oent that a vote rueummctidcd by 

that J<»nn^r wiu fintitli^d to inuch itiorct than tbey could 
atli^rd, hut it wa* alao without proci;dtaL that no great n 
BiiTQ as £aO/K)0 (iiicln^ivi of iliv riniii^r vote) hhould be 
brstowf^iJ on any dincovuriT. 

Mr. William ^mith hvould not etuhnul Ui Hivhh uhjijC' 
tJone- He racit«d the tnumphri of Vaccination in Aaia 
and Amtrrtcap and natd it wa.i true an of old that a prophet 
bad no honour ui hU own coanCr^'. [An oUMlrvatlon 




amiiful&rly iniLpplicAbb to Joonct.] He fOfpi the 
miLt^i' tAi vnU? iot th« lurgor Nutn, ancl said thtt ^ 
tho ChAiicylior of the fixchcquev mi^ht iii hin [>ublic 
capiLclly prutrfw^ yet in his secrel heart he wouli] not be 
displnwod if ovcn)oma by tho sontimont of tho Hqum, of 
the cuunlry. &ml uf tlie wuHd- 

Mr, VViiiTimr.An Ke^^i the Ccmmitieidto l^e&rmmind 
tli&t Jcnnrr hjul aconicd to inonopoli'^o Vftccinnirati. and 
hik4) thereby fiacritlced a ffrcat fortune. He caI]o<l od tlif? 
Housotovot^ For ih^ lara^Bvm, VftctioAtirin furnished 
thti nu^juiM for ]rHHt^riuij( uia poor rote. Educed mdiaII- 
pox flij^ifi^iid Cewor deaths, fowet orph&na, fowor widows* 
VRccinHtJoEi mi'^Ani licltPT li<;fiUli for thi? poor nnd mofv 
tnorwy In tlio ]>ockoU of t}i« rich. Thev \voul(l cixeattt 
tiiia appeal cf bia to the cupidity of tho Lajided idI 
inammch u ho hod boon niiticipnti^d in tho vxhihitii 
loftjer c<>natdcrfttionb, Ue t,\ao wished to n-licvc 
House from ft n?iiewAl of thi^ que8tion. Lot Lbooi K- 
word Jcnncr once for aJl, i\nd libcr&lly: and remember 
iL&i vrhal vrtu caIUhJ etitmutoy in thm cciom-r-Uoii, if ^imr- 
tiaod by tho House, would fce, in the eyo ol the world, 
tlieir dngnce; 

Othen ^ke In a simllxiT utrain, &nd when t3ie Hoi»o 
divided, GO voted for Mr. Uorria'e amendment, aod 47 
agnJrixt it, ££0,000 t>i>ing cnrricd bv a mmjority of 13. 
iDcJudin^ t^« £10,000 voted in 1802, Jenner was thus 
Awnrrlnl £SO,000 oF piiKlic money, in ttmctf-, too, of war 
and hoarcity. 

The di^ljat^. It will bti observed, vtim coduladed Id m 
Hou^ <if 107 iQomben at a kto period of the Medon, 
and tlio varijitiiJiiH ar:ion;; tht* ^j^pa-ktrs ctnwUt"^! iti 
d€gT«ef> of f*ttmvagaroe and credulity. The fal-uloim 
nuAtera* to J corner pcr^onaily titford? curiotu evidence 
ol ttiB m&nner in whii^Ii legr^ds originate in Uie pr»e<nc^ 
of conl<imporario«, and how they come to be rep^^ktcd 
wil3i tJie ferviiurnf gcMul fnith hy mt'ti whcwf* comnetcince 
and hone^y iiii^'ht he tflkon fortimnipeAcJiabli*. Jenacra 
hnd whipped up their adhcrente, and tht- i^^ue wan 
atraiigtul tor i but bocauoic- thty Iiad their waj 



it ntied not bo aaaumed that it wa^ nf>ooaaaT7 to oiKum- 
vent kny active flwivewarits. ApntTiy wa* tbcii chirf 
difficulty. Tlnyns wiw Uttiv to bo ^ot out of ocwpox by 
tho oniin&ry politician ; a.nd thi^i), aa now, tbc average 
MJ\ ruTQly cominitt.ixi himself to iiny project thilt tlnl 
not obviouftl}' taakc f(jr his popuUntj'. Aa for tlio 
entbiiftiaflm for V'aof JnAdrtn rlinplAyd by tbe ftpfnlrflrs in 
the Htut-**:, wc hnvn to rocoHcct that tbtry vrcrc not con- 
v^rta to tin? ijnirtiue f/rr af, Ni» rpaliy new iiiscovt-ry 
was ©vcr rocoivod with such an iiutaitt chorun of appro- 
botion by th(? uuih, i^hicabn'l (jr uii<hIuc&Uh1. Thvy wvtts 
ond and all bred imder tho RCv^r^ and dangerous pral^tic& 
of Vftriolouff Inoculation, whereof Vocdnntion wiu% no 
uior** than a luiAlillcation with a aodueU*-"!* pti-Hilihi' of 
cfjual or greater nijcutity from flmallpox, and oscmjition 
frnm itM ]ir*riln Aiid nnnnyjimv**, IJnl'.^ Lhi* |tr^pu?wKs- 
bion bu allowed for, th<; conduct of Parliament toward 
JenneT caiinut U? iL>:hLl> underntiiod, Tliero woa col a 
vpord uttvrnd Aijainttt Vaccination from tJio gronTvl which 
pbysioltigliU fit tbb* day occu]*y, ftir that ^Tound, h\ a 
sdimtjtic serine, wan a8 yet unkrown. Smallpox wa^ a 
mystcrioaji vivtation to bo niyj^tfrriounly dealt with — 
dodged, if jKi^ibk\ ty iiiedieal jLrtittt^L-; and not, an we 
«T0 poniuafiod, a eridis of impurity in tho blood induced 
by Idul I'ltrulitum.-t of lifiv wbidi irartnot Im brttfr dis- 

nd of than m the courao of natui'o by eruptive fovor. 
ro coiitd Huppre&4 r\niallpox (in any othet ^av than 
by the noDOTfrl ot iU eaii^oHj wv sliotild itiorely niter il>i 
iDftiufeBtatJOD ftnd bavi- lo acc<:pt it in «oine olh?r and 
aggravated form cf di^oia^e^ 




JCNXHR provido^l for< hu cidhcrcnU hod yd fknothcr end 
Uj SL-hii^vu. naiiii^ly, ihi^ir uaii r«ViL%Li frum tlie burden cf 
tho Koy&l JsQD^nan Society , poroly^ l>y th@ seodSBion 
of Dr. Walker and the Fritruls ftttd tbt.' e.-^UiMl^hmcnt of 
the Loniioii Vucciii*? In^Uiur^loa At fim tli«y had on- 
dcavour^d to Ui^n'L>dJi the new Jn^titution, gvcd to the 
oxU-nt tyt distrilfiJting hunJ-UlU liku thn fullowiitg in 
tbo a tec to— 

To pcncfij dflfiTDiui of obUiDiDg iHocci^Tioit Ear Uio Cowpox 
GrAtifl iiiid«r tho Mnotion cf 

1iV]i*r«BAt Doctor JoiDf Walkca hiLa, luiilcr tiiHoqp prctmuwi, 

PnUto oTO liorclj^ framed to lo apoo tholr guud Mun^ mj 
inadioiui rvpruoDtAtio&a, the f^na^ifiiiafi betwava Dr, WauiUl aod 

tb« UoMdent l;9oaii£&tcr At CJ;4 Koti^^tj^n HOU0O, Ko. 14 boLfibtuy 

J/w L^w (>/ rfA* Dirrcifjrt and Uedieai Council. 01* O^iolfff, 

' It w&a aI] ia vaJD. Walker wn;^ ptcfcrrt-d to Sheridan 
Knnwli'ii hnokpff by Jcnur-r, whis*i^ frh-uiK hud m* likii 
fur the i^i;i>jK3it of ttic Society out of thoir owa pt 
It Vh';ih l)ieit.'fui% pl&mitd to reaort to I'm li&oicDt for 
KTwunl uubAidy >^ JU diKpunHc with tho niMivMity of wuU- 
actij^ttuiiA. The tuarii4;LT?i of tlie Loinluii Vacciae in^ti* 
tniion, learnini^ what wiu; on foot, naliirnny nrgHud that 
if tJovcrnmrnt tviu* to W- thu.i propiliou.i, it wm they 
H'hu hud the 1>t?tter dHitti to jkHsLitiinoe, and tlu^i^fore 
proparcda petition >ottin^forch thoiroxcrlionsini^pioad- 
ing Vatt^inu Imiiuihiiicm- Thirt iiiUTfen-tjL'e with iJictir 
adbemo £ll@d the J^nneriaiiM with fury* and Mr. John 
Ft'LLBa undcrtiiok to speak their mind in the House of 
Comciiozui. Wh«D, thetefore, on 2oJ June, I80S, &r 
TeoMaa Tithton pre^eDtcd tho petilion^ Fullkr 9pm&f 


to liiM tnci ai^d (1i^iio;iiic^«3 \t, ^a^ying n groM«r FargQiy had 
oev^r boon Kulmiitltffl to the Hcuau. 

The SpKAKtiu inU!q)08ed» Tho petition had aot b«cn 
rcmi. Whoti U wan, tha Houko would he «naUud to 
jud[f« (jf itrt coiiUnlH. Mr. Fllleil renamed hu» seat 
.'Hiiid ^pTipnil Isiiightftr. T)i>? pptit.inTi 1iK.ving htvyn reside 
Mr, KULl-i:niipcjlcigiiod ftn hiw ahrtiptncw. Tho peti- 
lioii WHH n ^rusH cJituiL. u wii:kiTd trick Ui swIuilU- the 
public ; t>Tt if it wa* not absoltitD awindling, it went vory 
near the wind, Wlirn thity ('/iiim t*) TitjliL'lt llli Hulwcrip- 
tion, li& ihoiiffht they represented some re^poctahlo cor- 
poration, but what did they turn out to bo V A parcel 
[)f Quiikcrx, or Pn-thjltiiftn-H, or whatAver eLio th^y wari> 
called, Tiiey Wl t'oL five g^iiicna from hiuii but thc^ 
tnoiuinit hi; dit.tvti'd thinn, ht; tlin^JiUnti^d ttit'iii with il 
Bow Strei^t olElcor and a chari^e of flwindli%% which noon 
frirhlL^cd them into a it-dillvtrj- of hi* uiouey. What 
R >ihnm« it wak to uon tho eaune of Mich followN oKpotiAod 
hy Aii^ iiiAti in that Hotinc! lit? did not auppiLiu the 
HiiTionmblo llaron*?t khai»?d in thoir ^ins, and he might 
lau^h iLs he plcifLM^I. find ,-«pciut like a lawyer, but it vm 
a poor w:i.y In nhow hiriHi-lf uH* for thv Makt- of a Httid 
notoriety ar»anf^ such <ia^picablo eoctarios. Uo hoped th& 
BouMi wmdd not Ic-nd any count<nmiii*fi In tlir imprjwtiirc. 
Sir TiKJMAH Tl'kton K<^od Iiunioua^dly replied, that 
the Jcnrcmn Society, in whoftc interest tho preceding 
speaker exhibited so much uwleiiipi>r«d iwa!, wa* not 
Instituted till ISO'S. The on^^nal Vaircine P<>ck. Jnatitu- 
tion wits oj(tiilili.*ht^'l hy l)r, Pt^HrsoTi in iTilD TIhi 
Institution to which tho pt>tiiionTofertDdt;*ad<ulabllHLiDd 
in 1806, chielly hy nn-mlxrs ot the Society of Friend^a 
Mfll to whoeto virtuoun principlfuA nml bRnavionr it waa 
Uh, privilege to hvar toetimonj. Since 180G the Institu- 
tion \ivn\ omjnanictttod tho vacdno mattor lo ftl,0(H> 
Serrtoiui in every Hitimti^in of life This potitiouem crnly 
paired tin have the fncts they adduced inqnitfld into, and 
hoped for pubiic Aid only in tho overt oi bcutg entitled 
Ui It (in pTiUir x'i^ui;Os. 
This application for aKsistance by Walker's Institution 


CnfligM U Vhyiiaum And durginos in LoodcML 
«xpm« would not be moo tbui £2^00 or X9O0O par 


Mr DArtti GmDf Mid h« ahonld not cfftm 
naolBlkn. Uit U woM hkvt httn mudi bettor to ' 
■■fi^nHl frooi fDt«rf«renee. Th& p«ople wa«U 
inocnUlvn, uvl tfacn nCBAJJpox woolo break oat wMl 
Uvfcibl MTTeritj. 

Mr Fni.131 oUtfvtd Uttt SmftlI|>ox hiul bocn ttxtuhi 
Utifd in CftkatU Inr iijmtcriutir aqi] enTorcnl Vacciiifttion, 
ifl b« li«>U"i'(><J tha MttHT nsult wn^ ftiuinable ia Out 
ilry. U« Uioughl tliM o^cn th{>4»^ wbo hcsdtAt^^ to 
%frt io i{p»«Tal cou^iiulfiion, would not obj^i U> the 
^CbMtMn of ftll chiMttiQ in workhouac^ 
't T. Ti'KTOH -wonlri Iahvi! jTrpftTn^l a commiUvu of 
flij^ikin, Thcrt^ 'Aoro AlMtly Uxrc< In^tutione in 
luffi (o lew purpOMoF propA^ng oowpox, 


tJid the object Mr. Roae htuX In vt«vr Vi'aa moM likely to 
Ik* HtUintHl by private itnbflcriptioQH and by aasUtAnoe 
from Govcmniroit than by a npccml Iiu^tiiation foiincd 
Amt pmlowi?(l by the Stflti? 

Lord IlrKitT I'lrrrif contoodcH that as the cviJcnco 
wtL* mnv nfiife^M-illj uitujlijplete iw to thf mfiJtT]>lp 
fliiicacy of Vaccination, it ww* hiphly proper that in 
VGitign,tif>n nhouM bo pcrwvcrc^i in under tho eye of 
the public insle&d of by & nuraber trf muall inHtitution* 
whicb W":rc ocjt porhaps ^together exempt from tho 
iintuiLiUofi (jf Wilt; yuicJod by miTrcvrnary motives- 

Sir Fii\Nc'iS BL'tiDtrrruiuii Vaeciriatiini apposed before 
Uwm wiUi a rnuiplrxiijii wii^ply ilillVring Vioui that ori^r'i"" 
Ally aKfauibvJ, A short timo a^o tht^y wi-rt' us^urril it was 
An infaltibli; preventive of Siuullpox, ati<J that Itn prurUrt^ 
VTMA io KiiiipU^ that any eld womu.n wajK^qunl to it. Now 
they wcrp told that It was n very ni*xi operation roquiricg 
gr^at jmlgmcnt anr] skill, the want of whit^h wa^ held to 
ibCoount for tJic many faihircs which had occurred, TIius 
thtru Wp'iW iiulth^r Umt siinplhnry tior stniriLy vrhi<ih wa* 
ori^'inally aaaetted. Conaidt^rin^' thc^u luanifL^tb dL^^rcp- 
anrii-j^ bc^twcien proniksi^ nnd pni*:tirc, it wjw, he tliuiij^ht, 
moat anwiftff for (kit Hou^e to Intorveuo in ord^'r to help 
what a|ipearcd to be a failing expeniti«Qt> They ought 
to \>- cmiiirjUK — thej' ought not to prop up what mi^ht 
prove t*> Ui pcTnidoua error, Uovummirut in thi,^ tree 
country rn.nrot romprl pr'>pf<' t<> submit to the pre*?rlp- 
tion^ of phytutianrt, or thj oporatiotia of surgeon*, or 
anythjiif^ t-xt^ijiL lIil' Lawn ; atjd it wan duiibtriil wtjc^thor 
BCicncd iteolf would ho b*Jn^:■litl^'d if placed iindor (jovum- 
niRnt diicr.tii>n. They wure rt^orccd to tho reports of 
tho Mudieal CoDe^, but as h« t«ad tlteae raporU ho 
dctotod ninch hcaitation ttnd ovoTdon, and anything; 1>iii 
tbu uuuriiDcv dUptayL«ii ori Wbalf ot Vact^iiuxiion by 
Bdveral members ot tlic Hou^e. Many instance of fail- 
tm w^ri? Mlmittf^d, aiul nticb inslAni'iN tuii^dit sjifrly be 
doubled. Aa for Spurious Cowpox he wished to know 
what it wai it waa used to account for all i]ii»ha{)H, 
ft»d it waH, h^ftuapectudna incro shift, thufHc, and gut-off. 




[Sir Francu Deed nol li&ve apoken thus dubionslj. for the 
kepoit of thn Pliyuiciunft luJiDttUtd what hff sa^^prcti^iLI 
He trouIJ titucU |frefvr n coinuitteo of uivt^sEij^ttUoiu tiud 
hop-^fl tUr tpflohition woulcJ not be piwi;ed 

Mr. Wii.FERFOKf'K liToii"ht ijp tnc foreign iirgijtncnt> 
There Tiiigia be failures at iiome, but these ccukl be saUs- 
factonly acco jnkd for. It ^vori for them to cnmidcr tho 
mngfiitit'cnt ztmTivjtspJi nfViuv-ituttuiti in fdhrr IiuiJh {Omn« 
nrftwtum j>t\> hwfpiifico e»t\ eoDceminj* which there wb* 
no r»:ioin fcr doubt. Wn- fwiw JiannrvrnKitbod of itiApiring 
tlio public? with oonfidi^ncc in Yaci^tnfLtion than by tbo 
eat^LMi^hiuT^Eit ctf ihei propoW iD^titution. 

Mr. RjiSK oxpTninc'd thnt he tnr^roly tt'isbM to bring 
the HctiFtc to a rcioliiLioi), Ic^vin^ it tc hia Moji^'aiHy [Ih&t 
wa** to sfiy. himweTf for the Govftrnm^nt] to give it PITeet^ 

Mr. CjE^incR t.UxMN«, Secretary of StAtc for Foreign 
AirrtimHdetjlu.rtJ thit thougli Iht i^uriMdi^rt-d Ihr dl^ii'jvt^rj'uf 
VoofrinAtion to he of tho ^veateet importance, yet he cjuld 
not iiiiagiikc any circLiui4tAiicc£ whatever that would *m- 
duc<: hiin to follow up the inoKt fAVourablo ri^pcjrt of itn 
infaliibUitj with any meMuru for ita compulfcoty iiiflictiori- 

l^i» dcclnratinn of Canfiing \% well wiirth uttcntjoQ 
and ^^oromcmciratiotL It ncrvcB to maric tho n^vcTcnco 
for jifTHonal liJ>erty, which waa the iJne dthtinction i>f 
the former ordor of Kn^Iinh ^tntcumon, imd H^pambcd, 
whrn \\t\Xc nliH did, thw Eiij^lifth from \X\v. CuiameitLtl 
Tory. The noble tradition of this liberty [ue«t« with 
scant fftvfuir in these times, and Canning^ avovrat in the 
new H»itsi' of Commona would bo heard a^ an aoachron- 
ism. Nearly every adventurer who haa a prescription 
for t!»« niornl and pliysiwil welfare of hi* fiillow crtai.t«r<*ii 
]KJp«?s to !mvo it utiforetd hy k^-blation : and *inco, utid«f 
prnalty of lin*.' and iTiipri»^omni>nt, our Iwibw* 9X*^ cut and 
poiKfjiMid to savi? thinn from nnaUp>x, thuro is no iufrac- 
tluu of jiei>uual litiL-rty, huwuver outra^eouH, thjiL. can 
now be pronoLnict*d impowihlp. 

When Uic Hounc tUviiiud thi,!rc were CO for the motion 
and 5 against it— Again a i^mali Hrime foT so critical a 
TO at tor. 

Witb UiG permifiaion Ut apcDil £5000 a year, the 
N&tional Vaccinia ErtljiMKIiniNit was constltute^l, Jenodt 
beiDg coiiKuttiTil in iu orgnnUivti^n* A BoArt^ wne f^rmo<3« 
conALstift^ of tln^ rTL*A](lriit itn-l fmir (Vosc^rs of tlic Boja) 
Coll^^e of PhyvicinnH, and the Master and two senior 
Wftrdcnrt of thr C.:»llrj^ «f Siir;^on». The Board tnet en 
8th Deo^mhpT, ISOSfii'^ proceeded to buaioeatt J«nildt, 
t» yvtA hi-i fftUlity on impcrtont occasions, was ftbaont, 
Iwiug dHtiiiitid al Berkeley by fAinily ttfllwtion. He 
wrote to ilooro — 

I aiioulJ ic ufiWDftlij of tb« omoo of bbbvi vrocv I to ttir Oijin 
my cbjldici:, [aikwJ, itotJuiiie woiilil laaktt tec. noi uvon n royal 

J«mncT wa^ cWUd Director, but not a mcuilcr of tho 
Boftrdp and imtnediatidy betrati to [;Totest tliat he wtui 
disw^rdcd and suhjoe'tcd to inrlic^ity. "Tho Boitrd/" 
hcHatd, '* appointed mc Diroctm-n hut tlicysoon contrived 
to let me feel that 1 whx to Ine a Director dh^L^U't^'' The 
arrangement he hnd mftde with Mr. Ito^r nnd Sir Lucaa 
Pcpy«, tli« PrttiJt-ni of the' Culkgu of PhywifUAu*, wmw, 
!k held, a[to{-othor diffefont— 

It vriu itLiiJiilittfiJ Lclnecu ^fr- Hou. Sir Lucoji* lUtd 1113'ulf. tiial 
no periOD luouIJ take any part m tho VunriDatlne Vepniaieaii 
ttfbo WAA nol aitlitff utrjiJJtiaUfd t,v m\> in tiit\nnltM Cu iii> cipprjlni* 
don. Ou my reiuiu^iitc Hir hucu nf Lliiit, Ln rvpliuil, " Yuu. Siii 
tn to b« wliaU ftmj tulv Dlrtclur. Wo [m«aakijjc tho Doiud] m* 
to Ltf vijjntiiltiied M nothing;. Wh^t do /^^^ ksow of YAOolEuiLioD." * 

Sir LuCT8 of coursff* ivfts j^iciring, hwt Jenner's head waw 
90 turiiitd with mntty and tlattcry that hr could not 
distinj^Uh mockery trom sincerity. He had confitnTot4>d 
far himself a fcoU pamdiv. out of which the Boftrd 
pitcht'd hJin iinei-rrtinmioiitly. H4* n'eomuiMvhil hln 
fclml^oon l>i*aror, Jolin Rinif. for Chief Vaccinator and 
Inspector of StjitionHn hnt. thi^ Biian! df^cMnpil to Imve 
Anything Ui do with him. and oddeJ iiwult to contompt ; 
for In Jeiiutir'a word^ vrilt«a in Uie Uiiid penou — 



T^liiyrmi mhith Imllim pcooiultjr koM& to Dr. Jo&cr oa jUl 

SubMqiiefitIr heMniiiia tUt of seven dviks Sot Sab- 
VAcetTutum, nf which thm Board r^iatUA Bxc, whiA 
bcoiigbt mAiUn to a mm, and ht reaigiied In tho 
miittoriiidiioi, from wh»di I Kavp <^i>nUv], h#> wrota — 

Bf ibB vbcrf* «tf IhM* «tfttam4ut«ai^ Dr. J«ttD«r l>h hinvtf 
aDd«rih*B»TCMin-orwtlUi«wtnf flottlhAMtaUUBiiMiL Bm 
OOaU Ink* ii)ieo libn»ir ha iwnwMiiillilHf wbm h* had BO 
not «TMi m Tott. H* ilid oot wkh loeoolVQl tlu 
nottatog VM ftartbar from bfi thoaditft. Btf he nfMiid Uut' 
pnedoft] rvt «f Hi wihwiim wcnld hm-n bcca nnta- Ui dinctioB, 

tnrn wbom, from s inaicfaowMM «l tlidr mi nni limit aUUty, M 
had ■» Oronflj nnoMMwdoJ to oocJnrt iMi prirtlfl pm*,i 
faMV feMw ftppntalod. Bvt M Ml ■***—"***■<**'*— ^>*«* 
dkni|pvdnj--w junoMBcntK rbJ ippotaitoMoto hftvobiH 
vkkb Ani«inirnf7 toaw Jii3cnHnLMidHh«i»iDfivsiad 
Booid that it vm inlendMi & Ibtm to so Amct owb 
lad that tb*f okitie vv rmoiuitle far Uie «qiiducl of lh& 
moot. Dr. JenDcr JodiiMd acociiiinc th« ktatiun cd Dinsdori to 
vhkh lh«7 Iwd Kniaiuivi] liiiv, ■iuiv har fniichi IliU li* «u to bMjtm 
lutblpc Ic do In tho ♦oUhlirfiPiont. unl that lik oflLo* vraa ooly % 


Tf> tbno^ who dM ncl know Jenrter, or who acoepted 
liim al ttia own fatimatc, Uio trcAUuuDt to wlikh ho was 
aiihjfvtHi mi^t Appnnr n^jiT^criialhle : but the Board 
andenitooJ tUoir riiaa. and only cared to hxv^ tha bonaflt 
of hi^ iiaiEii?. fi>r little el*c waa worth having. ^V1lai 
could Im^ maJi- of a ehatncter IndoTent an<.l uniriji»r.worlhy; 
vrhti diAlik^'d L^>niJon and wao ofi to ClouccMcrAhirc <m 
any prc^t^^xtL who'ii? Kickly faauly had frotu liun the 
BUprcinc con.tideniUoii of an atfvctionatc mother 1 Ha 
wrot4! %ti Moorfr^ 

I vjtP** vlth ynu that mj Dot Ivins; a iutMub«T r>f Uio drlElih 
Va«c4nji KctatHafinieot will antonith Qie vorM ; and no nna in tt 
«an t« mor« aatomUbvil Uinn mywlf. 

II<3 waa nUiStaken. Th« world, ao far ag it thought at 
all, oinaidorcd he waa baodscTooly rciiardcd Tvith lua 

* Bafou^ L^€ t^ Jcnner. toL ii, p. Hi. 


£30j)00. An<l with so much public inonev in hU pocknl 
might hftvc looked for & bcttcir lii.^^itfon on tu.n part. 

Wft«ii his nouiiiXAtioQS wrre rli-(ri.'^j^ur<l(^d. In* iWliiiT^^l *^Vvl\ 

to ccimo to LoiKion, aad thud exouacd hia eulkii^ tii 

t wu r|eitD lu oftrsttat kt Uia tlm* I tnforuiMl yoo of xtxj iataaxu>ti 
io Kten* to towm, btit wbllo 1 wu (totting tbm|rv iu ordor llt«rD 
cftBiD ft pMM of kiC>rmftU4ii front a Uif^it Hod. UoDtUmftn whiflb 
4lol*nniii*4 mo 1« rviDAiii m my rctirbmont. li w $tt UiSlytn— 

ThitI tM0 liittiliitiiM wtufbtmc'l /»r the purpwt cf m fidl *tttd 

Frt^tifty riiuf (h4l fAiJ uiiif fA« Kii^cin lehy S^. Jrwwirr i»rtlid mot 
h4 mdmitled at eni- o^ffci ^tanfliifff^n of it, ai fK-^ jtabli^ voidi wtt 
Itave Ilt£ lame rtmJtdaue in their proeredin-jM iti \/ tha Boaritovrf 
iffi to thnr oum ju^jmtfit m rloaht/ut tUM^. 

Thl« h th» initE fenil KnTiOaiKHi nT tlift OMUEoonio&tion^ 

Whikt flO wo kHf itf tif VHOAJtllttii'lTl ? 

\r*» know nnthtTtfi of VnfiriTinHiin t 

Yfta IntlnthtMl pamodiln^ of thl* vrt ut ni.\ bimo timo dDMi, and 
now I gM It Arcmi ti» fcintCain bond. An Jni»Lii:bQ foimdod on 
tho prmo^n of tntinify wmn ar olffbt yoMi n^ c>, wouU luivo Imod 
wortlij or tZ>e PnLi»Ji nalion; biU now, aftor Uio wbolo vorlcl 
1>«ui iMliuionj to llie Mfjtty «u4 eHJouy of lb* Voorine Pnctlow. 
I do tblnk It ft iDa«t olrMiitinuy proeaHilinif. It t» ono Uu£ 
auui aoo«Mu11y dograJo me, and cuiool okaIi tbo framan of It in 
ttio •>» of oommoxi-Muto. I shall now (tick olouly to mp f n^n 
tmUtnliont wbich I bavo tbe pHJe aA<l iwiity to tUink i* pan- 
Utoniit to 111] ivtlirm, u tin fltUiut mid Vui^filfl atv bDiiailleH. Of 
t^ I Mil Uiu rr%l »ii(1 iiol tUv uouiiutf-l Dlri^ulci. I Laiv tJUuduoUd 
tlitt ivliijlr un^ixiij fur iiu iu4xm*tU(Mihllf uumlwr of >WKn>, liui^lo- 
LsuiU'O, n»i] 1j;ivv Kiirojut V^cc^iUitloit r^uuil Ibo ^obo. liil* 
coDviDM) Qw tinot tiEupUoitj ID tbid, u id oU o^otiTo mmcbmcryi 

In tho disciic^ion in tito Hotiso of CommonH it wftM 
itfttcd by Kb friuud. Lord Hvury Fotty> that cmi> oE thu 
objoeU of the PvitablisbincDt would be iiiveoli^^cioii^ (ui<1 
it WM nbunfvl for Jvnccr to proUnd thftt the i'Act <<auio 
upon htm Ad ;% r«veJatiodi ; &na, urIchk ri^iiipk^tt^ly bllndi^it 
by coDC<<it, he miut have r^o^ii^^d tbflt the gcrnurAl 
faith in Vocciiiattou c:i}iibitcd m 1^01 had bi:cn much 

* LvRor to JA«ti Hooui, VA J|»^f. IbW, 
vi4. iL (L ISA, 

liiuVa'i X^ t^ JtmKft\ 



^ftlc«n by the expcmnce of t^c succeeding aevco jc««b 
Biit it is Ml*? 1*1 Argue the matter Wlien J«nner oould 
^y thjkt hu Hiii;;](^-hiin4lc<1 linrl condtt^toii the wholo C3n- 
curn for yeava Aitiil !<prcfiii VjLu^inatlon riniml Lh<f ^lobc, 
he conM a»ift<^f t anythint;. The letter is in Wrwlin^ chiefly 
ji.1 nn cxhiliition ^f diuActor- 

We *hall r<'t«m to tlie National Vaecifi'? &*Uhliilimi;nt 
iLnd it!i iniinAp?mcrt— <k curious atory. 8iithci> it for tha 
prroii^iit UxiWrvr, that itflininit'iliAtiw*^rrU uvn^ julvfi-nv 
to Vaccination. Tiw annuftl endowment vrt^ ccfi&um^ 
in ^alnrio-s, nrnl iniuiy cvHxitl to shIwctiIw to the Cowpox 
Societfea alncu VaceiuAt^OTi u-aj^ Hi> well firovidod for. 
The cesential niUchi(.'f con^t-^UJ in the recognition of the 
(.mlpnu-tin^by tliff Sliilf'.wlK'rohy it hnsbeenpoipottiatod 
to thu comiuon injury to our own day, 


Tin? ijiitumal wmlowiuent uf Vi^miLiiLioii flfliniIM ii 
conveDietit pretest for clcsin]^ thia Institution, foondsd 
by Dr. Pcfunwn nnil hU frii^nds in 1799; but some sud Ltie 
true t(«;&OD was involved In the following rc^iolutiock*^ 

JirooJ ?itrQot» O^ldoD S^iur*. 

Obmkku> QL'AnTciii.T Court, Xdv. fi, 18Cfi. 

Jitf!fi^i(W— 'Hint uflc^nliniic U* th& cx^oii^na^ af Mm nitiliot.\ •iCalf- 
Illil3inpiiit nf ihtti InbtltnUnn, It spp«(ii« thfkt tha Irntfiiiliitlcn fnr |l>« 
Oowpook iflbrdi Monrity iwttinal tha Smailjwx o»ittalir with V«Jt- 
olom IiiMUlAlioD, unil thIlllllr>^6U'|lraot]■^opaBcstl^■ all iLo Sidfaii- 

Brt«rj^v<f— HuiI, In anUr U* |^t* a fi]rlh«r prccf (a th*- publw, 
an^ to AiTt'til fin tndiiotini«nt for Infcinniitlrtn blTwitA fa thi« ri«>w 
pnutfca. thd fnllnwlDg tmpinal ba ma<l« pnhllD, vlf.i^'J'^iitt, In 
falnra, •roty pmfi«nt wfio fthall bo v&Mfnatod it tldB TnmJttitioii, 
on diirkiAtpo, iiliftll rfcpivp a CuHifietLt«^ Btatin^; ihnt ^iiirli puticnt 
has ^no diTOllgh ihe CoW[ri>ck, &uJ •Dga^Einif ^id if heiyiJiAor tha 
uid ji&1J«nt «hal] Ukii tb« SiraIIj>ox, Ii» orthf sbaU be mititlM^ to 
the ftuiD of Hve Quiam. to bo paM Iknm the fand« of UjJa 1 UHtftu* 
tiuii at ttie flnt Gcncrnl Oonrt, kfWr the prooh Iiave bnau S^^^mIb 
w^oonUn^ to ihv mluH of thu luudjc^jil oitabhiJininiit. 

The offer ftttt»*t4'd th<* Hinf^rity of the conductors of 
the Institution, but ho uiai:^' paticntnj it i& rmd, laid dilm 



to Hvo UuIdcoa Ibat H was not vritboat HibbUf^tJou tb&t 
A rriiiionnl'If- niiiiKi^ wi*v alTorcii'*! for up. 

Dr. Pearson Iitlil t!i?it it vtm impo-vtible to he re-vao- 
cinni^il. lie ari^iieil tli&t. hirict^ no one coliIJ liav*.- SmaJl- 
pox twico, no one coulil liavo the cquivnlctit c^ SmiJIpox , 
BaiWy CiwiiEix, twLi?i%. It 1NIV^ a, lu^fUvi] ojntmjtauii ; 
but fftcu (Il'l not carr^ponO to tb« Ioloc. PeAr^on fd^o 
objcct«il to the VAmlniuT^tn or iiLoculation witl) Smixll- 
]>aK aft<*T inoculation wltli Cuwpox to prove tliac the 
coupiUtiition w» fortilied agnin^t attack. He preferred 
Cowpoi to Siiian^wix for tlift imrpust^, us niiMer and li^** 
liable lo <Jaii;{uroiL8 rcv^LdbSn Uu fuuud tliat aftor Cuwpox 
it W4W iiiijxi.'vsilili; in bave Cowivox— at Iwwb iiiUEwiiintiily. 
U«nci> he w&& coiilirtii«<l io oia opinion that Cow|>ox 
aftiT Covrpox was Impoaaible; Jn^tt as othcm nrguod on 
tha aatnii groundH tliat SniaUpox aft«r Cu^^'^lOK wtut lui* 
pomble. Ye;t at Uiih d^y none doubt Uiat rc^r^oii wa» 
in Mrmr; for all heliov^ in the po&HJbllity of re-Vaecina- 
lion, or CV>wpox oftor Cowpox; likowico of Smallpox 
1 after Cow|iu\, 


la order to complete the account of Jonnor's awards and 
bhc aiiloption of VjLCciaatioa hy rarliamcnt, I have pns>cd 
ovc^r Ki-Aoral luatlL-n of inl<Ji\^t aitJ HJ^^uiGoaiice, wliicli I 
shall now procL-ed to dtral xvUh, commencing with Ibu 
t«^l.]c-s (1 r\\\T h<iro in rflntltni to Hnr*(*gruBBe- 

Iii His iiufuiry, published in i7lf8» Jeivnor Ret forth 
nor*-:yua>*i.' a^ thoori^'in tif that form of Oowj^ox. which, 
wht^n uutfulatcd ou tbo hcmau Hubjt^sstp oaiuurod lifit long 
security from Smallpox- ^ny attempts were coDse- 
qii^ntlv mode to produce pox on thi> tvaU of cows by 
iaoculaUiig them with Hon»c£TCAAC» but in vain ; aud the 
|0«ibi1Uy became dUcredited, Morwjvfir, the notion of 




iniW'iUtion with ! In rsesf «****- ftilher imineOi&belj or 
tliroutrh thcf cow, vrts divtikcd inteiiftoly. It «ra« pro* 
iioitiiu«d r^jpuWvo, Wby viiua from bcnt«r heols ilioul-I 
bo tiKirv rcpuUivo than vinu from cowfl' t«ftt4 w«:t net 
explained ; liut, aa wc know. Utcrc u no oocsountlnff for 
tiwtf'-s. Mfluy who PHt hpef with mlish wonM start "with 
diHffUHt froni lutrsofli-'ih, A story is told of ft ^\"eal*iyim 
who ii-ljiikfri It siskr for vreuring featliers m her ha-t» 
nn^i was fthnrply re^rrwl to th<* ^xuUnc^ of Uowoth in 
hvv own. '' Yfvi, ni^ir.r ii*?iir/* wili tijc cogent reply, '* hut 
wc miiftt draw the line eotno when?, and it U drawn at 
fcikthera." Tho line wib4 dmvm *t Hor«Ggrciisc^ ftnd bho 
o!']u:Iii nf CowpAx HA liMvTtf'.d hy J^nner and hitt country 
ftci4aai]it&nco was conveniently dontod. Jennt^r ivoa not 
aIow tri r*i-rr<nvi- hiiw Uur wind of npininn wft* lilowing, 
and K't ][i:HrMt^'rc&£0 drop- Ho tm>l nut a word about Tl 
in his petition to Parlinnicnt in 1303. ncr did ho Again 
ndvnnco it fui a r<^ji34on for coiD^td^Ttfttion. 

Kov. w!iy TVRa tUid ? Wah it bt^oi^uHv he li&il ceoaed 
to believp tharn f *owp<iv oint;innte*l in Horw^rftsi* t Not 
B»b &U ! Why, then, did he not viiidicntr^ hif« orititon and 
confront vulgar [jrujudit't- ' Simply l>i?r^iiKe he had tho 
wit to diJicoTD, that whilst he might i^ot aomothinff out of 
thi: TialjiHiul ^UT*c fur the Cow|hjx rucitx;. he coiiEd get 
nothing for bno Hor^egroa^o onv. As Dr. P^ST^on ol>* 
flcrv'cd, "" The vfny nainu of Uorscgiowc was like to have 
WTucV^ Uitt whole concern" — an observation that Dr. 
MaaOD Uood contirma in sayioj*, "Tho ii^gtc idea of iieiDgr 
thr TOttttcr f'f ^rrraso frcini the* hgrsn -■* !iri'l rxi'iLiid from 
tho lir&t HO dot-p and extcnnivu a di^st that Cowpox 
Inocidation had ni.>Arly fallen n Aacritice fiuiu the :4Up- 
pOBud union of the two di^catc^." 

It Ia not to bofiuppo^L^r] that 1 niu ct>n2iirinj^ Jodhot aa 
a tradwnmn,* If any of un had two ^lonU for kiJo, 

* A* tnikl^BTuvTiH hdwtiVvr. JvAiiar wu m-i Itiatttt. ti« !<»!: toniaiPk*& 
wlint w (jnt liEH l» wlL Thii l»tntrliit'ti<in nf ^^)^^prl1 For inocuktfes 
(ntilfni^tiiHHl In Jfu tn^vkry m tpurJuu*, uut Ijviuii^ dttivvd frum HunQ* 
Knu**) m* effected by FcdfWDt anl Jcmtvi'i cIauu t>it wu U u]t«i 


we should be gr^ii fooln if we dwlined to talce £S0,000 
for OQO vnthout tho other, ot 6ufFcK«l ono to prflju^tco 
the otlit;r, or triud to inflict ariy ^Wtiinc aliout tlium 
upon tbo pnrcbaseT- It U for those who go to marlcot to 
adapt tlicmvclvG^ to the nmtkot, and rmnemlier that 
Allien vrer^ mad^^ fcr buyers, and not buyera for ^olIerH. 
Sinco then the public were ready to pay for Cowpox, 
whilnt tlitiy \!ii]rMrnn] nt Hi]r>i.'gr<'ju(i% iL waA uol fur 
J<?nD«r to force; Ht>reio^Toaso upon tboQi> 

Ri^cIj ]-■« iiH^TCfintihf 1»gic ; anr1 tJii lis awn conditionM it 
U irref rA;>al'lQ : but it jh tiot tbe custom to deal with 
ilcDn«r an a tradcAiiian, but a-^ a man of «ciiMiccr. and to 
T&ngo him with groat disfoviTi^Ts, invimturH, aud hmn- 
factcr& of inanlciiiii ; and hcri> it ia that I decidedly 
ditiiiiir. What, 1 lu^k, did he diNCoviT? Hi! did not 
cUaecter tliat Cowpox provontod 8iEiallpox : th&t wan tho 
dairy-maida* faHitli. H»? did not diflto^er Llial Hiiisn- 
grftftflo pro%-cnt*d Smallpox ; that wwi th& farrierfe" faith. 
He did not discover that Iloiff^pasir on milkcra' hnndfi 
b^got pox on cowr' teaU: that was tKi> faru^evK' bullt^f. 
H« did not diacovcr that inoculated viriw coidd be con- 
veyed froni arm to ami ^ t)mt was an ('xtkIitiu prrtt^tlcti. 
What thon did ho discover? Uc dlficovt^rod notbinj;. 
He did ntj iTinriT thaji taki- thi* vidgnr innMinn of Iiik 
ll«it;hbourhood to thv London mark<^t. He made a fijw 
pcTfimclory ixpcniuent^ by way ot" cortlrraation, aiiver- 
tUt-d th<rin In a book, and by gi^nd ot i)l Inok thu notion 
wa5 caufbt up. and worked to practical isfiut-a. chielly by 
Pi.Titiinn, who thereby inciirird tho full matigiiity rf 
Jttaw r "a ji^j ouay. 

Thedis^tincljoii between a man of science and a trades- 
man in thb(, that tho mind of the one in Hi:t on the 
extracUon of truth axid thd oUit^r on Hit extraction of 
proSt Th© man of Hcienc*» dop* not SnqnJr^ what the 
public may be plciticd to know ^md pay for, liut ho 
aswrtAins and defines what in fnet., nnd f«avo«4 the public 
to Adju.^ib thetnnclvcB thctrto tx.-^ they tiiay h'nd convenient. 
If Uiiiy rt-nignrHi- lli« tnith fomiuumcitted, U is well for 
tlita ; if th«y dislike or dony tho tiaithj it U III for them ; 


but WiA\ or ill. Uic man of wicticc i^ tho iIiMiiUToitflrl 
expositor of wimt licfcoow-dolic tmo; riotuiifre<|in;nUy. 
wbi.'n hia revi'lation vitfiily &tfront£ popul&r prt?ju<!loc, 

rrfili*in^ tho Mi-^^Eng cf thfuu) who aro pdrwMMiti-rl for 

WImt th»?r'>fore 1 maintain coT^^emiTlg -lenncr n, thflt th9 
trutt) Jm^ wc iiiny jirr^timo he rcgnnLni itj he did net fuUj 

And iloni^fl ; tliat be wha c^rtUo^t to tak^ crntTit for flo 
much uf it n.i wjl^ uinrkolabk; vrbllnb hU |>r]%iLttT oon* 
viction flboDL iror^'f^-rcOM? rcmnin^.l un&iri>cW, not only 
in thcoiT, but in Hclitn^rntf' rrnrticoH 

It U for iiiv to i-HtaMiKli lTi4?Ku a^fii.-T'lioii^^ 

First, 1 e&y, hi? tVid nfrt fully icvoal wbat he kn^ir- 
Iii 17.SSJ .Innni-r iinK*iilttt**il bU Mm, Edwanb ft>» inf»nt of 
\h in>>ntb^, not vrilh Cowpox, or with Honn.*;p"uHi*i.\ but 
vritb Swinepox^ nni]. ncconling to the crMuncc ok' Lin 
onm p&pciK, tlie n?^ii]t wiu rcrff^cUv KatUfActory. Tho 
child was sulnoquuntly inoculated witb Smallpox on five 
w ftix rliir^Tpnt ocrn^ion^, anil alivny^ u^ithoiit off««L 
Acoordinj; to tbu vrcll-knowii vari'jbmrt lcj,t, he wiw proof 
n^ainflt Sr)Ei,1fi;]ox. In >ibi>rt, l>h«re wa^ notliin^' tliat 
Jirnmrr over aifdiic^d in favour of OowroK Ibat wm not 
ec^ually valifl of Swint'puc. And L^un nwinr^^xjx cxjxri- 
mwit vAfi niad^ noarJy ton yearw prior to hU advc-ttU<f- 
ment f>f Cowpcx and HorvgTDanc. Wby, I iwk. clUl bti 
k^p back ibt^ initb aboiii- Swinc-pox? Wh«i CoiA'pojc 
wai* ticarcc, nnd every cow botinc hil^ explored for viriM, 
whjr did hn iKrf, n^'fHiinit-nil S»iin-ii'i^ il-* mi nIt'Tnattve? 
Why, loo^did he rofrain from Ih*? <ibviou& ^-mralinaUoiit 
that Cnwptjx, Hor^cgn^iLM,', Rwimrpox. and pndwbly tdbcT 
aoTtfof pos. ^-n^^iiiU'd f**^*K, durin;; ibo |:n>\a]«nco of 
which inoculation ^ith Soi^llpox vraa not &pt to take F 
The Ai}Kwtr Ih plidn, Hi^tami'^ 1i(> had Koinetntng to aoll 
rather than faonicthin^ to toacb. 

In rnnfrtmiity willi iIjis pmniiicf- he MifC ntt) the origin 
of Cowfox in H.-r«-f 'Jinj'. nivd tin? itpccitic virtue itt 

gi:?a^e tohwdeiM' ■ <L " It ^«fl fortimau for 

r. Jonn^rp and «" ^i|»i vf his discovory," wrotu Dr. 




Mason OooJ, "ttftt & minutor attention to the »ubjoct 
^ve stilticinnt proEif Ihfit thoru wms no fotindAtion for hU 
of>iiLion thai Ccwpox ori^natod in HorrtcgrciiHc^. uor that 
taty ci(ainr.<ction ^xi^t^l li^t.wnien tlid di^afi^w" * SurK 
vad tbc coDvcnivnt lacdicnl vcidict, whtch Jmncr di<l 
Qot venture U* dmiurlj. Lhuuf^li all the ivhJiL- jiL-i'suaded 'j1" 
iti arror, Thoro w^ro faiIiir«iA to irLociilau^ ^mwh wUii 
HoEMi.'grc4uw. but Thomw TanticrH vtitctiaary ftwrp^on, of 
RoclchjirnptoD, Cloucesttrsbire, " hud iho merit/' Miya Dr, 
Bar<*ii,"of proving the truth of Jcnncr'n «tatcmcni"f 
He -^iioceodeO in <:outit]iiTti(Mlln>t the dU^aAtr to ihe cow 
froKi t!>c htrol of iho horao, prod^jcir;; on tJif) cow'h toat a 
cumpletir vaccine |iii»tiib. "From lutmllin^* Urn cnw'.t 
teat^r E4id Timnor, " 1 bucauK< luytielt' mf4^u>d and had 
two pQBtuIca OD my hand, which bToi;"ht oD iiillamaiEi' 
tion, and mad« mt^ unwell for 9«voral dayn. The matter 
from the ccnr, and from my own hand, ^>roved vilicacioaa 
in infrfrting both human ]4iiVijecU and cjttth.f"J Jitnnor 
distributed tliu virit^t from 'I'nmicr, itiid it oijcrat^nl pre; 
cu«Ijr \i^*^ Cow[]i>\. DiiL ihe jtroof tlM not ivnt with 
Taiincr: others rcififJittni hU *>i:p(rimi'nt with siniilar 
iiaUDi. Dr. Ijoy of Wjdthy initiliahi.'d m ISOI AWtr- 
06wJt'rr//tins oil M*' Oriffiii of tfte Cowpox, in which 
be continncd Jcrncr'is country' tnJcn, and dc*<rtilic-d how 
fdispciulitg wltb the cow) h& m[Lnfi;;(^d to inoonlate 
patients with Uon^e^rcasc, producing puntiilcs idea- 
i\ad with thii*.T fnmi Cowpnx, jumI Mxhii^tfUti^' tlip mr* 
(9onA thuit Cfjuinated to the vATiolou)^ te^t with compklG 
impunity, Vet, *ith j*o thuHi to ftirlify him, d.iim^r 
kept tiJonL He prefvm.'d to be adjud^t^l uiintakou 
ratner than ri^k the fotffit of public favour an<) pay. 
Nor might I l>]n)n<r hiiu, had hn frankly reMMirti'd ihiT 
intcjfrityof the GIouccAtcr&liite faith, and aJiowt-d Uiat 
xince the pnblic werv rewly w wviyi't Ciiwjmjx without 
UorfiCT^Tcaeu*. it wa^ not for him to Ataud in the way of 



tMr pttf i T M ict by ui obctioU* ddnaoa of what 
niin f Pif nlial m pimctioe- 
BgI the csM for HofwenAM wu j«t«tninAr thjZL I ten 

' the prtnee of wdnsi^n * by r e —»> of Us eotfctiaiaMfe, 
Ua pffofrtHJonil atUi&aicDU, u>d t2i« fadlitics thftt wtre 
kc oto m I to bin ui ibc ds^pitie Rflpnlilk* nf tlinv lUjA 
for ukjvenal vioriim1<iB, He tried to ^s^an^te pox ca 
tb« cow with gr«t9e from tbc bot^, bat C^il^d. and in 
IflOl nxiortnl to J^-OAcr bk F&Uurv. la 1&03, boveror, 
li« crie^ Eorek^ f A a^cbimm pnae&tod bimMJf aft tbe 
Sllbn ]Io«pitft1 HoU^rii^ ft^xa ui craption contnctod in 
pwmiDg a bone with ^^i^Bf beebk He «ai« At 4>nc^ led 
off br Saoocj to the FotUMllbi^ AsvIud, wben- Dint< chU* 
drcn were inocuIatc<l from the vemclc* on hiit hjLarK ^^ 
thrcu <4 tilt* diildn^i tbi^ tDoeulatiou luuk. pixMlu^ 
TfOteks which w^re pronoviued to b« the suae a« thooe 
reaukiag from Oowpox. The rims w&s propag&toi from 
arm to ami, and diitribQC4>d tn til diivcuoruL Dr. Sacco 
fron theocefortJ) avowed biju£<lf a Horaweaaer "It 
JA iK>w admiUMl and MttlorJ/' he wrot« to Jennur from 
Milan* S^th lUrch. 180:t. -^that uproose to the cau^ of 
vaocinfT, a&d we cannot too soon aiur the deaignatioa to 

W«ii Uie deaigik*Uoii thanjccd to eqtaine f It waa not, 
nor wan tha attaoipt noadt^ Hkmo ditefly coaoemed in 
oromotin^ Taccination in England would vol licor c^ 
Honfigreate, and many were rewlj to swenr chat In tho 
tnatler of pox, the? hor^c ruid ibc C"w hn<l no connccUon 
wbatovi^. un<] Uiat Ji'itni^r Ijnd Lii'> li^L^ilily fuviunitHl iho 
irutli of iL vul;far wcat ccontry opjiiicn. 

l)r- D4* Cnrro of Vienna, wlicj ili^ttcribrd binis^r-Jf as 
Jenncr't frit^nd and 6rtt apostle, havia;^' riTi^et^d tha 
firat vaodnalioD on the Continent and transmitted 
flrvt obar^ of vaccinit to India, viom aUo a f{oncvj^ 
Wbil^l J^EiWT Wild judiciously ho]dmj> hi^ lon^^e al 
Horirj^^-flie iiA KnpUiml, }in w^^.t(^ to 1)p flntm <?on- 
LinLiilaLin;^ liiiu on }iia ftuceeaa In eoDVCjin^ CoiA^pox to 
Khhu aiid aacribiiig the faiture of the 


BttvmpU lij 0\fi nht'iinl prfju<lic"? n^ain^t llorw"mftW, 
which Pr Loy htv\, howwur, oompK^lulv iiunihiUtud. 
Hero itro lila wcrds under date. 2»tl: March. 1S03 — 
I na eoa^Jimt Ihnt hiul nt^t the appoccitbi of my icIobh of the 

wfhilofralrttm [iVanuju ami \N'L".Kivill(?l . lUt? A-imtlcB would 

iin tttOD nMoasd ftx>£a fta uutUuttly gt&70. Thi^ ^Iijcimiv^ ul- 

ii«nme&tiafl>r. Iio7hbvot£luiccd bho toJagnoBof tlit^jc goullismciL 
or «ifcr,* 

Hftvr tha cUmoroiiit opposition ta Honogroa^i) had 
deprived tiuidocu of Uic L-iirlic^r bleeuinfi of vAcdiiatU>n, 
we ATI* Wl to ciiiJjeclurL*. Pi'r]ia|.is hv iiii?&ikl Ihat Horw^- 
grc&ati Vp'ouM hftvo Lonift tranftit to Jndta bctlcr than 
Cowpox, ur that tht" HJTidtnw thi-iii^telvt!^ uiight hive 
rciiorUd to hor^^s with t^eaey heels. 

Jn reply, 22nd April, IHOy, Dc Cmto wrote to Jennet 
^4>Tnmeiulliig hU muderacion in mdntabihi^ nIK'nce to< 
wiird his ontftgoiii^U — little apprehending tlie niotivee 
of tliat nilrjirr. r.'ur^cjn* (conduct, hy tlicught^ honl^rod 
on insamiy. "I u.w txtrttuvly ^'lad/' hu coiiUauvd, 
" Unit joii havf tr^JLted it with thi* coiitc»mpt it dtt*erve*j 
thouj^h I au) happy ta »uo that your kVicTid^ hiLve ex- 
posed hia ridiculous and tiiolT^volent dc^Tix'* 

D(f Cnrrg vrw intimniti with Socoo of Milan, and from 
h\u\ rL-ctivcd \-jrufl derived from Uoncgrcaec, which he 
u*fd indi^riiiiinaMy witli Cowpox, in Vi^nnft it 
wflfi uniciuiwn wh^ wcrr vnccinatid am) who r(juinntcd,t 

I)e t*arni wiu* uJno m curri's|>in(deiii;i3 with Br. I*it 
Font, a Krcnch phyfciciftn, cetabUyhod at Splenica, who 
WHO likewise; u Uor>f^nNL-Hi?r Hn dLsciA'ered that the 
Macedonian farnera r«>co^ia^d tbreo &orU of {;fiva£e in 
horses, cnllcd in tfcncral javart. and di.^criuiinatcd oa 
i'^i^fouAtfUs. If jtfdcApitfnti^Mx, H Id iHiriM'fttt. J With 
the variolouet grca^^c. La Font inoculatod two boys, and 
from Lhrni utliirr ddldrcTD, rujjrtiditdiig tlit- ctx^x'ntrnrit tjf 

C«rro. VjouM, ISlH^ 



hoy of WliUbj M.itd Sa/xo vi MIIml De K^atn in cum* 
muBkatiike La Font's sooc«tt to Jeanor, 2lat Juik. IS03, 
oWrved^ "Tbow pttrtictilatii. I ho^ will ukuee all 
tbose wko bUU dovibt th« Uriitb cf yoar doMriiM u to 
the coonecUon of Greose, Cowpox, and SmAltpox" — 
JcnncT boldina that SnuUpox wait k mmlignoiit vui«^ 
of Cowpox, wmbt Cowpox came out of Uonro^roaac. 

NoLwitKi^UuwIii^ ihvMt coiil^rnuitionij and liift banal 
Utftt Uic oppuaitkM of Peanon and Woo<ivUJo wa.-« Mknced 
for cvf^r, Jt^iuti^r jtuflered juilgaieDt to ^'u a^auLst Tiiiti. 
H^} rcix^iMc*! that it van cxpoiUnt that the oonti<>cLioa 
balv<f«n Hunvgroatte and Oowpox BhodJ Ix? iti-i^jttL TTr 
had liU bill '^o »ettle with tho English pablic, nitd it wba 
not for him to toakc di^coltic^ A cari(MM €vi<lcnoc of 
Unvc thorfxi^jlily th^ unpo[fuIar uuth m'sh muj>|)cijs^ b 
fiiniihhod hy Dr. WillAn'e trcAtiao On I'ciiM^ne /noetllci- 
fjW, iJiiMinlLMl in ISOtL Tlirnr In tK4 u \riiri1 nr hiiii in 
it coficrniiii;; HoThOfcrcaae. The treaiUc wa.H thti work 
i/fu L\jni]>tii.ijL jiiiysidan. wboaet forth what waa kJiowii 
of vAccin»;ion (frpni th« KtAndpocnt of baliof) pritli ful- 
ncK^ a]>d d«4nivt0, airajiuiiiiziied vritli aii n[ipc^iKlix of 
lottery niul tv|wrt« from J^^niKit himh^^tf, from Foarsoii 
iLad otli^r csjtt^rtn in tbc di:w pnu^cc — but aa bo Uor0&- 
;{rrafie, tlic hiJenoui waa al^ulute. How Om illHi^fn>< 
tn»th w&» HO Mfcctiiftlty covoro;! up a more iIiati 1 
iLTtGtint fit. It wn* iioL lutiili^jiiiHl in thi? lUibftUn in 
pArlvAUivnt, nor whj* U r<:'f<:TT«^l to in Uio n>|>t>rU of tbu 
C^jJhiiw of rijj'->iciAiJ,i ami Sur^'c^n,", nor did tbc gp- 

Coiierit^ of vacciiud^Q iL^ U wlib tlR* forcv that might 
avc h^ax expoct<rd, Odo cszplanation b, that JecuMr'a 
Imjn i yjf no\i^T onUnx^i] into gcnrrn! clrnilAtlpn, thaino 

f^pcUtt Kditi<ai cvcx ti\t]KitrKd, and tLat it iva^t cliiefly 
[K.1AI1 I'.t Hoojnd bftJicL Tliy r-^k^liiij^' r'-jirt^^nlAtives of 
xiLcn^itixtnHit moroovcr, liO WMIy dis^jwmxl Hor^cgrooso 
and JcEUKir'a authority- in ftMrrititi}; (^^|iox to iu par* 
cntA^>o, that th^ro was little uxi; in cUiu^ng thvm vdt^ 
It ; vhtbsl all iho vrhile dinner ^trtd no qjicii ri^-antanco 
to thi)**? Tvha cont^nmpd him for one nii^iako, huj; ex- 
baii»fti<d tbc language of aduUtioo on hi-» iniptUcd mcffit. 



Tfaoft -wv 8up|70A« it came to puiii ttiat &t t^e encl of 
twenty y«ir» l>r. Mflaon flond, as th* dxponant of or- 
thodox mc<lic&] faith, f^It ja^titic'l in iwicrting that 
Uiere waa no foiii^rlAtiou for i)i<< afiinloik llmt Cowpox 
orieinntcd ij\ Horscgroaso, nor thnt nxiy conni^cUon ex- 
inUiil Lr*twuuii tliFt iliw^amvi, iitkI tlint It wns forti limit- for 
Jennor &nd thd triumph of hb dit^oovory that the f&et 
wa.i ,-^0, 

J*niKT WRA <\\v\ieiy'], bill wat ho eonvinceJ ? How 
CoiiM bo bo CLinvincc'i ' Jio^flf^"7*^Jl*to as the orip;in of 
Cowpox iriiubt \n* votfl iItiU^hLiiIjIc? mul impfKnllm*. Lut 
tbore wofi Urn c\i*li.iic^ ui' tho country folk, continncd 
f^mmrr. Loy, Swco> Dv^ Cjinn, ar4 I-ji Kunt; ami 

Oii^jh a wtftk iiiftJi may tw ^ut duwn, or ihriik it worlh 
whilt U> be accounted lEiUtnJccn, yet, m tJie hUIlncs^ of 
his Tuinil, h^ knuwu bhnt facbt aro fuctat whatcvor nifty 
be haid it} ihc Cvmirary, Wlicn, tlnsrcf-irc, Jcniier kad 
filler! bis pur^e, rjJitainir^' all he coiiKI &xpoct from public 
favour, an*l wns clonr of Lcndon, and tho opprcwion of 
lift ^vaiitn, \w reverU-'il U> hb* first Opinion at Imo — true 
nntruo, truo with a distinction, which 1 i^\B.\] pre- 
ly dHinr. Writing to Jaim^ Mo(«^-, r>ir»:c:Lin' of th« 

fttional Vaccine E^tabliahmcnt, froia liviUuley, on 23rd 

Joly. 181U, he ot^crycd — 

You Kcm not pfirt»t]>~ uluiUnl Chat Uic ori^ of Toccine ib 
glimtlv midfl out. For my psut, I ^h^mM think tbat Lctv'b «<>ii«i- 
■iODt« wvn tinfncifint to A>UtiliHEi il) U> r.ij n<itUiiij; of Hacoy^ ni:il 
OlJi«rA OQ tUo CoDtinDDt. U4>^^«M;r, I liav« now fmiJ^ cividufiDf, 
hHIt fondffD juid partly iloEOtiAtlck Tbo Inttor cotufii Uoitt Mf- 
MtLab. • ii:tri?of>b ol romtt* at LUU£«I<L He hu uDt mo Jumo of 
Iwoaiuiiovinv.ivliich I hnw been i^cHa;; fnxn nrtn-lo lu-tn for lui^ 
pooiiui Met, willi<>iit (itiK'nvnA tbc rTinall^flt (IcviAtiou in U10 pra- 

Aod in a ^Ucquont note of X^t August, Uc n^ace<l — 

Mooiu,— 1 b«vo boeu oooatMitJj t^uinatliu; for bqum 
tU». aoj [i^rvoite nob tb« «ataIl«Bt diflflroaoo bstweou th* 
Ldctf tboa iircnItioeJ aail Ihv T*cdoe. I^Lb &r» sklikoi Ucait>« 
ttry oacn« from UiomEuo«cmroe-f 

* ^tmtit L\ft ^/fnnfr. toL U. p. SSa. t /^ ^ SS8. 


W vnCa iram 


r, I 

id CTMi nnmfc— lati <a— lo 

kttw rwolbeiad hMrta( ■ 

h»M aflMUd with «n b*^ nri 
m trorfc; aaJ <iii mt«iiI uf thi^ 

rf Mtaaa CMa nj own v««daaltatt.* 

« have ft mtfuumDdtm of Jeoiwr'f. dftt«d Ut 
1S17, wbercio be thM Irftoea tfae ooune ol Um 

cf Ibe c^it»« ButUr from lb< itfm «f AIltB «l 

rihcow; 6m lb* MW1 lo JaoMi Ookb * Jdobc kiui Wtio 

■a iba iusi ; fro« JntMs Cole to Jdift F^rvcO by tMCal*- 

a 1 eiifU oo UwbAoJof Colv; juid lo Aan PvwvU. »& 

;frg«i Powd] loSnualltBdiWr; l^oia Bttddar to Scvbtt 
0«^ Md i» n«fuy Utftia ; frrat H. Uutin to EUftkbMk Vuiis. 
j^if Aw wool on «m jtrrfatA rogvUcttj lor dcbl ■with^ wImo 
1^ vvi» Wean* iDlamBood witbolb<t Rutter,ot>lluliiojoittiud 
WW k«t4 BacwMaa. Proof WM obtoiaoA of ttio p«licail» btlb^ 

^luA wu to kfty, that thty we» raW^oonUy inocoIaUd 
with SiMUlpox without enecL Aojoof: JooDcr's pftpOTv, 
l^ro were oilii^ <-ntri's Ui IKa Mono parpo», thus — 

iva J/of, 1817.— Took matter Crott JoDO ^ug (o^niiid diiT«a) 
r tl^ NjiUQitfl VoodB» F*<>Miihinfct> Tho poisoloi IwAutlftUly 

Tlii^ rqaini; %-iruii from J&no Ku^g urms EXteii;«treljr 
^(itfuKvd It vrM», we a^, sont to Lonnlon; it vtojt aLao 
^tfttt to lvlint>Qr^h -, § nnd Dr. Ifiarosi Aaj& he hft^l auppKfs 

I J r-^nr (/ rorbkvol fyidtmit M MiUm^vyl, Sf John TWimoq. 



of it for uso in th& Olouoostor I&firma.ry. Baron roldtoa 
tlmt in the follnwiiig yi^nt lir wiL^ M\* to rdtum tlif ^ift, 
haviuL' oblAln«il v\ra^ from the han'14 of a hoy infocteil 
directly from the horse, licro is Jcnner's fwknowlc^lsf- 
inent of th^> pr<ueaC, datvd 23lIi April, lSi»— 

My Dojii Doraa. — Yft«tcri]A^ 11. Sbrap^ioUljTon^btiu* tliooQuiiii 
virus ft^id your OfQwiii);i irhich coliicjp » gocia nu idea ol the 
dlAoft*Oi thiit bo <ni« ^1iL> bod flcDti it Oftn doabt ihftt tbo t^ucIca 
oovtaui th« tmo and nnulao li^i>refteivija(f fltud. I h&vouuortcd 
90tan^ it into ftobHii'»«nu ; Lut [ *liiJl bawxoJ ir>om«gr ycmr 
TOVnfT uwQ ^t Ihfl Inflriu^y bnVB u<Jt dono tha (iiuna witli tlio f!iik1 

It 1*1 aiirnly uIlnoc^wflTv to ftdrlijc't further <ividmic(* of 
whftt wa!« Jcnncr'n muturc ftath tmd Uclibcmto practice. 
Fui'CheT. it la manifest that to the end of hia career he 

Id th«t pox in tho cow vras not onlv derived from 
Viv ill tin? hur***, but UijiL il w*vi •■xclusWely denvttd 

im lh« bona, and, tliat Bpstrt Itom the* horse, Cowpox 
would c^aselotxiflt. Owing to thonmltiplicationof v&c- 
Cinatior; foJIurv^ it bi-^^nn tu bo ooDJucloruU that vaceici^ 
m'mhl be worn out by ttanamiA^OD from anu-to-ariUj 
and that a ixiVAnion to tho cow might W oxpcdiont ; 
and diACunaijTff tho ciucstion In a li.-ttcr to Moore, dated 
Sth March, ISIfi, Jenner a*lvanced t-he objection — 

If tbcff- were a fmiI D[>om^I7 for a roDOTAtioo, I lm<Tir aol wliil 
we sbmild do ; for Iho pr«Gautiona of dio fonc^aD wItL nft[wcl 1<> 
Iheir LoTw* b*v< drivMi tfjc Co«pi)i traat tkioir bcrdft^ 

Why did not Moore rejoin, \Miere is the difficulty? 
Bupposo por driven from the herds, what conceivable 
n'liKjm wa« th[*n* for aiixw^ty when the cow had l)eciiine 
n dvmonsttated fcuptrfliiity f — whon, in Jcnnors own 
wonU, "the true and genuine lifi^-pn-wTvini; fluid" 
might he drawii direct frotu hoi^ca' heeU f Exempt for 
tho perpetuation cf imposture, tlic cow in tiio case haJ 
ceased to have any valoo whatever But^ as no otv^u 
bappviid with c|uackd, their luindd become ao aatiiratcd 

* Bvod'* Li/t i/AwTT. vgL ^. l^ 29T. ifKy. 3». 


kwnbug that tliera Ih nothing left 

W fMVOittbly iiflk«d, How waa U that aopw got 
^L^Z^x ^ &tf«tBs oi Ucrac^TBUc whto) othcra coullj 
'^Vl, A MT ^'L'g^' tliAt If Cowpox Isnud atndghb 
^^ ii««r«U>lx fr^iiu ifiocuIaUni ilorson^Aae, not cvenj 

j^J^yag U^tliHt Covhpux never caiiioont oF what isi 
-i^^vtt)v kndwn 6u< llorA-^^iiA^t^ The Htaiomuut niudf 
w jj^"--* in hia in*i^tir^ vl J7Dd that — 

tlvti wkidi Imqiu f^>m Uio munll cnoki or flMni 
ffwollou bLtiuo'a IjmI^— 

. Mil bogot pox WAH fi lilrimlci, tvhicli 

V ^ <t««il lift«un ytnir:^ aft4.-rwar^lji in hu lolti 
^?v»v ^ WlJi Octrtlnii, 181S, ah«ady died— 

. ^ , . .'f^i«l yon liftTfl nnl inecAod*!! En Inl 

^_^ ^ i_ , t>«RiW lltBt thd mnltiir vbloh flaiw I 

yi ^, (I,, UfMiii hivl will 4o QOtlii&g, It i* otnUlai 

r« wv hftvtt alv^'ay»4 to r?iiii?tiif>t^T. w&a ft slovon]^ 

4t<4, m^ n^t to take miii.-^, but ftpt t<) <;kc cui: 

.41 witli invi'iulon. iTth frlt^nd, "liontwt Jack 

1 i^i'tif«4tDrr w\io hijiv^olf inociilAttd uith horeo 

im"I Vy Ui<i cnw, tw'UiAlly wmttt Ji-uu'^rV lifo 

^ .it<l not tintil the work was reaJj' (or 

^^ .1 -cuvrr that lio was in error in dHniaoo 

, J It n-^rtllii;: Cowp4>\ to Homegieucal 

i|Li'hi,'Ll [iiui]ii]i^ in which the^o prophets I 

. r,lhm <-lkit-ji-'il ' hi !i nnt* Bt.iic.k at tbn ^nd of 

■ » ..i-* w. [jiivo tho foHovfiii;; ama^tiii; con- 

. iiibflr, b 1SSS. Hf4«en yean after the 
'qUi — 

, |MirtiLi,(tT<if nim«nDff tor npot tluit I hftv« nui- 
; <'r ilodgVLotioia. It has no nooouuy 

> HumCt £0 qT A>»cr. T«lii. ii. 38^ 


AxUt, ThU otrrmtxiaUn^o *t firat miftlikj r>r, J#nn«r, nrd It hua 
^ftllfad lEinoh [»^Hnjij>»li^ruii»n unci O'tiifiiait^n.* 

Here wu hav« thu^vcri't nnrj dt^vlred oKfila nation. It 
was out of liorsepoXp mill not out of lloi'M^gvcoAC, thftt 
Cowpox wat iWivod, and in confoundiiig greiwy \x\ih 
poJE. Jeiini5r nj.vhtiGcil hioiftclf anJ othor«, oiiJ obacated 
thr wlin!i> doctrine of vnccmRUon, TUa Mncrd^nnMn 
farriorn wlio in JKO'! inl'ormorl Ln Font that thty ivcog- 
ni»?[] three norts of tfrt'flM'.aml one of them vntioloiis, 
wcn> mtjTc ibcciimto ohncrverfi thnn tin* Olonci^KU'nHirc? 
farrit-'r^H and fnrmers vIhipm- opinUm Jenntv la/.ily n^tailed. 
Whether he had any clt»ar apprehonwnn of hx^ own 
blunder i?* not nppaivnt, Wc liavo socn how lon*j it 
took hia iioprapher, Baton, to find It out. 'DiiH Uc^r- 
tftin, that he mado no ptiblic Attempt to eot ri*;ht what 
hf liiul sij <igr»'gxtniftly m^I wnxig. nor II* witlnlraw this 
rttateniL^tit in hialiiquii^j thtiL Hur40;j:rt<uu only acquired 
its elHcAcy a^diiat Smallpox afti'r inoculation on the cow, 

Lastly, Wi? may ini|uirrj v-'hut U the pn.'sont sljilt of 
opmioii aa to lloiw^i.'ituflu and CJowpCiX? Whii^n ditlicalt 
(|UiH«tioni; urn ib^Wnd, wi? nmialhr turn ta our cyctopriHiifbi, 
and taking; down Hoopcr*:i Lexicon M&liouin, bth l^d. 
1S4S, Aii. Cowpos, we read — 

It u notv hictrtaiiiBd t}iat Uia hano and llw ^cv cuch fumish, 
fn^bpon^lrmtlv of (hv ctbn', n vLrtu enpnblo of (omoinuir'alKig 
^rmlrut CoirpoT to <h* huinaM inhjcfft 

Ocnuino Cowpox coinnntnicnt<rd 1>y n hcrvo In Mir^Iy a 
hull of tljo first mOfmtudL'i Tho Ettctjcfopftdut Brii' 
anni^^n, 8th ed. 1800, Ait Vaccination, illuimnfttes ua 

lb vt Mvw ti> he rrciLjdcd v an e<tnbtisb«d tMoit that HoTsecnuiQ 

<ff Ibo i^ELULLob to ivtJob lliBj oooor. 

An c^tahliHlii^O fact, hideud ? — Qstablhhed In (inickAand! 

Somo say the Oloue^flt^mhiro fannor^ and Jonnor 

*crt oorrcct in uttrihuting Cowpox to Homcgrcartc. and 



that they C4n only bo charged wttl] mat^o En aoncB- 
elAtm% Wlivn th^ ft^d Horae^fT^aM, thny tnnu)t 
Uor^tcpoT. not iJi^f^rimiiiatiD^ between mAkdioa 

the aflcctJon reooc^Bad by veterinamiu as "CT«ttt' 
ever originatt:d Oowpox. The tuuDo ntnJ ftatlvoHtMS, 
Inolatliiix J<uio**rf hM t^iat whoro th«w waa no Horw- 
poi. thvro cotilii bo no CovqtoK ; but, tto f «r a.-> I can 
mnke oat, that conclusion U HarronilGTRi)- Pox on tho 
homo itmy i:rrieraU i>ox on tho cow, but tlio cow n»y 
liBVQ pox wkhuut the borae. 

in Uu4 reifKVt oiUy wcbx -Tunaer In orror l»y* Mr. OMifv 
FlorrrJTiir, Anny Veterinary In^pwlDr]* 'VUt two iIUmm* ■» 

thnn» arc no Ikornttn, oT pamtf^To pauUrt n-Uh lionBd ; «&d itctx 
dtr^d A aiimber af oovn in m dolrr winlu Uiu liunu* An eslMr 
frw from HoTnepoi-* 

At tills point conies tbe tug of war. If coir^ bav« 
pox, htiw do thf*y rcmtnuiL tJce iiijiliuly * ^y*^^io^ at' 
the London CcDfervnco ou Animal Vsuroination in l>oc«ia- 
bei, 1870, ?iofc«rjr J. C, ftimoni'*. Principal of Uie 
Soyol VL'Urinary College, »ald — 

My ooQUQtiaa u. that tbo «UBUti«« of Cowpox hoM to bo provtd. 
J4iin«r « aco^nct of th* du«M« vrtu ^n ilLunon. In my^EpQnnwi 
amoog odIid^ for forty yau<, I Jinvia nevvr kmr a amo i^f Co«- 

C, snd I d» not batidvo tfiM hay ftinii <if vnnnlft bnlangA to Lb« 
ine nuN). &hai>p an tiinic^d wltli poi, Imi ni^t «atUA. W< 
hBar of CowpQV. bat who ovar hnarJ of Biulpoi? Xn4 i» 
fnadibtit tbftt a diAooiitt fthoutj ba cciLfli><>d to fow nrsd lutrer nttaiO'] 
ImlU and itocn ? Lf I any one point otit in iLfTootion of fjai 
tluftt does not «iteTHl to tfiM mtltiK of tl)^ umii ii|imi*«^ 

Froftfttar Simon^la and otbi^rA bi?libV«- that 
<l9scribed by Jenner waa a pB-rnj^idc affl^f^tion of 
pox, probably c^jmmunicnU'I by nulfc^^r'^ : and tfaat^ 
Cmi\y, Brult-'uckn ^lid iitiiiri?i iJid iiiltntLuudUy, wlLaL! 
milkem hflntj done inndvertontly, ^lien thciy inoculj 
cattlu with Smallpox id ovdcv tj crcaU; viran for 
clnation- On tbe other hanij. ihcai^ who aasert 

* LuK^ £9bli aUy, Ifttt. p. SSI. 



independent cxiitcticQ of Cowpox, l:o)d no tenuM wilh 
this lierwy. Afi I)r Ctiinertiii '■Ayx, ""SW ain in> more 
malco ^tnallpox into Covrpox ihxn hy ^tuntin^ nn oAk< 
tnc wc can uiu^ke it & gooHo)ji-rrj- 1/unh/' FurluimU-ly 1 
hjLve no call to pronounce judgment on th* controverfey. 
The more it rft-gc?*, the bctlrt- 1 like it, iind if the combat* 
anta ^Itspoaed of oftch other as did the Kilkenny caW, 
I mi^hl not bo very sorry. 

doubt that wlifrn inoctilatod OTk mn-n it i^jves riae to 
vwcli.'*! hi<l]sUiigiii>kA)>li* from thtwt? rniNrd livOiiwpox, 
In ISG^ Prgfofiior Boul^y of Alfort product-J pox yn m 
cow by Inocuialin^ it vf^th pox from ft lionc,&nJ children 
Ttcru leiicrrwifully viieeJTmtiiil with thu Vini?«. In Uw 
IVanitaclitjiirt of the Clinical Society, Vol, X., Mr JuUn 
gTion^ drspribr* thu pjlsji of n griiifiti whii PAm<- U) St 
tholomrw'H HonpitAl, SOtli Sarch, 1^77, with nn 
<TU[)ti'in ijtu'^lit fn>ni ti. horne exatiJy Ukt- timt iinluL'inl 
hy vaccinacii>ii ; and there could be no qu^tion, says Mr 
I^neton, thnt thi; diMcBsc wnn the mmtic ibi Umt ilcncrihcfl 
by ^nnw a>* ;rrwis&. 

There is much \'irus In cttncn^ as ntccint^ that h 
c^iuiiM?, and icnny of ti* are «*qitirmti.'d wlm Mippwt! onr- 
wvee vaccinatotf ; anrl it might be Qr^uo^i tltat wv bav<} 
U-im navnl ftirmi Snuillpox by rrn-*otj *if our t'ljiiinnimn. 
Wliy wiUi U.II thL' iiotcrioua failuri?* of Vfieeiiiiitiun, and 
(jf re-vacciiialion, bomc of Lhe more auciacioii« u>f?dir&l 
tpackii do not rocommund Hor^irpux ta an infallible 
altrnxativc. ia not oaay to undcraiaiid. It vould lie a 
Nap&lponjc stroke ; nnr in it linprohablf" that before vac- 
cination iM mirruidurud thi' attouipt will be made. Hi>w 
«<a8ily it nii^hl \tv AHnert^d tha^t vaccinatiim in a faHure 
in w for a* it hivi lout the original virtu** of oquination, 
tikat the ruiiirdy \n to dl^mi^ the cow and revi-rt Ui tJie 
bovee. from who»o poxy heoU, » tha immortal Jenn«r 
observed, there iwiKf* "the true and genuine lif«-pre* 
s«rvln^ fluid." The oraclis might be worked thiin — 

'* Let us bear no moto of pure Ivmph from the calf, too 
ofl£ji,n)nK? nil illutdon. Run: and certain Milva-litja fnjni 


I -?uibw4] to thoHP mocnlatcdl 
-*> Como tlicn to tho hoTSft,! 

-.' Vom« with jiyar cbildrftn J 

' r^epox from the loath^ouje 

- '.tw human raw aod brines 

C»\fTi;i{ XIX. 

A*IL\ aiiuu, 

w. V^tN^niui Vcg<^ncl that the iniroilticdoii 

44* i*wiM*H| liy jm-jiMlM'i'j fiirv anri fum, 

•^w (^rtivlioo maJe tU way In- fthirr force 

'^ .w\. Tire statement i% vviiMy ftt vhtI- 

I Mi<»o wii* Bccopt*»<i with ioHlnnt 

, -^ .,. lirftl profivuloii, the rc}*! f^unul^-, 

^ All infftllitJo nnd barnilesa provtntlvo 

MMt iho suW<juriil cfiun^ of csticritnco 

I v»rcinatioQ va& CDCOTiijlwrcd with 

iL<^< ]av ill Llic nntun? of l.hiitgH. oven 

I witfi tilMHirdily. vioWneu miJ pre- 

,, .iiffuva cBAjf to raistf a Iftu^jh by Lh* 

hw *'XlTftV(m:nnc« of cither ndtlo in & hot 

,. ^ it pnqKifc ? It vfOtilJ hftve been no 

ii *<»ijn.' lad bepn inovi?(3 to flccm by 

^rwL'' ii> '^i'^i v^'hich pJpnncrn matjiail pre- 

■M^ ^' 1 1«-■■|3^ iirrpteil, hut tin.- ^^'<0'^l tn uTiiirh 

kkAfll l>o ricimtilic ftci^iia^n lance mth tho l&wn 

*' i i* vi'iui lit nowipsi^ iiinrvn]]i:iUA thnt. con- 

. uvlaxy of itioculftk'ti smalJpox, they 

•t} I'vprcuuio iy llio plauMbility ot ioo* 

\. Vvl woro not all ovLTCome, nor W(?re 

i4m| Uip piJl'ittlAr rr«r-t' fiirioua. 'I*}ioiti wto 

•Xftiii)>1<^p^<ir^''^TL loSLThnmtu'x HiiMpital^ 

JOHN hIRCiL 375 

who witli CAtiJine^iH ancl co^^eney nr.^'&ililj' |jroLtwted against 
tho introduction of "tho now diw?iuic *lylotI cnwntiX}" 
and we mny r^nt) hiH li^tth=r-i Jtml pnmphlcU aui! inil to 
noU* A rt*>ry epithet or unkimJly iopiiUtiofi. I'eoplc 
who tiilk tL% if nil who ^ppcr«cd -TiMincr wcru ntct^p?!] in 
iljnoranpe nn-l pervereitv can know nothing of John 

AIlUiiii)^!) Miti-<ll<-i] with vHririlinin ijiot^ijlatmn, Iih hnd 
no objoction to vaccination in It^df. H« thou^^h; it fair 
thnt cxp<.'Hii]<Tftt:* with c*iwjni;^ r*iiiHjJ<l li(r tritxl,anil the 
verdict of «xpi^riQnc4} nubmitt^d to; but he ccmplalned 
ihtki experience waa anticipated and succcas proclaimed 
t-n^ it vnt potmUt? tor ihi* trnth to b* known, wJiilsL 
ovtiiy oljJL'ctor wafl ovurwliL-hriL^d with ab^we. Ad an 
tlhii*tmtioTi fif thr^tinwnTTBnlrtliii''Vn.iltfd 
in fftvour at tho new prnf^lioc htrfore tlx^^rc waw time to 
justify it. Birch uipntions dmt at Lhi* aunivi?!rsary diiuier 
at Otiy'ji Eloapital in 1S02, ho wfw ^iOrprUed to IintJ the 
tiaufll bLi?*inr«^ set r-'^ido to jiccurc itienaturcs to Jtnnur'* 
potion for a vote of money from Parliament, and that 
after dinner toa:!it», Bor^n And cocuplimcnU in honour of 
Vaccinia won? tin* tmU'r of th^ dny. BookwL*lk"r*, he 
rolatcAj declined to publish anything;; fif^ainat vaccioEilion, 
and cilitorif of iii.^w>ipap^t^ and ii^n^aAiikt^ wcjuld not 
9uff0r a word to appoftr to ita difiparfij^om^nt Evuq the 
Poftt Office carrlca the cowpox and coiteqKindeuce of 
the Bojal Jenncriun Society gratis until the coLIap«o of 
tho concoTTi in 1 80G. Thoac wbo rc?*orted to doctors and 
}]UMpi(jiU ffrr irocnlfttinn witnh wnmllpox gi>t cowpot Id- 
Htt-^ad in *pUj of ewwt^rliorm to the contrary. Uhurcli vied 
with Hinin-l in reccjiinn Landing th^ ntw practice. The 
ArohU:.)inp of Oantcrhury wa« caHofi upon to isaiio a 
lotttr Oiii3i?tin^ the cli^r^y to n^t^cMunicnd vacdrmttun 
from th(t pidpit, l>ut, with the wrLTiness of odce, sent hin 
chaplain tc Hifch to hear the other side, and the chriplain 
rotired with the judicious oh'^t^rvation, " 111'* Grace itiusi 
not commit tho Church/' Many c^?^g>^ncn, however, 
nut iml^ |in*iu'Jii'd viicelnatjon, liul |irarlis«il it with 
resUe&a adttiduily. £rai»iuua Dainitt wae not without 




d^U'jl lie wrot<? to Jcnncr from Derbj. Mth Febrnaij, 

Al bf tb* Uttimoiij af inunrijornll* iuKliLii«4«» llM Vfttfoinii 
[HAOM*Utt> fftTiftlirftUo Co yoiiQ^ ahjIJiMEi, lit n IjIUd tioio It Duy 
ooaur that tho shrutMiing ftod VMCLontuJu oX' cLUdnm inAy RliMf* 
bo perFctriccd on tU« iam* 1U7, 

r/tf l^t.^j^niT />M'-fWfr «> /amurfihk to if^\i>n^ tAUdrcn^ 
Th>? AwnrLiim ikffinU a vivW gttmjvitf of th« prevalciit 
tncbttntment " The idea of connoctinj; reUjfiouu 6«rvio» 
wUh vaccinriUrHV* ^nys Iliron, '" hacJ occiirnnl to mpbtsI 
iDdiviJuaItt in ilm ccLutry ad vrall &s on tho CotitinonL" * 

I viawmI ^itb iuJif^QftTit •ooni fwtuUi Ilitvlil, ih« najmoroot 
ftrtjfioo a.Ji>pUU by tbo JumoroJa Bodotv of itioldnf «u m orwy 
BbatlDo BooM^iin tho Voatrio>orffiuiAijoafCbapali<,uilbi Snadiiy 
Sebooli, thftt falm C/'-mpamfht Kj'«4» <*/ IJW <||^s«if« 0/ 5inai2j>i»T 
Afi4CM^iio^roprMn3tinjf ti>tli«ctipinR maltitad* a fngutfol pi«tQM 
of XnoooJatJoii with tha nippoA«d miit*ry bltoniUnt oa ii; uii 
OTlubitin^ r«p»*«»Utioiu oi^ujillj iali« and mi^ipmUd oi ilMi^ 
bEvninj^ of Viiooiaitton- 

Tfjo woTovu werb not boliind tlie derjjy In <iifruslnij 
vatTiiw nalvfttion, Tlioj werp Jonn«r's miMt ^K■*^^U.^i 
fklEica Ho toi^U paiiu to tcaoh ]adt<r4 to cipCTnti! with *' a 
lighb liaiid" so fu) not to draw blooiLAud Loaai^^i Utat 
one of His pupiU hiui tcni llioijuaful pat-ieDtn to hor cr«diT, 
rescued from tho terror tind poril ot rvinnllpox I 

A?i Birch o1js«?rvL'd, it wa« nut & iiu&^uoji of tiimliclne 
or *>f siiri^cry that hr and (^tlnjrs hud to dcftl with, but 
an »>ulliLir>t of ciiULU^iham in whkh thi; TiirTtTiodK luiii 
ar>:umtMiU of scii^nco ward awept beadleasJy away. Any 
tc^LiLEU^Dy to the credit r>f voccuiation ypta accepted wiU> 
alacrity, wblUt the t&cis to its discredit wera dimidd of 
explaiood away. Thi* rcclvlcasiioss of procodure wfts 
ii\i}At painfully niaiiifrhl iti tlu; conduct of thr Cummittee 
of the Houdo of Cfjinmuiis wliich sat on Jcnnur'A first 
l>[?Liliun for mcnoy in ISOi — ■ 

• The nuniJjer of wilLoaefiB in uuifijort jF Iht applicntton [wrol« 
• I^r t^Jmnrr. vol. i. p, Wl. 




iiotflroiiilLao«1«dj£»iicv|tiJrvrIiTiT]nic^of<; wliIl^UietlinmwhatrobM 

•viJniJOQ wltli proofii. 

Bireli wUlit!^! to 'k}t\tw wViLt i^>w|]ok vrtf*. JeiiTM^r lilfl 
nftiii it wtut dcriTcd t'runi hoT«cgrciLso, but *^ that ori^n ie 
niViHl U> Im' rfrmjiMnis, ftml i:* iitiw givt^n tip, nvrn by 
io b&at fritn':la. Ou all hatv<la it le aJimtttid/' Biroh 
contiaiacd, " Ujat it i^ not a diTfcasti of the cuvr. but com- 
rminiiyitod to Out &jw by the milkor Nt> cow that fa 
alJowwi t<j suckle her owa calf ever ha5 the complaiot" 
Wlmt, thpn, iH tli(« iiiH?j9M- in th4> milk^rr ' usik^-il Hli'ch, !■ 
H ttiuallpox ? 1-i it /cc^ T^irii^-iv^uj* is it itch 'f A tuzutcamc 
to Stn TliomasA floapital fium an adjacent tlairy with a 
haii<l fiiiil Axm coveted wiLh uIct^ratJorM. Ho i^uid huvut&I 
of ihe imlkefx auU iha cmv-V tcate wem afft-ctud ia tlie 
tame way, and hd was told Ih^y ha*l ^nt cowpox, Hirch 
GoJlc>l one of hi^ country pupils ojid AskoiI hini whut wan 
wrong with tht> diad. "It ia ilcU — rank it«h/" was his 
TopJy. A b^;t of Jackaon'« oiDtnieDt for tho itch wae 
givr« to luin, and at the ond of a week tie n'Hpih-'ari?d at 
the Hospital ciircd. If cowp<;x be itch, arguod Birch^ 

Thou If ft paUcat ba b<icvLhtcil vltb tho dtionJtr, tlougli it ipajr 
■Qs|ntui the ijihiiaeity fcrSmulli>i*i fjr ik ttUAAoa la the ixnwdlatMOa 
it Wkll uUiiuatoly iu-i^vl* no HCiirity— 

Which waji ti> navT tlmt it was nut prohablu t)iat small- 
pox and itch coM ixiciir t^^ic»JtllW^. and that a par^Crfn 
jnoc^llat'?'] wtr.h ir^h would pnsm thir-iigh thi^ vimiiloim 
test «iLCCivt.ifi]Ily. In thi« connection wc may recall the 
fad that J^^'diier ftntiul it uijj>i]wihl(- tu v&ccliiatv a t%'i- 
itcnt at r<jlchrNt<T, th<^ tnnn with their women and 
chililrvii a)l txritig ailllctcd with itch. 

Still farther to cj>inpltcat* the mystoiy of cowpox, 
Jctificr hrg;An to ^k^^^ribc it tun g<>nuino ana ^purioui?, hut 
whkb was iiw ori^ auti which was tb1^ othvf h^* left in 
bovrihicrin^ unccrUinty. yai<l liirch — 

TIiDUicb Dr. Junuer oduU uijI ti^ (i5 wbuL Cuwiiui wab, he laauu 
CAiuc Wwsod U* ififvrui ua Jtiht it wris (^f Ihu »ort^^tlifj ou« kEt*uuiuu 

Sjmn'ciM C>n)iox b a torm J do uot Admit of. I know of no 



«iuib tbiit^t^mrion4 SmikUpox, fpuWoiu MomW. fjtwntnta Ldm 
VeQcrBA, vpsfWoiu Scrof^. 

HircU'A obj<KrUon to urnrioiu coiiVpr>x wn>t ford1>I«, but 
what in the mnoDc!D«: cf liLi heart he took for ft blunder 
WBJi provei.1 out of JenTii^r'n own nioulh to be a (TeUl^ra^v 
dodge in 1S07* y*rcft50il by the OiiinTiiitti^c ot the Colk^ 
of Plij'sirijirvH to (?\|ilrilii wbat he lueniiL by ^[toriuuft 
Uou-pt>K, he haJ to own that he know ncthiiiL^ of siicb a 
[[tulndy, «id that hu hnd only m«tnt to tlc.^cribe in-ffguUir 
efl«ctA of covpox on the arms of the vaccinal^ . In 
other words* vhcn vaccltiation tamed out badly, be bad 
found :t convenient to a>M-n(>n thi^ dNfv(U*r to ftpuHouai 
vacciriol Tho policy wvealoi in this thamo loss avowal 
wAJs pynically JiiMtiiii'd by Dr MuunsL'll, wbo, in tt wdl 
kixown voluino, wrut-; — 

Tiifl term imporfict or Spurio»4 Xietxaaiiott L» fr«ia«iiUj to b« 
met with in hooka, acJ hua b<»€n the cauo^ of do KaaU dc^ioa of 
ccufuFTii^ri in pracdi^o, b]t]iciu^h,al the WO tkaci it hoi /rtfU^aUff 
ajfor'ii''f thtr ji-raftifiot'rr an tii^tUtmt at^lttm a^Mn4i tha tia^^mt 
n/tjv ftTi/i fA^n ari^sntf ovt offaitnnt in Mo proitctiT4 pt>we^ ^ 
tti4 I'fl^t'in" ditearc,'' 

From out the muddle <m to the origin of co^'pox aad 
llA gtjuulnt^ arid mpuphjuh varwli*??*, Bireli dvmartdi^d. 
What bad Jenner diacovered t It is not that eoxvpL>.\ 

fin^vei^tn isninltpox ; for tb.Lt him been iLvtrrli'd hy ilniry- 
olk for |r&ot^rfltbna, and has been disrf';'ardud by 
phyaiciiinA Ix^caase provod to be untrue. What then 13 
ft? Lot him do^n^ hU dl*(COvcry tliat svc* may know 
bow to rcitipect it h^i h'mt tisplain why it la forbidden 
to itjiirulftt^ ditv^ct from tin* ^nw. U grtiuini* rjiwpox 
invUihJc and to hi- bokon on truat i Or la tho disoae^ «o 
virulent on it^ iWtti o:;tjiiMiiniention that It ha>i to bfi 
nieh':M>(ted tn tho body of stouiu victim e^ it U fit for 
public Tine ? Birch a--ikvd tliirae qciE^^tiom aa we contuiuv 
to a*k What is cowpos ' la it a iliwwc< of the cuw I Or 
19 ]t eonifniinicatcd to the cow by taati or by home f 

lu tiiD lUijol Collflge uf ^unETObt. IivUuil. Duhlb. JSSTf. 



Uovr^Ter dcHnitc the onnwcn, thi^ contrtLdictionn ilto 
equiilly il*?rriiiu_\ an-l tlie aritliontitw t^niiitlly IriHtworthy. 
Fmcticftl man nnsw^ro'l I'lr Jonnor, /w thoy pr^^sinniu 
to aiiiwor tit ihts djij". " Whntovrjr may It tlic ori;;iu of 
cowpox, we know tltat vaccination ia hanul««Sj and that 
it prevcnU nmAllpox ; niid more wc ncibhor doniand nor 
care to Irujnlre," The ^tGilnlhy and conceit of auch prac- 
ticAi men IB tbftt stupidity a^ingt wlicli* »o,ys Uoctho, 
evvri Lbe gihls urt. ]hti\MTr1u?f^ It wiw iirm^fcU'jil im-ii who 
"on tbo RiCTi^ dhow of reaaon" accepted vaccinaUon 
bt-ff^K" it c'ouUJ Ix? tcvsted, amd cMi most»ujx.TJicinl cviOiinct, 
aai<l Birch — 

lo ncitc nn iiDW huiuoniii nr dkordors lu liio coUfrtjIulicu ; wliirli 
VTM to Id. QiDt niily ji ^t'tf&at ttcrurit/ upJnBt Siuulli>gii bu; wtJuJJ, 
ii oiii^'ifmill^ nJui'lnlp prefect lU rvuurtviice for uitir. 

The hariiili?;^^^^^ of the practice was cooo belied — 

It ^vo r»c I wroto BiTOh] to uj^w and pcuafiil iuKmlon, 11 W[u^ 
iO[&«Uxn«i foUcvrod hy iteliy oruptioiui ; OQUketijiioa br fdii|^«r 
OlMnttimu; and KoufituuoA by fflMiJatftr vrrollinfrA cf a iiAtiiri,* 
vrhollf ^tJcrrt from verufuln* o* &ny oUior Icnowu jfljuiilntur 
dirtMO. Kniptiou* cf tho ekirt am EooRt bvquc)ejt« iiuil mnv bo 
banrd of m tvory pohali of Loudon: &Tid wu<)Ui4t Vi^ociuatL^n 
*]ikll bo C-ftllwl tbc Ccw Enl, cr thv Joimorian Eril, pcntahty wUl 

Th© non-fatalit^' of the pmctico wsl* also tpeetiily 
confutc^L T}i<^ <hrtgT(Ii:m it excited caii-hH numcrouJt 
d«^th4 — from »*ryiipelas ofipeciaily. It was tlit-n said, aa 
it continues to ic utiid to llii?i Oity, *' Y<3, but it wiw not 
vficctiL&tiuii, but iTyfilpebLH tbt |jjLL,ifnl. A'tv*} uf '' — a form 
of wor<i« tbat seoiiis lo satisfy many mind^ acoouDttd 
nUivnal. Bircb DKiitic^iu-il tbicc or four cu-ses of drntb 
restiUiu^ from vaecmatioa, anJ adda— 

'n^owcftuxivHrii.'UifiiVLnjr.tbLy mlllutiril nitil lagenlouiily euoMrd 
M Uioy «JulJ 1ji> ; but it U mlifiiitt:,! cf^it ivteh pathrtt u'lu 
puAC^mf fry fJ fi£7t4?e/ ji^rcfc'.f with tirhat u ijaffdi Coiajiox : taih 
wm JO /wncCumi ^am« \Jijt\irntd \m<J uUerMted, and tcck 

The VAnoloti* Tcflt, used so uiL^cnjpDlounly to win 
I converta to vaccination, waa proved by thiA Inocu- 

Th*y bftd DO dJfficfllly b 
When ib was ijucavcred 


lacora to be UDtniBtworthy. 

t)iat ^ac/^t Tint Ion wiu ua j^unri] ni^imrtt MTimllpnx, muiy 
of the vaccinated rc*«>rt<id to inoculaliou with &mall|>ox, 
jiml Lhoy "took" u roa^liljr a» did thoir unvaocinated 
aaqualnUnoo. Fivo in one family, the Hi^«)lH of 
CLoltcnhaixi, vocdnated by Jenner were variulatetl Ly 
Mr. E^wimm, and itniallpox rcHoltod la tli*> orlinoiy 
uounit!. Nothing iocli.'CLi l>ccanie plainer Ui&n thnt tho 
vAunt^i Yarioloiw Twt ww a mere eoT^uring trick, and 
thit more jtKltcious vocdnaton* cctmcd to rofcr to it 

Tho pn)iiii>tt< lliat iJit' vftmnalL-il woiilrl ruiiiJiiii for <<vor 
socuTorrom anallprjx Birch had no 'ItlJicxilty with* 
dcinT.t VA<-.cii]ntoi] liy iho aitistiqipnJV<Hloperutor^ cjK 
ftuiallpox. an'l died prucl^ly as did the un^accinai 
'* livery post" tai^i Uiich in lfl04, "bring* me AixikuntAot 
thi^ faUure» of vacciiiatiou." An the faUuTu» luulUpIkd, so 
did the oxcuaoa. llicTo was tho piimo oxcuao of i;cpui&o 
ord spurioiu cowpoc- If vac?f:inftt.ion failed, it could 
onh' }ic throuLfh the inadvertent nav of rq>arioiui vacmac* 
Jt^niiMr had taii^^ht th»t uri« putic-tuTt wuh aU-hufneiunb 
for prot(^ti*>n, hut an ono vra» not foiiniJ ctTwtivcv it was 
awterti^d that two i^r tlircr^ wctc rr^riuiALbc fttr alnoluto 
Bufsty, .^fany, it was all«L[ed, had been imperfecC'ly 
opcnvtcd «i>on, and the practice of the women and eJerer 
and other ou6y1>odi^» wa» thrown Into dit&er^dit,a]thuu^ 
at ih<f outttct thoir services and totitimonic^ had been 
liloKDnt'il ahroiid an indbipuUdilf? ; but Birch iiinde thia 
ooodufliv^ aTL^wer — 

It «ni)bot be mcDtit tit rliutB Mr. WAehacl, Apotboeary la tin 

aod eqeiv&Ml t>i(iotitt<jTivT« ; uid j«tfrc>m tL« patiwiu 
b^ tii««o tvo poTPOD' I eotili briD^ tarianoo of mora ^urce, 
(l«ath«, a.ud tnOTO ^tOkttu than Eftvo <tocntToi in Ula piTieitc« of 
aoy otii*r two ponont nbo liar* coruft wtikia icy kucwlcdg*. 

Hany. Dioreovor^ who liwl hvvn vAeeinat<id by Jdnner 
foil victims to tiie i^iacafle, anfl he wa-i jia prstcr^d ^tb 
awkward (^uestioii'i. s«y^ Hireh, "that, to nvotrl the \y<.'t- 
ple:iiiif;: apt-cal" ' -^ro made to him liaily, and th^ 



mcflM^ tliAi wciTC pcrpt^tijollv sent ro^iiinng Uim to 

<|Uont1y ba had to fi>isiiUo Chc]t<rTili(kic for tho Barno 
rvfutou. Tlir C()UvicUoi» of (iuncJkory wtr<! too numcrouH 
for his eDilurance. 

Qfivin^ proved th&t ^acciiuLtlou did not provent small- 
pox, wltiUt it rvajt n fn^cjuciit c:liui> of illntEss uiid Oc^tb, 
Bircli hM up to d^riaioji ilvi (iiiu promUua wbt-rcwltb 
lUftdvocaUtt iiKrI Ix^giiilpd tli<? ]xi(jpl<' — 

Wan (Ut u-obiUol to QmUrtako to t>aiUd an «di1ini> which 
dioalil W fina in kU founJatinn ; idl iU romui wiriil iinJ V4tar 
tight; Knd aildh Jifi nifflit bn iTiliivlilEad with ptrfMit tnfmrlty; if, 
liAfdrD tlio Mlifr^ri vtn vail finlAhfld. tt« fiMindatloUft wora dU- 
coTDitiij t^ hf* roCUn ; And if iti 1d4i; ihkii laTon )rMU<iL, toveril 
BpDflcnMiU htrfl fu1|qn in niiJ Iflll^jl tbi^itr* who oflrtJpi*»rt ^hutn, 
mil# in n jt^nt iiiimli^ of mimii. Ilif- niml or nln wiu finTittnn- 
1JL7 lw«lii)^ )(i, eoiiltl T liA h1;iTTi4^i1 fitr JMoIhrlnj^ lliitl t}i0 j^ohltAAl 
luul brokftTk htJi crnolraj't, hn^l tlml tlia ^dilicfl nti^lit nn Inn^ar to 
bfl InhitljII'd T fVirUhily m^t. Wlij llinn Mi) 1 to ha U<li thitt I 
nm vit]EJ|7 por\nr«iilj' whan I frimoisntTftt* nff)Lln}>t Uia prnctico of 

^H)|nWiUJDiitt w ill bniJc, (10 niitmuA, is YkodDitlini. 

ThoMC who tsiki' sucff-'H HM th<^ t>?t of tmth mny my 
thftt liirdi wfui mi-iucci-.v^lul in IiU c>>t]Untion ; Init ho 
was not tiriHUCce.^rtil. Vacdnaiiari itl LuniIuii wan dib- 
^TKiditod, ftnd th^ iinpojfturQ abnted^o^ tho Toport of thu 
COlle^ iif SiiTi^eDUM III 1807 ulLtwUc. WLmi? rt-Lztiiit^, 
it wu not hO much as a prev^ntii;^ ag a miti^ntor of 
ivmnJlpox, it** wlvocftlc* bring cpntcnt to occupy the safo 
poftition tbat it lunde milder a di«eaic the jtevurity of 
which yroA imknowii» 

died in 1»I3, HU *:»t4T reppinUd lu?ii pii{^rA 

t va<*iimtion (from which havo come my cita- 

tJfms*), and yrwct*'-! n moniiitient to his Tnt-mory in SL 

Uarg&retX Kood Lano, Ft^nchurch Strcut, Hic in^ieriptloD 

oil which 14 Dotcwcithy> 

Author. MtUiOOb. LaDLlon. 1S17- 




To tti* M<m«7 q( 

JOHN KIRCH. &/ii;r<. 

JdAitj j«kn mo 4nii ii«nt Sarcvmi n' tlii« MHtti:fnfii ; 

Awl SD Toir^ , ^ ^ 

■■dalMi«vtUjri«muD«Iiail*pcinlAdtiaJ«rU»F PoIpAmUDmL. 

A Jit JO ufarito", trtrti. or obiyersmf offrimitutt 
Jtnlrr-in'tfff' h^ j^'"tA nflr^iwficvii* «tr«' - 


AvMrifm, to ouTH, RAf matin -^iknvtrv^ vtd uoi dimirOjf. 

Jfofilfw/ id iwl<U<4 i* Ann 

0/MiCDicAL Kr.KcTRjarr; 

Whie-h Jifit itedifir jTrnrr^/ in 'li* /Jif, 

Poff-er onJ f^jwtk^t 'irni th* vok* tr/Salkm^t 
fft uyilfoiYitijft aivi uttlit J^A^ ferte^fiu-jtji appo&tvlg 

Ffnuohf rritJi jv-rit t\j tfw in'iat min-fiifTrniv fmfffi^itvA tit MoMk&uL 
WhrlArr tvjht rtr ifffiff/, Titn^ iftfl »w/i«f turtty t}ftrmin* ■ — 

StiALL H£ ALuyiS t£ JUDU^B. 


Ni>t [pat uC iL Hi»[Mly HfiJ vjiu]-g1ori<iD4 
But to ord«p to band 'iown nii ^umjila worthy of Imftationi 

Qoumoat xsD bews. 




and behavad towiB4 turn vitL hM 

WritiQL' &tMa BokAr, llHi October, 1812. lo Moortt 

in IjOdMon, vbem flDal^pox wm prgvltnl, he ofc—rr gd 

1 li«« act lu*>4 1*1^7 vbitfMr lb* tej «f *• "iMJiiiii ft 

Bbdi ft ttJ wickiftd lUJow enpkjfiw^iBfii to nccAd 
pefltilefie» in London. wltUslUie gooJ JeBngr.cipwtorf 
armting tk# lOnal votk of Mill, st inpoteftt at 
Bericdejr I Commefit b npcrflimts*. Quack, malkacpw 
and tnipodcfit, b wriiten ai Ui^. 


WttxiAJi OoUKOy, nwfaber of the Loodon Oonege of 
^rgvoos, pnctiriag at P«ttAea, poUtalMd % pompUct in 
Id04f ^rhgtcin ha ml forth a nojatar of jfttUncwi wtthb 
btj* (nni oxpecuooe of waaJIpox fvllv>«'in2 Taeeinatioa 
hv mfMtion or laocntuioffL H^ did noit torn agumt 
raecfaiatioQ, bot raggcitod that it* prof>hylaxr mlxfat 
DctUier be VQ ct-rt&ln auv » eaOunng as at tEnt asMirted, 
Vftoci nation, b9 paoUd oat, had b««o carri^ into prae- 
tico on a ware in tatthaaoMxm, ami it ins not imraaaonaUo 
lo ozpfct that on etosar aoiaatDtaace toow of Uw dahm 
naad« for it Jthoold be saboci to modiiioatioQ, Indood 
so mn«h was aln^dy admitipd ; for falltir^ft liad led to 
tho dhcriiuifiAtion of vpiuiuKts from grooiiw oowpoat. 


riitiiMMi aAH Jv«i«a. laot ^ 

V^rtM. IWI. 



and to tho irnvto of now instnicCions as in ilie ponod o 
Utking vaccine, "on mImcIi jHjiEitk ib waj^ now naiJ, 
d^penodd Ih© whole auecoss of the ojU'ralion/' Thutt 
wnob was ori^nall}' ?ct forth aa an op4^ratii>ii for whicii 
ati^ iKwiwi WW* <'i>iiip*?U»nt, ImJ nlprtloTn**! into one <rf 
conaidarabb Jolicacj wiih s^riors iialjility lo mi*Bcar- 
ringp. HaliUnn, tlu'i-pftiri*, hud fitir rt^nA*m Ut heliBtre 
that his own olf^orvatioiirt and ^.u^'^ontionn w<>uKI moct 
mtli caDiiiil coii8itIe ration, &n<t. if vt'nfiei], tiefvc fur 
gi-ni'rnl j^nidiLnco in ihv j>rnct,ico of vac^cination. 

It U iinn«w3ifcAry to rvcil<> OohJsons uu<i\-i. In 
ing at the tim«, they Are now coTonionplae?. H^ found 
tli&L inocijlation witli smallpox wtLf po^bJo at oa 
JnUrval after vaf^cliiation, and tliat inft^Uon with 
smallpox vrua equally po^-^ibb tiuHer tho Like droum- 
■^laui^uH. Oiui I'jvw! is i]ot(iwi»ri}]y for its c"niu*rtiim 
Tnth J<fEmer. A ^ioamanj named Clarke, wna suooeeafuUy 
vacctnatcd oo 4th Novi?iulwr» ISOO, ami, returning frooi 
a voytgp to the Wv-H Iitclir^.4 waa ^ut to th(> variotous 
t<ttt on «th March, 1802, when he Mck«aE^<I with hixioJI* 
pux ami WAA m^nt to IlaatlaT. To provi? Uiat hU malady 
wfiA roally amallpox, AOV(^ra<l pcrrion^ were vaiU>lat<xL 
from htm. The CommiUee of the Ilou^e of Coukmofis 
WLK Mttin^ on Ji^nnor'rt fir^t claim for public m 
and GtjMmm 'ktuU- in Jc^iicit^i- tu c»mf< tu Hatlarand 
Ctarli.* lor himself; but Jefiner woa loo a^^tiite lo ouinb«r 
himHtrlf with ilifRcultm at a time when so ixiLicb coah 
was in question. The ca^e wai mentioned to the Com- 
tnitboc, hut wa^ trcatod as of no mornont in pro^cnco of 
what ihi-ty wrTii ph^aMid in rrganl ns nv<*rwh»^lrning 
<fTidorico cut to i\io perpetual virtuo of vaccination. 

Oolihoa'^ W(L-i a iii(>i!*'jst pumphftit — coiycctijral rather 
than dviimijatrativd. He vimtiirL*d tj think it wax po«- 
«l>Jc that the (?l!icacy of vaccin^i niig;ht be wcakeau-d by 
traiL^inTmion from nrin lu titm^ and that security might 
bo rostoted by reverhi^u to the ojw — 

Th« «a*Lia1 Covpoc \t projuoaj by ^irua immadiatAlT Cram lli« 


Uiftt fttw mtMrr bt |ioaww*d of Uio powfit ta vPvdnM Uio amnc 

He likuvp'LMi au^^nentoJ that hoTW^rcAM tiught bo 
InoDufatei] on tliu nlrijilti of the luilcTi Luarr^ aoii Lht> 
viru;» ;jscd for criumatiottH ITicsc luid othcx points wcro 
advaju^ijil witli 4b ptiilEcHt-i^ltli! ^vnev Lbiit ou^bt 1c 1iavi< 
oommaiKUd respect; but, on Ihe contrary, Lfs pattif>Tktct 
woff received wttJi • howl of furjr, And lU author 
denoi]nei?Ll a^ ad ill^ondUloned fellow — ii^orantn [itlJu- 
dicc<J, pijj'hcafJH. It n&s i^fcr to be pronoiiiKL'i antt- 
wodiiiKt thim u vnti?inaT,ijr iind liurbour Joubt ti* to any 
ftrticlo of tht! Jouacfion faith. Hin^ plied liis blud^&on 
OVCT th« heretic, and J^^muir wruti: of hii« with niAlicious 
liuoUnce — ^* AH )uh Tuusotiin;; U errouooua ; " "liisiirro- 
gtoce ifi incrca^ied by attoutiatj ;*''*Iie obbtiQAU.'ly IkfIiIa 
a veil boforo Kim ^t^'cm, and will not bohold the- vftcrinc 
light;*' "oitft mifj^tt AA well contend with & blind ir.iui 
on thf TAtiireof & pnsm ;" and 8o on. OoIcUon* otT'enc^ 
woft that he laid hi;^ fiD^r on notnc of tho weaker points 
of vAecinAtion; tliat his »i^lit Witn too kwn, And his 
roaaoriin^' too cogent. At this day tho queetions between 
him mic] .Tcunrr riT\<- drcidr^ii by vnGdii»Ujr> tht.^ni.-v^1viM in 
Qold^ctn'ft favour" 

Pcrhapa the moat able attack on tho practico of 
vaccination wfti delivered hy Tbom&a Brown, aut^oo. 
Musselburgh ; and it m much to be r&£:r«tt«d that bia 
brink, pnlili^hrd in Fditdmrgli in 1H09,f i-tso Ikth? known 
at tHitt dav- Brown had aocvpled vaooinniiun, carrtud 
away> he ndniitt^J, by the coiiimon enthu«iasiii, and the uii- 
i^ualifi^Kl audacity with which iUi daim* wuru asUiOTtod — 

Tb% prMliBtf wiu introilT]<r*il Mnd racoTDm«iiiUd Bo Uiv publio by 

U« AllUOT tiA A p*rfACt OTLnrloU ADid tSmirily A^fcintl UlllLllpCll 
• Bbi^> Lifi v/Jmmr, icl «. i^i-, S3«, MO, Wfl. 

fnvlkv, and JA> Poi^Kf^ 41 A»f fjromJ !■> m mi/f t^oi/'afMTV. /Vvm 
mAIcA oiCao idtf a|ij«>' 'Ac .VrcuHlfy r/ cutrj 4A« |4-iijii<r wriui far uj^ud 

SursMo. Uunlbvrgh. Ediabargh, tV09. Pp. 307* 



iriUuNLi Maj oinption oz rotorr*, And ounUo of baoialuftf VuJeli^ 
&ioa tiie oimoffov of ham&o mueffr. i bav« no LodUilicio ta eo^ 
faMj'nff tliAt I bvoiiau ftA cju^lj coorvrt nsd ftdv^CAU ol tlio iMir 
bnvUo« ; (Lnd It La nov oiitltt yovi uid a-bftlf ciaott I 1m*o md' 
lurmly odvjte^ ami prttetisod VAflflEnatioD, in wbieli t>onod J mftT 

%n4 Imiro odIj^ inui^ainlad Uuruo dt lb« poalrre rOf^iwiit of 
Tbi* ooiirv« 1 pMxovvrihl in ODlil tbe pr«Mcl tkao, ootirtUii 
1 iu«t with novDml ^BfADoOi wfaor« tt ftpHMirvd to fill la 
MCiuitj; sciao about thmo ^tart vJU-i too ictrodnctioai 
pr«otico: A fowmcro aboat twt> yonnflgc; and tho*o wluobmik* 
jiftrt of tho |tre«i]t volumo whliio the lul <ti raontlu. 

An opHoroic, in which his own perfectly vaccinM«id 
palicntn fdl TicLioin tu niii^tlliJtJK, nt loAt (fpcnctl Iiek c;e» 
to ih& delusion in which bo waa v^Ikin^, Aod to tb« 
twrvonity with winch he and others had restated Um 
fight of truth — 

1 mil v^LiivliiuviI froui wlmt Lha jitAtvil iicJifrmv vwd ubvervBUoa. 
fiir Ilia Inut lbr«i« or foar rpnrm, iLnl vr hftvu t'litfti nJJ icuiUj 
luJLfCliug ov^eaoc tLftl deeorTcd luoio attuutxiQ, iu cou»0(|u«]iett 
tliv aljuhk jiioiio'uuukfDa which oibtod, from Uia wij ^>vr«uuiT| 
pruof of Vaficiiuktioii iMintbi: ia<i<iuTfttic>ti 4dd expohwo lo iaf 
tloOi and &oia diu* jm^liEiu^nii bdoc |^&d*d «Did owrpowrad 
tho po^itivp ncd ar^i'rary QpjuioD^ of it* abeUon* I i 

fBiTrctly RiLtiidlfiii. tnttn uiv uiind buofl ncdor tho iofl] 

(irt^jii^tU'ii uaJ LUul to Iho jutfu'dujiiu vi iXto inir^i «Tid«iic9, 
tlid IiljI tLiuo ^moll^oj vw p»va1oDt» I Tcjoclod and otpl 
A^nv muny auu whioh wer« cctitlod tc the c;io«t eoriooft fttft 
nod nhovpd mjM^f aa T^ioiifftf and unroiuoiMhU a MrtiM& 
of my broibrtn In prapn^rilins a prootioa, whioh I liave now 
cLonlii w« mntt un ioo^ fiurTanJ4)r ftl iburetion. 

When Brown fint imw tho vacoinnt^d pro«tnkto wiUi 
unaDpox, be concluied thai there mti^t have Ix^n t^ome 
mistAK^ &b<)irt thvir vjK^cttiAtion ; "for nftfir Vacciimtion 
it wiui imposriibU- ti> ci^jotruj^t Hiiiallpox;'^ but bbe evi< 
denee of Hi sfrisps CTn'Innlly overcame the phuitftn 
impo!*cd u]i'>n him, rind liko nn houc?it rtinn he proclaiiDcd 
hin nrror, and vyritSwl the i*i|ieriKiiuw wlirroby h^- 
had boun rchicteiUly corrected. H« set forth writh aJJ 
parbiculom ft^rty-cii^ht ca^cs of sniAllpox following w- 
cinntloD within hia own Immediate cognimnce, an] 
thoTi^h AWfLro of manv cii-sea cuUide that oognixanoD, 
hv \iiiiiit!<l hiuifiell' Lu wliat hi? eoah) attest with penoiul 



iMSuraaca ^e knew hv would be tn1<i Uint tho var^unn- 
tiou bad boen iinp<Mrf«ct, or that wbftt he took for 
araallpox was «ome othor crupUon— 

'o(VBOUiHtSiLiHU^ivi.\Ji'Lli?tWiui« U>iiru|JVrlyuci£Uiuumc)kl»il; 

[)r. Jvnnvr »»il Lit fQlulivv, Mf. G. Jetmor, ivodUvcly uuuii, 
tliAt iUvvLjkvi^ IjoO act oiift mitoQcoof fftUurc in theU ovd ra-ck«tico. 
They oil thcFpft«ic, rtnJ wilbout hnitnCioD. refer tho whole HBricu 
of miluren tlint hav^ bcMi bronchi forward i^ llm QWVQpLEii! pow«r 

IU«iiic^ [rncUtiiiQiiT nhu caciiot d^biujcuiitb b«tw«ca SiuaUpai ftud 
CinckoDpQx, a null. i>r bug-lpkto«L 

Nor did Brown ruat saUKficJ wiili jirovui^' tlmt vac- 
(filiation *Ji<J not prevent smallpox, H^ nUo shtfwixi Iho 
fallocy of thir vnriolouji tent. He a^Juced twelve ciuen 
In which vacirlitAt^d p<.>r5on*i hud l^een vnTmM^^i as if 
thcT had uever beon viicciimlcjd, Aho Uamv ca^cs ]& 
which vwyiniitinn mul wiriol.Tt-ion wi^m <'fr(HrLi^J MmifU 
taoooufily. thy diH<^as^iH riiiiiiin;c their courses cwnourr^utly, 
prijving thoro wn.-* no luitncLiniAni Ktwciin tlieiJi; and 
■ i^M»I Mr oould occur tup^thQ^, wlukt ruOM^m w&a l^ift for 
H^HBEyl^at ODe [ui>;ht not aticc-^uJ th« uih^^r ^ 

niiVmg foniiH lihorty m thp tnith, Tip rpuprted to 
Jcnner.-i writiniri, aiul rriiilini; tlitim wiUi opened oyc?*, 
hw waa not aIou- to >l<:l''<7t niul to (iomonHtrnte ih^ hisity 
of Atatcincnt, the? contrn^iictioiii^* and alAsuvdition with 
which Hivy vvvtt jMirvHilttd. Nu rydy waa ht1i^in|]ti?d : 
no roply, in4<^»>d, wax |>o««ible. Thd surgeons of thi> 
Eilinbur^h Vaccine Itxntitutioii i»mcd An EjxtmintUton 
cf Mr. Bn»\i*ti8 Oitinioim njul Stixt9Tti9nt»,* hut they 
tQcrcly carped ovot non-csMnbi&l details* anJ Mt the 
^^P^ \tmtttt wholly (iiiTil]Wtp(l- \Mtat thf^y hod to Jthow 
V^ne that tir»wDa pEhtiL-ntd were cithmr uuvaccitLOlcd, or 
I lia^d net linrl MiintTpox ; and nnahlc to do tliih, th^y were 
" lUkaUc to io anytldni;. 

Drown tem&'mffd \Ictov-. Ho did not ovcttlicow 

f» an Aawino/fort n/ lit </^n>vai aiul Staiemtjtta <if Mr, ifrpu-u ttf 



vaMliULtlon, nor raaioi^ variolation, but be dtd make an 
ond iiL Scottjind of conliJcnce in vocciDatioQ 00 ilh QDuii< 
Tit)t'iiL--utfi'^Ltitrcl H^>niiEs( ^riiaUpiix, TI;a HLr nxiUuuad In 
te practiao^l od hutiib]->r iernia: ■ it did no hanti": even 
Ml. Bix)wn Allowed that it unghi kv^-p olf aioaJIpox fotft 
tiio^ : luid " tboro woj r^a^LJi] to hvlW'vc l3mt it tcoded Co 
ujakf.* ihe di^&sc milder wbcn il did occur/' ThlHy 
yvjxvs nitcT hN first rubUonluinJn IftlS. Bmu-n ntntTri&tii 
Aid poti^itiou ia a uorW of kttcib* to Dr. d^^or^ *j^^y, 
a flym]>&tJk{*tic fnefu), and fidvidefl & ratum to Vftnolatton 
in viovr of " tho DcknovrlcdgiKl defects of thg Jonneriin 
[>Tadloe" — a dUmal &lteniatJv«* Bui it vt in vaiD u» 
tfxpwl Mij man tti l)(? tntw^t in adviuie^ t>f hi« tini«7 %\_ 
KQlEcott for lion^Ltrnblc dintiiictton that ha bt^ m advance 
When Brown comTTirnoeii pmcl.ico, 8niallpox aii'l oilier] 
fcvcr^i wore rc<^iird<Kl fu incviublo aa vUiXtns and oartb-^ 
nuakt«. and the kuuwlvdKi< wttU wbiirb wit nn*. nuw moj 
uuniliar, that Uior aro en;^«nd^n>d in foul habiu aa^ 
bjthUflUon.^, WAS fcr practiud purpo?ic5 unknown. Oi 
Tcj>roaob U. tliat kTiowIng no luucu luttt^r, wi* ^jtrendi 
curv^ivos to a auporAtitioua observance coDcciv^ in daj 
of durkiH'-i*. 

tflAiitfll ^hwOttC /aMM; vili'h aSto mn ntfcnriat a* uh ^n^Miv 

qfaPrdt £9vt]f. Br Utomjui I3r^iwi;. T'liagily Modical rmcbitwi- 
n Mowlbar^E^h, ElinWKh. I&tf, rp- ISO. 




may be weJl to cJcvotc a, chApbcr to those aiitai^oniatA 
of VimfinnUon wli'i^ though tight in thrir mifcii'iili >n 
agftinflC €owpDx» did iikonr or Ic^s to dbcrodit Uicir oaut^o 
by fieumlity und <^itmvft^:viiui\ The fniilts of tluisi* ruen 
aT« frcfucnt]^' adduuod oji evidence of thu o1>4iurd and 
ImitaJ ti^Uuuce with which Vaccination was cnt^juutorcJ, 
but it i* foTgotl/iri hovr intnisr^ vftu th<u» prfiroPAtion. 
nnJ how the lad on orii^ uidu vrim iiijitohud by the bad lyix 
the nthpT, It WftK ft corU>i*t hrt.wmn SnmlTpnxflrs anrl 
Oowptufprti, (ilikn itn^^rant of the condition;^ of physicJi! 
wtill-lx-iri^. It \> jilfiin, hinvrvj^r, in tin* li^'hi of uur Utirr 
exp^rieDC^, that much that was aAsert^id by thi> Small- 
poxcra of the usclcsNiciv* ri\<\ hjvrmfi.dncM of cowpox 
iniist hav"e hooii exactly an-l |j=alnfully tru^^, though p<ir- 
;^t.'!ntly and ferociously dcnici, 

In thr fCfiinlinr<jh lfri*irw fcir Octolwr 1806, appeared 
an brtiek entitleU " Pamplilotd on Vacdnu Inoculation," 
which niAy ho tnk^n as a refloctiun uF the HlaV^ of Ujt- 
^UilfOvcRty at tlwt datfr, and an an index to tin: chief 
wfenikra au^iiutl (>r<ipi-itity. The arru:!^ waa wrltt^'u hy 
th» editor, Ffuim Jvnrav, and wax a pro<lti(;t of that por- 
apicuoti.t inicllt^noc, wulch rtxliioei^] to order whatever 
waq su1>jt'ci«d lo it4 action, in ranch the eAcrt« way that a 
housemaid *'*ct» to rights " a lilfary by ranj^n™ ttic 
1x>(>kK according to tht>ir hL^h anil blitfltnt^, and iLVNOTttii^ 
tho papers 3o that thc-y ho nt^ntly di^ponedH Afi m the 
habit of ahlc i-ilili^n*. a viuw of thi? varioltms roiitrovtr*y 
was <>v<flvod that tui^dit bo comfortably accepted and tew 
fidently rcpcaleil by his icador^ — tlo evolution of mjc}* 
ratif^nal mirage Iwtng rt'giirded for tho time ok vtraciou^ 

Firvt W9 may tako the revifiwer** i?viiknc« aw to tho 
oxiunt and fury of tho eontrovei^v — 



Hie ttm|ti(t uid pulilic dntiaiuuy oJert^ in bvoiLr vt Vi 
>Miii»ilJof » w^iilr U>ii«llh4*(|Li0»Uiju U (9*1; «Dil«cxoep4iBBldrj 
obseim t>B£apyol« *ud couuuuufe&ljoiLs to the modiCM joanul*> 
litUo VH bowd JD opp^»il^Du to il. 101 1801, wbu llr, OoUMn ti\ 
Povteuotitii pQl:Ji«bea six cu« of Soiftlpox owoituue alUr Vm^, 

fonfiilfliiee whioli wm now tvr? ffSiMraflj plsovi ic lb« 
Ifao J«CLQoriAa tnoeulftU(». TtMO w*r« Asworvd by Ur, 
otlmvi who eiiilo*Tourod to ^how tkd, la aome «( hw 
OoldBoo'k pntiau'tA bod not bjad Hw gumiiw Covpox a tht^ 
lutanof, aDd ihai in oth«n» Ibej hftd ool bftd tlw goDainf 
pox Ui«t»ftft«T. Thn pvt of ttf* MiiUiioT«ff^ w* oogadiwUd 
wapor. nncl i^lti ft rmmnnMr ddffro* of «4Cidour- In lb« 

Cowpox, itt which tbo P^nn^ of Kcltiuu ooomcd to bo blw? 
with Iho tropM of Billiivw^atc- Dr ffovloj f^iUawp^l dq tho 
«1iJ«t and ID Ilia Mmo locijior, vith 500 «um of '^ th* boMtl/ 
diMAMi prodBOfld trom CDWpi>x,*' ikn4 Btt¥«ototl ciutanD«n br 1 
oolonrodragnvtofEVftttJioiukibiof hUwcrkor^lbtt Cowposad, 
fftoad bo7,"imd tUo **Cowpotod,TiUttgv/glrL" Ttia bftttUnowl 
oftoio goTkonJ. TboR0TDT«TidKaw1niTdHiUlhTTiidflT<dtnd«faiM< 
THPnTifttifm — r>r. S<:|iiirTvl toipod from hn aqt upon th* wl 
hAnl of vftfdnivloT* — Mr. Hircb iosiitad i^*^ Atatmg hu Bar 
r««MnK for ob]M>tinir to Cowcoi — Dri. ThomUm Bod IiOttBnm 
cbftRtod pvBDB tn lu nrftlfl^— Mr, Lipaaofnh MrtttlBil forwiuitl wUh 
B|ipiid«rDiu, woT^y dTfiMrtfltlan on ha fftjlunti *nd mUehlAfii; i 
Mbutb. BfOfl* MoTtmBD* Bnd Blolr anawmd tmryltaAy : nxil 
tiponted df thdr oppon^tifx by tbpir intompomua Bod pi 
CLbj^bb of inmOor btkI ra1nohtii.i(] vnre intmrlkBiigtd moi 
dlMpQlRclj) wfLbout Uw nuifctlivi o«ramoity; Ow medkinl Jt 
faftoiod with tLo t1o1mio» nf tli«lr ennt^ntSoii : U r*<*il to lii 
and hich-clijuubcirii : luid jiollQteil with iu< lujjlienilj Ili« tB^i 
the |iu!|jLt kud the tiMiuDiiy uF coavivbd |ihJJiuiUiropy, 

ta Ui« wholt coorbc of cur c«Euipniil laboun. wo ubtb tbBTBr 
O00MO1I k) cijjjtoujt>talr* u icpua hu di-iiruBLiui; ntid biuoniatlnf m 

CBVittoil bv tijii irrvBCvr ^lui of thiA otiu (rifvi<tiy > oord« wd 
11 tljbl iliv virijlvi3c« i>f |>uljiiiiid BUliuusity \>r vvt-^}<l rivalry 
rcTctijJEu ovciT (jAve rjnii. luuuag tJ^» luwtwt tutLi uii'»l wxitf" ' 
KDri^bltm, to sooiiicb ocfaj«<ino*iilIlilKrBUty,violoi3c»ftiul tAi 

Bfl U hen eihilitfld liv eeDtlcmoa of Miiu« nod odnciAUoii 

i, point of proftmioDAl Bdeao« with a riew tc the Hi<cd of jqabUbi 
At osv Utoo, tad«Bd. wo wero to oTsrpowrTcd and confbit&ded 
lli4 rlpkiuonr BDd vohmirot vontrndiffUoD* of Lho oombBtBnlBi 
vo wuro tomptod to BbuidoQ th« taah wa hftd QtukrivkeDt 
kavo it lo some moro atbUtic crlUc to ooUoot the f>w BboU ^sd 
litU» rcaaDtuQs whicb oaiild ho diAoom&d In ttua t«m]io*4 td 
bodioiil world. 



Fui'ioiM vfMJi the contrav«niy» but why wns it funous} 
Thore ar& oCten grahl fi^-hu o^or HuIq matUrft, butth* 
rouon 19 tiiBki/ tlk« little matters arc viUlly related to the 
>ielf-luvc of thi? Cfimlmtanbi ; anO tliu« it wa.'* with tbe 
Ccwpoxcr? and the .^maLlpox«irs. Tho Cowpoxcrs mt 
out Willi tlir aTi4ntnti< ttwrtiiKi ttiuL who^ivrr Mjliinitt4*(l 
to tht'ir jiruiicription would be flc^cure from fiinaUpox for 
Jifc, Without i^rouf, or with pijwcrful sham proof, the 
attiartlOTi VVA.4 (^ndoniid by the nuuH of tht? nuMiic-iLl firo^ 
fcAsioQ, flijil Uittt folluwiiJ tlio coiiverai(Ju of tbf- com- 
mumtv' in that sort of fftith-panicj whlob U dwBcribpd by 
CarlyJo tw Swftrmcjry^- 

Al) tlio worM AifuutioK* ncJ ootttlauolLy tvpcmtinjt ahJ ri>T«t- 
WvAtiDi;, tl^Dto aoaa oaiuMi Ibftt liD^lor fiucTiomcELon eollni 
Sinumarr, or th^ ^allionQi^ oi mvo iaiWftrmii; ruid nhnt pro Ji^^M 
tbc^- urc io ttie babjt of doinR and bolic^^nj; vhca throwa ititn tlial 
miraculontf oointlitioa 1 Smtful^Jr. in the cmo of IjtLinjhu ^AnrruA, 
vitb vhat pot^ction of tiDBaimity jtQiI i|XUAi'rQHi;toiifl coritir^tioii 
tb4 >1u|iidM( Abmirdities &u) b« »o0iv«cl a» aiioeuk uf Kiicljd. cny, 
oj utiela* <if futili* vhich yoTi nro tiul <ftt\y iv l^tliovc, tmlaaA 
nalignuitly LmMiiir, W ath Ijf v<>u li4vc u:t7 hotiour or morolitj') 
lo piuAi iQt> pL-»«tioei AQd| witbaut doloj mo liofiff, if yoax loul 

People thiiH 4TnchAnted do not IlkA to bo brought to 
their auoM^ ; and medical men, who in 1800 attoat^ the 
pnrp'Tliml propliylfl.xy of rnwjint, Mpro nntiirnlly vrry 
uowilliij;; ti> ho ^>niV<id liu^tivcrji Ami deceived. When 
caeea of HUiallpox wt^re i^porU^J an Mluwtii^ vaccina liun^ 
they at tir^t donior! th<» po^ibilitv, flaring that mthor 
there had hccn no vaccinattriin. or ifiat thu finuiUpox was 
not umallpcx. On the other hand, the STOallpox^i-fl who 
had bocn snuifod out by tho C*owpoxcr», rcvivttil in 
pr^r^encj* of lhiM!is(!<ivi*red imiH^U-iiPuof tho nt^w prai'tice, 
tnd stoutly luaiiitiilned, ani:! cruoJIy domon&trntod that 
iinijui^HtiiirLiibli^ vncciiintions wen^ followed by uikieii'k- 
tiocablc etuallpoK. It nccdA little acc{LiaLnt&nec with 
hntnan nature to sec unlimited dementi of bitbornc§s in 
theae eondltioRft. To bt; convicted of itiipoiitiir« does not 

• SJiootitff Jf in jarn. 

S»< M 



.A tLo point 

in wliich 


of wIliA 


_. ,«* ift Tl»t«T^, If 

"' be hcftrd in 

from finmU< 
of s»p«rfIuoiia 
ttetit^ Rjpcriority 
temrJ out iiiKi ui 
.moral aanor- 



h(wJ b&^ correctly vnccinated, or hati taken coxFpox from 
thf! cow, ttrnJ hftil -iiilxtcqncntly tiiilfrrcil from .%niiillpox 
wUh thuh iit^S^hbojrH ; alHi> of Ga.>ie« of ni'vere UIii^sh, 
injury, and doftth resulting from vaccination. Qluator 
wttJ* liUi^ ill prt-HiriitrR tit jiiipii TairEA, Rvpn thn Riiy*! 
Ji4DnonADa had to «at humblij pii^, for in tlieir Report, 
dfitcd 2nd Jammrj. ItiOi!, wc read — 

Tt u iulniitF4<Ll ty tlic rnrn niit.t^f* llmt u fi<w ntin^ htivt* Iwnn 
npf pjgrttJy [ijuvin<l lliron^h Vie Ci^wpoi In il ra^iUt wa.y- 

With fto itinch admitted bynuch funoua faimtic*i. wlmt 
mi ™ht nnt Im irfirrod f 

Mof»?lfiy Witt licM in high esteem alike by thtj profewion 
and the public, and his judgment <?nforced by so much 
rtcrioas cvjdonco contributed heavily to tli<: diricrr^dit of 
\AmiiftUou. Hiid uufjiKcJiiHtelj tij LliK r»»uiiiptiuri lii 
variolous iii''TL>tdatLoa That the reaotion vas vxttrii^ive, 
oprcially in London, npp^ars ftoto numcTons conttjia- 
porary t««timoni^, wliieli Moseley confinnti la anying— 

Th« pFo^Ic «t hjnc KFo not to ho icproadioJ for puttiEM; thoir 
&i1b in thii ■iplpQilJd uupuflition on humAtiity; Atid to ll^io crtdli 
of iLoir dioovniiiiotit nui p&nntal ftolio^i Uio nidillc oad ibfarioc 
cImm* htKvt takan proc^tMioo in rvnoocdai; tbo rlolasioc. At 
1fa£i iftMii4rit, iinlou iiltE\alcjtJ t^y *ur]f>riM, <ir with timatft, cr 
cajrflcd Xty CLrullcu juU ^r w}ilc1i have hobtt proctiocil ou thciu) thero 
fltO novr Duiic CLiuoDj^ them in Londcn tini Ihc n^ocoDt villdgott 
wb» wiU oif Of c Eboir chilrXron io Cowpox Inooulnlian. 

RnwUnd Hill wjw « n-ligimi* imd pliilHnthropi*' nntn- 
h\<j ia thoae days, and in commou willi miiny *jf hi'i kind, 
was Bi* tnthnsiasliic vn^wnator, A Icjidii*^' Mpirit 'm tht* 
RoVaI JcinnL^rmTi Society. h« hitd tins ^choi>^rl:om of 
Surrey Chapvl cuiiAlitutc^d a v attain ft turn Hbitluri wlicn,-«t 
Dr- \Valkr>r oHiciAted, Sar wiu be content to patrociro 
the proctiCG* but wtif} himself an i^nerg^.tlc cpciAtor. 
SpeftKin^ at tht* nnnnni meeting of the Jennerlan ,^ocl«ty, 
17th May. !SW, he ijaid— 

''With Viij *>wa htuitht 1 hhva vai^uiciHUHl u;)wnrilH uf AOOO 
p«noan," feod, Urtin^ uji hU nyv^ to hwarirnt flicldim«d. " I 
•olaranty doelftzd Wore uoil, I have tiot hul a fuJUnv in x Hiujcl«f 





"■f ill -IfiK f^llG- 

n«Kk. HilT vifiitad 
,«,k 1m«H Hill whon he 

.^j^iohEp my friend Dr. 
- }i saving moro lives 

iLiua turn, ^^tii?<l wItJi 

4ill tiatiiratly tesenU^ 
It ciU him <lccp]v to 

..u:. dct'endiDK bi.i 

.i» trriiT.rd it dit^pitQ* 

_il;;tcU*d. tij oovcrc uul 

HiUi^ MBiLctimoDy aiid 

ftUjustment we mi^ht 

ty of pleg&nt extracf< 

, LiuttoiMutd its pitiful 


■ ■ni'r-iTlrtinnf Di^l tifat miKi 

: .'! I . I ], nii LnMrrjjoioTit la 

..^-ALiLii ciiLi Jivtci^ Bad Uitt d>i^ 

' ""i iiithifltUdCotirsc wart— 

uni who t»eiLpc<l smallpox, 

i tit liini t.hal before Jouncr 
' 'trDU^U life exempt from 




NWillpax; iiiir, Goiuieiji.ieiLt1y, (IH he iiKjiiiro h*VJ llicy 
hpnJ| nor irhy, vrnon vixccuiation wok introducvd, 

fw Alioulf] be plftc«d to Ita credit. 
10 b<?U<-f in the vicaHous itit]uenc<^ of vaodnjition 
<ujiucH out Atnjn^Iy. too. in Hiirn TuiiupHlot, Of Lon- 
«loTier*i there were then over l,00<VWO, wu\ of tbfift?, Iio 
Hayr., (it ico^t, lOOj'X^O bad been viLCcinato^l, and with Uib 

VAcoinikUon redllMd the ilnathu froin SmaJIpoi tn linndon to 10 
mr we«k: bat i^ier ilm Inooiilntoi'K hwl Imcn Laikiriz tlivlr 
^^bunoon^ fibs lipiilicimls Tar Vard.niLtioii diiiuDi»t]«d, anil tlia 

Nuw CAM tilTruutery Llself ilniiy tljiit tlm Iiitrndacbkic otVniCcian* 
tioD wju tb&Biilb oiiU!i«cjf mliuiiiiff tliu fiituUtyoc llio BmnUpoi liktf 

Thii<4 one in ten being vaecinatefl. aiualTpox was re- 
iiu<xd throughout tlioHnvaccinatcd li-lOUia; and n«^0DIl 
aa tin? ^tcMi'iiHis ujHTKtiirjtis iiroppi'd, up wi^iit t\m mtc uf 
monality! Net waa Hill singular in thin pur»ua*^Lin. 
He cit<-d his friend Dr. Letlsum n^ bMitia^j to him, 2^t1i 

about th* tuUiJIo cf IW>5 iiddo npotU afloiDfli VA«oii][LtioD nuood 
vtty gaooml croiit. aaJ V&odaatioc viu aoftrl^v iRiependaa; tli4 
aoxu^aonoo wm Uio doath of i^C childjvn ia four motit-lti 
(fteptamb^T to DwwidImt} or Urn wvry r|ji<ri vAob of Tvhoxu miglit 
new liavo b*on nliv* }^aU thu bJuHioK of V&DDtUttt^ci& heati ibvouf t4J(i. 

Aiid agj^n I find Lfjbtooin wrote to Mosclcv, November, 

Til* incFvrito of birtkic mid d4(!n»Hr of d^cktbi has ii'Mori 3l1i)U 
\i\4* JkJiniwWy to tli4 prjpiiUtion of LdDdon durio^ tlio jH^rJod Ui*t 

Talk evidently aiticcrc, and widely repeated, but veiiU 
how little con>iidei'ath>n for truth ! 

To rvtam to Moeclo^\ Ho wiw not tho ;»mn tu emlll^B 
HiirAtt|pjTtwiJon.HuWiK:^ively,aiid ina pmiiplilrt nuUtl^l 
An Oi0»r for a Jtotd<ind,* he mada a Urrific T«pri«&l 

• At Oliitvfir a Jtai^oint; «#■, d ro"'j*a AwCi« to (A* ^*v, /toWiM^ 

TMtCh Kdltlaa. 

AlHVfjF ChAprT. Ktf 

ij>«iiTi MMekf, MP. 


^^^^^^^iB^^ik it. ud in ttieootnaeif 1 
^^^^■JJFviMi^ tu< etUtloiu. Hin «M ■ 
^^^^^M^alMml wnnMbtDk, with mora 1 
^^^^^^Lif«. imI io bbo bliD knocked one, ^ 
^^^^■^r«ih» >P^ «M qx>rt tlidt cunod 
^^^^^Eh )|ton^|^V cipemng aJilraas S^^'^fl 

^^^^K mm f ijTi' ■ auiaUd Cooppoc JiMvXa^ I 

^^^HElh ttp«Wxl.-it u Dol dofti. TU «>M ■ 
^^^H^Hv^«*ii tOTHrh't'i «OU!U Uot liar* W^ 
^^■B^^^^^^MiT OowpOMV from Uio Gaa^M 

^^HT «^ «W ooDld lodoeg y«m Ut Uke m 

^^^|E|«i»^«i*^ WoukI it not Iiat« Uoc mom 

^^^^^F^ Mm niov«d t4 isfflljAte youf ft B 
^^^^H V b« DWt yoa ft ffrtiil|4, ud poi H 

^^^^^■i lOAfir itp and rooovoted bW fl 

^^^^K '!^>i>n«ry, iH9rd«AAf-<K>d 
^^^^^P< 1 ) hm redAUoco t<> Llia 
^^^^^ M.ii;;»oUv«, As h« wroU in M 

^^^^^^^^^K^iImM IhtMliifocUc^nlowMlhtt ^ 
^^^^^^^^^^^■u|» to dtfemJ htr tlironc fta<l 
^^^^^^^^■WmI MpM hot whom ItkU 

^^^^^^^^^» I pby,<ician to 
^^^^^^^^E^vi tttUcij vriiich bu fUletl with 




29T 1 

tHo highctt ^M for inoro tluin tliirty ycoxti " — unUl his ^^1 
TlioQgh n Ehmwil prActiCitrnor. nnd undnnUtil; ft man of Dttan' 

miuilrrAliAiift In tli« ]ir«u VAr<i fiii^Auiiiit Tliny dUi llttli- nr^dit tn 
hlA m#(lEot1 pimpCrilii^n. or lili^ <|iin1iflRfttiiinfi tut n iliHptJULfmuU 
■flATctif^ all*r truih, ami, liiiiifily Cur hi* r<iputalUii> ura now w^ll 

Apj they ? tor whnt cUe is l)r, Moscley remembered ? 

Hrifo Uiiit A mui doeet hU duty Sti Hl* vnirUI, uhuth^^r h» 

PfoforK^tteu or reinomborod is not worth a thought; bnt 

Moseley* cftrly mid .'^tfMuIfiust rrAwUircfi to the t?owj)ox 

Importture will loii;^ cou^ititutv hb lltL^ to j^rutuful kooI- h 

!)r Willmm tU>wlt^, Pliysician to tho Murj-lobonfl 
lnHniiary. alno Itft hut mark in mffdic&l hLntory m a 
dGtemilDQri opi^onont cf vacciTtaUon. He had setn tJn; 
profc-^i^ion i\nd the public ro mivi about so xanxiy aL:<^uid 
nov«ltic!i. Uiat it did uut aur[jnsL* Idiu tliat tliuy should 
go miul about oowpos; and nft<?T due oxpoHisnce and 
jovcstigition hu iJirJivcv^d judi^Jiit'iit on thr rr*ur ami it* 
pORii(Ui>u& ^iTL-ct^ in a fuiiupnletontitUd Coiv/'u.c InoiuUti' 
iiOH «*> ^f€thrU^ iitfciin^t SmaJIpox,'^ containing two 
coloured oi^avbfn r^prefteDting the Covrm>xerd Ox- 
Faced Boy. and Uie cfowpoxcd Matigey Uirl. Much 
ridimlp wax i^xpnnilrd on thi?;^ |]ii!turefi^ nn^ to this day 
whoavor ^ridUas to h^ funay and <!reat« g^g^^ over ibe 

ShettAfM. Bj WlllJrLtnMBnk.M.D. l^nnloa. IS7& 

i t%iT'<>' /fiOfft^fclJOH fHJ a'rCHrir/^ iiifuj';r»i SmatifOj^ iuf'rUim, To 

/br At Hatltpvi' a-yhifh not" h'tvtM/t ifrvHity ftitin f^u-jnii F\iUiirft fit. H 
Bjr WiUiun BmrUy, IID,, Mpin>>Qr of tlio Ccivrmtyi^ Oidor^. iLo 1 
B«7a1 CollegBcl Pafci<^afl| Li^mloD. uil PJnui^'Un to tlit Sl. Mut^U H 



Cftrly raMbtoAce to v«coinaUo«i IoUa bow oa« Dr. KowJcy 
nuunUnad that Jenner'ft benij;^ vinifl indac^ 0%e hca 
of ui (ME on & boy; but like tho niAjority oF oomie 
aoecdoleo, it b utitmc The cogrftving reprevMita a 
eonivly Iftfl with ft svelliDg on the tipper )>iflrt of hia left 
choek, u'hich vna thought to give Uinl side of hU Facc 
wi ox-like expreesion. Mmnv a meiiical practitloiker 
ftAODg the poor wooild at thU fUy hnvc liitir^ ditfiruU/ 
in prnwiiLip^; livm^ e^uitupk-s uf fttlliiittuii ajuni^nng to 
Rowley's picturtt^— an4 worse. It wu?, iDO^dOV^r, th^ 
f<»r or fancy nf triuny nt Um Linn; that inooubUion vitb 
oowpor mlcbt b^^&t bovine cliarftct^btJv In tb& butoau 
specter, ftud tho icM- or fancy wm turned to inevit^blo 
ACTCrmiiL in jr-Jtt and vanieil^ T\\*! Jt^t U viHthlu in tonk^ 
of EiowJondaoD'^ cancatari'fi, aud atoriu} like tbb ^^ into 
cirriilntSon — 

A rhiM ftt P*ckltiiTu.aflHr lifin;' iri<»rTilkUit irHii CowpoTT, Isd iti 
fiirinvr nalnml rliKjvitottoTk Hy>w>lt]l'<I>' i^Ji-irti^ to ihit bnital, mi that 
SI ntn njHxn ilII taun II k« a Cwajt, WlloiriniE ]ak« a oma, Aiiii Vottisff 

In ordor to dUcredIt Rowky, it U ibouj^bt fair poli^ 
to connect liim with «ucb nonMUbe. and to bhrt it &up- 

laced boy :" it waa fftr ot-bcrwLft^. He dili^ntly tracked 
Ujc vacciDAtoT^, and accuiuiilatf.d 504 casta of smalEpox 
and injury after vAccinatiou with 75 deaths, pckrticulftn 
hvw^ ttiiiztxxaitly Hj^LtlCtd- Nur waa lie caitttiil luvrejy 
to r*^port what h(r htnl a^iccrtAincd. " Come and soo/' was 
hU lorctblc arjL'^utnent. '* I }kave lately hod tmdec mjr 
care." he wroti?. " swn^ of the worst 8pocie§ of malij^ftnt 
smallpox in thr; Marykhoiu^ intirmoiy, which many of 
tht fuic^iihy liavd examiuecj niul kimw to Iiavi* \>efn vac- 
cinatoci." Hia tnj^t in "Come and 4^," ho atiil more 
|MjW€rftilIv r;xi;in|»]iri<:d In mi i^xhibitSiin of tbft injuries 
inflicted ity vacoinAtton in hL» Li^turti Room In 5itvito 
Row in October. IHOo, *' Knowiu"," lie aald, " the cavU- 
ling character of the Cowposori, I dolcnaiiusl to loaro 
Ui^m DO *"*^ W (tttrcat : wid tiici:i.-for<< ho broufihb 
toL^etber '^ve (jx-tiui^d l>oy, who mUo had a 



toniUy dueooed dbowjotHi'; lUranDe Lewu, the 
nHuig4iy ^ri, "vbo wis ccrvr^d wUh blotdbn Ittu & 
IcofMm"; "skMdof cluldreQ in » cut from the aouth 
of LovkIod,** and olfaett accoaipuikd bj Uwtr pumli^ 
and di^l»yiDg tbcjr Tationa makdH*. wd. " Behold Uie 
t-fledA ui the neve dLv^ae that hasi Iwm Ulcrfi frufii ibe 
etntr and UDpltDted ia hgtnaiuiy :" Tbifi painful exposi- 
tion wa.1 coatinoed <rver two da?^ and m be rccorda, 
" Uie Mene waa cnilj aflbctiof; and disticMiiig to all wfco 
witocaacd it" All antagoni&l like Bowley is a Monona 
factcir in any <Mntn>Yrm\ and wc may ^vUiitiaU! Uw harix? 
be wTOti^ht by the cxtmne anxt^ly ol ihe J«ni>crit«a to 
have htm ^viLimated by th/d bUppMMl at»urdlty of Ui<? 
ox -faced boy. 

Tu a mau of pnuljcal tciii[ieT like- Rowley, tbi; «-ntbiu- 
iaxm n-ith nhich ^raccinatiou was at tirsC ad^t>cat«<l 
ap|>car(H) akin to dcliritiiD— * 

I havf bten ia >orao TMdiwiiea afasDi, aad haT* bftd tlitt UiUean 
Iocs oJT mj ooAit, oloth and all* t* oocTkiot at of tiio grial auil 
lDbUiU««u«]l«ac«ofCo«vcx. I bar* avva soau of lb«ir*haaBmt 
Ta«c«aalon roddta Hko a Qbbio with fVirr, lliair l^ii qdoitcrin^ ttieir 
oj«« clartiag ovt of Iboir b<oJ«, tibfrir momlu foaauag. tbciv ioa^cft 
uvppniE b« words. od4 tlicu fiiti «kE>dbod lilw |Nvili«tot n«>iy 
to uttoapaaty Ibcir vioUnl wrblk wiiL «4kv k&o-tk-dovn ftrc^- 
aaoDta. la ituh €kcQm«luMe«» miU, iav<o1i|prtina I'bilOH^y 
^aitft lb« io«»o and Imtm tiio fiaJd of t«illc 1^ tho Bodlunitot. 

Tbo fury bad ftubaaded in 1605, ocd Rowley held tbat 
piany irifvliml ni«<n were d<»eply aalsanwl of ibo frxtrnva- 
fCanee into which they had Dc«n committod, but laekcd 
ooumge tij uiJike fnink coiiTiwijuii, 

Rovrloj diod in 1{»0€, aud tho r^i^rd in which ho van 
htld was manifest in Uir ctovtiK who tlL)ck<»l to hid 
funomL Jc the Jfo// of Pitt/^iciutis, Di. Muuk observes — 

Dr, Kovloy wm a d*toniuiM<l oppoEunt of V«coiiiAtiOQi ftoil 
obluftad aa aooaruhlo AOioriotx By bii ataooution witti Dr. 
UoMiojriA«ipo«in^«T«iTooDooivaibloob«t&o3«loth«rvo«peiOD aiail 
piopptM of Ibttt in^^aloaUo dUoovoiy. 

Th« obstoclcrt inturpo»cd wxrv n^att^rmof faat, and an 
mattcrft*of-faci wiaw njc^^nl'^wl imil jin^^aikil 

TliG eoncroveny thftt followed the lAtroducdon of 



"toiuiIiifjiiiU numlrerof puLHcaLicjiu of nil (IcAcripiioiu" 
iitt Vihieh he cmili] only si^^ct tho mo^t chJLFacUttiilliL 
thcAc WET find Dr. Souirri^], whose bi^ok la 
4l(-!icrilJi^(1 *^ai the moat enbertainin^ uf t1i« whole "-^ 

WDWillvaQtUTBto lay, llitiUi-U wu kuow 11 to bonbnlJ MAorUot), 
tUal ibfltL' ii«itf wiuf lUi.vlhLu;; au Lll'vrriUea. or so x-tilg«r tnd 
ubsurJt lirui1ijt;t«il IwHirv \iy n l'i^j'm.ici f uttLlinif liimsalf ft Doctir of 

Iju^ovur. uLiuh koBVA i]!i ju Kood Uitiuoui. Mini liv HhiHkii ntxivl 

wjtii rjch a hctf'Mi^riGd fr^/nuamDM amJac^vitj^, tL^t il i* redlj 
crutirctLtDK tu look oti LmUi 

TuTuin;; up Siiuirrcl's pauiphlet* 1 find Kttl© at noUiinf 
to wprrnntr lIiU ilT'_-«-riptimu It ia net ill-written, S 
jml^ivl by tbi^ HtAQcIiir<l of inodtcal litomturo, and tho 
'" kprin^nPKi" i* ti cnnj?i-it of t^o tr viewer's to sport wltb 
ihft nijctor'd namiT- My own imprprmon is thftt Squirrel 
wfW h (ii»M f<illiiw, jm!ija>t uf cawjiux its mjcinons tti l\\i? 
trado in smoltpox mocnlfltion,&nr1 that 1id a^^lcd hioiHolf 
of the dcj)rc94Jon In the vncci nation businrss la awt-rt 
iU Auperiorlty. He adiuiU. indeed, tb&t )lc^ kq;^t Kilont 
(luring tho Jeonorioji furore, "but the overvrli^lmiug 
t^^rpTit >it»ing ffraiduitlly ntlur^-d U) u frnhfo cunwrt/' he 
reckoned that Ji« "nii^'ht now promuWte his npinion 
witli ft n.*awinfthlo hojx' of succ<?*i4.'* lie al«s Jeriner's 
fUM^Dunt (i tho origin of cowpnx m the greasy hccla of 
hui-!>*Ni, iiiid proc^e^ds to ar>ftie that the diseww h M^mfulii, 
-cvhft^b it* itioctiUtion is ccrtnin lo diHTaBe, vrhiUt ftttordiiif; 
no protection Irom ninallpox. He then ndducrit n nnmbcr 
of CAWS in prrxif that tTiocnlftted oonrpcz haw3 not hv<;rtc*l 
fimallpoK^Aud hnd m^icvcral instAncc^ brought on urriom 
And fatal iLihiieulA, 

If HTTJ' J>inuK, » rxcmfw rtrui raiJiiy itttrvitti/rii |Mp Ul* 



fomer in & fetter in U^Jtv inm Bccbk;, 28th 
F^bmsrv, 1$10, Umb rt£en tu Sqw ii n l — 

dtastiM far ttkidi b* ki 

to »r> *k^ 1>^ <*« 
LcnJon, far llMtv ws a» 
ni^t dtt, H« v»a tb» 


for «mnsl a%hti ■« as «>9w< ef 4«4iaea ; bol I -jh^tia 
It^- tb* MB* viflpaA ■• T bata 

Jenner's eontenpt w of « i&iniralous qtttlitj. oper- 
ating IDSODSiblj OpOB tlKM« tO vhoBI tC VU SppTlcd. 

Some mijflii Eancj^ it was his idteattft and othcn hia 




that it UB«t«d hk 4dTctMii«« in 

that. vAcditttJon Uuttfd nRftllpox. 

ThiTtT ift Lh« woeful iiicno«4>Dy of irtoit in thoftu old 
p^uiphlct^, not mcreljr in the occurrenco of amoftUpux 
AfU-r va«cuxadon. but m tlie MdOer vtoricA of uaiUt lAd 
chrooic blood-pouoDiiit:. Wc itcoi^iuM tbe nftintivr^ 
aj trtitf, tor thi^j ire rrprudoc^d miuong t» continuously 
bjr the BOtno iseftDfi, with tho aano intatttios and Bgoni««, 
and with the Mmo dotiUi for givt^fgl releaa«. 

It 'u- cictr from the t<vtiino<a^ of Uoftcky, Kowtcj «tuj 
84|uiiivl. conSruiotl too by otht;ni mid hy tho JsllIl<^ntc4 
th^mwlros, that tho iMctcns^oD of vacdaaUon met witti a 
decided check in London. It woa proved to nuui}' in a 
fashion tbftt did nc-t admit of dispute, that vacclDatiuti 
cooFciTf^d no jtccurity from vmalipox* whibi it W&d 
Att«rnd(4l witli daMgert to fie&Iib, eirrUin if ax yet 
uiiiltlinable. Vmiolo^H in<?Galntioii waa again revcctcil 
Ui, btit by diinini.-dicd numU^ni; for tliai ptw:tic« ni^vei 
had pieraUed with popular f-ood-will, but tbrotij(b M?du- 
lona in«d>cal persuasioQ na duty of dire ntceteuty, 
VaccinatloB affotdtd cxcode for he^tatiuti, aud, between 
riral claims, many contrived to otndo either Fono of 

* BiroD^ U/p ^Jfnnrr, voJ. il* f^ MT. 



pollatton. ThuH indirectly a^ it w^re, vncdn^ ]Tio«[i 
fv^t t~<i*ic voriolooH, and when in IHH) the latter tru. 
fcirliiclili^ii \)y lnw» thvwv wwi liUin of tlu- pmcUeit Inft^ 
vhitFft at t]\Q same timo the majority of the popu' 
cjcistct] without Jennuriftn {jrotcction. 

It in not ia hit Uiv'jou^n tbat tlie early r^«ia^ 
vficcinaiioTk proccc'l^d entirdy from moculator« 
■cniJlpoy, ft wa^ux yr't uiitiimginncl thnt ttfiuill]x>x nrnl 
othct f^vvra were [jroventiliie, that their eaoafa Uy 
Vp-itliin cnntrol, unit that Iw-nlth wi» the hest defence of 
health. Thi.^ world oh vl^I Uy in d&rknc4« wt to ihm% 
tTutbA whldi we now recognise aa hive of koalth, hygieoe, 
nxid sftmLiry lidoncf?; ttor k-u tfin darknrwi r:i)led .iw^y, 
Lilt i-1 rtjIUni^ ftway. And thb time ia uol di^tottt when to 
Ije vftTcmntrd in r-rdcr In hfi wife from ^m&llpox will be 
occoiintod tho dn>Ucst of abftunlitiu^ 

OiJiTj^* bock to the Edinh\A'iijh Review. w« nTUinrk 
with ounotis LDtoreat how the chief poaitioD then asscrtcui 
^fi^^ ihc nUdio^ clHciu-y of v^icciiiatioo, Inoculators 
wtrt r^fldy to concede that U roight poK«5i* a temfiornTy 
prophyUKy, In&^mvtch as nntil one blood fever htwl 
ttiitnidrd nnntlicT wns uriikt-ly to Hupt^rwno; ^mt this 
^ow J«?1ii'C>" declined to <^utert*uo^ 

It nMiui contmrjr to thll aoaIojo^, and iJI ralo» of icMOiihiit to 
nppo*Di -t priori, that ftn iiuriuttilv hJiic^i i« ffluad to cntuist fora 
oflftaui tirao in ihp »rtiul oAil liitnillj fiil Aiale <d tho ijfteia, will 
l^niJnftM y uid InKonnblj wmlt aw*y witlioui nn^ appwoot < 
or u>7 fAVAibU clian^ to iadieate its oxtinotti>a; ai>A tb« 
^thkh bov %X all ti|H>n th« qnoEtioiip bo far frcoa 
nipportuig iQi^h a nuppMitioD, eooEu.) la cor 
pifitoly to r«fato lUii! ditcrvdit iU 

Yet what i» IbOtf v^aa aocauntcd "oontruy to all 
iiiml'j>ty " and "comulelely refuted and disi!tr€liL*«l hy 
f&cts," is precisely what vnedn&tont now admit. Hence 
their nry for n-'-v&cciiiation — 8«[itenntiLlly, tTicimially. 
annually. l)r, Lionel Kinlr, n great anUiority in tha 
matter* r*:eently owned t*) bn\-ing been vaccinated ten 
tUnt"i, and In terror of an epidemic wa* about to 1>o 
vaccinated onco moro — n ntn^tn^ exempliticataoQ of 



contemporatj- theory arwl practice. To hftvo foreman 
fluch ftn i«ii« woiild hurVU coiifou»d<>J the iiarly vaocimi- 
Ion*. Whon Tc-racciaation was iaentioa<id to Ur. IVar^ion. 
hij d^fir! itfl prujtiliility ; " for," sfcld ho, " ViLCcitiAUon 3* 
equivalent lo nmiLltpox, which cannot rocur it a, child 
can he re'Vaccinnt-f^i, thrn tt fvin tnkp Emntlpnr ; ergo 
vaccinitir>n in not on rc^u]\'^lt?Tit for fitnaltpox ; trnd wKctc 
then tf the ,\'ood of it '. " Where ii»ii*^ed ! 

Tlie Ivlinhnr^jh r*ivipwt?T vtom *iilTici*ntJy impftrtift] to 
rcopgiiUc violiyinr alikci nmotit; Oowpoxera aaJ 8mAU- 
pOKeTs, and *perifled John Ring, JDnner's hallj, lu an 
oflfcndcr» describing his Tr<ntiB€ on Vo^vpox as "one 
thouitaivl and fi»rty diaotic pa;t^ tn ilefenee of f.ha nuw 
practice-" Rin^ vciitiod the critJcieni Ir ioa^iinff a 
pftinphh*ts T/c fti'iufir-i uf flu' K'UnhiLrt/h Rxviru^ nlinn 
the Stinfc-Pot of Zitf^nUate ; ruminrlm;; tia of th<; man 
who wnlEn>; lo hb wife troin an inn-jmrlGur remarWh 
'' I mtut cnnc^lurhr, foT jui nnmaniiRrly IriKhmon \ji IcH^kiag 
over iDV nhouhk'r fl.ntl rcadini,' cvury word I vyritc:" an 
cbeervfttion th&t wjia iminediMely clenched with, "Yoi 
iLTt a liar, nir ; a liar I " 



EvKitVBOLiY appeals to common >"eiiae, hut what is onm- 
TDon-scs-^e? tt is a nccfltion dil^ciili to an.^ivrcr; and 
y*t, HA I prf^pttie U) *!inw thai (^ohbett'ft oppoiUiun to 
raocination was jualifr^d hy common-sonw, 1 am bound 
Ut Dive Nonic drrinition of tfiu tiTriii. 

CofntnoD-AL'ttEio ia roaaon as evolved from eommoo 
exp^cnoe. What the uk\iltitndo of mon have found to 
be true in the couwt; of life, that in common-ien*u». whidi 
to queaUon or msJhI is f<>lly tfr fanatici^ia This viil^r 
and vigoToiH t^tindnTiry Is oFff^n kutiiiilhhhiI tci nivrvicie 
where it lifiH no vomtioa For exauipK when it 



wnM finit bm^lrt ihnt t)w ettrth was ft nJwro ind 
iu JTilinbiEJLuta bu<l 4nUpo4c«, tito rcTolttion wofl 
nounLi'ii ua otDtrsr/ Ui Qoniiiii)n4*4M9 ; tmt it 
obvloiu that in »u^ a ca«« (wliidi roproaeote m; 
it waa wrongly involci^d ; lire tmn of Ibc earth (m 
Uici iimrt wiUiilp common c^nlune^. Aa looc^W 
OA it w&s Tc^iioii by cxpi-rknca Ui&t tbo eartli wsi 
HpliericRl Aiirt luhabitod in all iu (|iuutcni, thi^ i|g 
TOtuncIity bocama incor[konit<Ml in tbe ooikrtituUt>n 

Tho rcnlm of oororaonHMBM I thoroforo bold to 
liini(«*l by its origin in coniioca 4i:ipmepct, ttxvl 
iimtl4.'rH uiHivc or Hymn] UiAt 03cp«rjoiioft, its flicto 
illci^tiiikato, and Ajnonym^ for pr««uinp4ton and 

Wiltmm <UA>h\Al won cwioittallya mun of oouimtm- 
■Mk^tf, Ulh povvvr lay lu Ida coittiuuDity w^itb the rxj.crn- 
0000 Finil rouon of his oountrj'm^ii ; and, like &II of a!^, 
ho hfttl Uio dofocta rj hU virbuiN Uo c^ntintuiltr applied 
liin vTil^r judgitiont to tbe crlllcif^tn of di^q and UHlt^nf 
beyoiiJ thu r&ngu of hb compctvi^cc, acil tbe r«8uJ( wai 
a liixurinrice of arrogiiiif^r* and contempt far which at 
t]\[% ilay Wit irtQ^t report to Mr. Ku^kln for & mrftllel 

Hiicb bi'iiig tibf cft:**^, w*: Imvft to imjuirv.Whot vasthe 
wortb 'jf CubbutT^'n opimL>ri in tbo matter of vaccinaiioD f 
Th« atLcittpl i^ Boiotiimf^ made by vacclnfttova to wltb- 
ilmw thoir practice^ from popular diBcujuion. They ay 
H in A imodicAl tjucdbkn for mvdical mun ; but tlic uisxt- 
Uon provokoA Bii;<^Tiicioii miher than oonfldpnce, fur 
inyatory t« an invanaljlo note cf imi>:aturc. It U fair, I 
idlow, lo ii«j- iif any aUtruao kuuwlud^ tljat iL etui only 
bo approhorulod by thof« 'cvboS'O faculutw an trained for 
it« appTcb^HMon ; bLit nhat b tli«r» abntfurto about 
VBccliiaiiun f With littW trouble, ©^wybody may 
as much about it as anybody. U b* the aimDlcit of at 
tftcal ri|]i>raticui!i. It U almtW as «aay Mr* lakiiig |jil] 
iQflU^d vi putting poifioD dowD Iha throat \i k inaei 
into tho akin. Vno ofxsmtian niny mull in any nurnl 
of pathological coDipbcatioi>a,1>Qt wheihcr ajch ootnj " 



Uoun be odmittftcl cr dcniod, vrhul vaccinatiooi 1% prC" 
ftcrUjr^fi for, namely, tliL* prevention uf Hitmlhxjsc, oimes 
wiibin tho r&Dgo of cj>iinngn obsoTrntioa \vhn.t, thoro- 
forc^ T }m\o to ajisYrt^r is, llifit- CobliL-tts comjiion-Ma-M! 
coinpcUct to d'.liver juHpment upon vncdnatioo. 
LoTcovcT. iIjc ciKum.^tftnoLS of the time cotnpollcd an 
i!oa; *l!encd or noritrallty was impossiMo. Knglan^l 
swaniung^ iA-ith rAcciAatora. AJL the fiissy f^ilc 
who liEiiI » Ui.<C4^ fur Juiug nnidi gixiil ni little cost Wi^ru 
plying the cjvcpox lanoct, Encoiini;;*j<l by Junner« tliey 
got vaccine, inocuUt'^d n victixn, unit pii^ipa^iU-d tho 
viruft rroio ftrm (c arm. H^ru I may lc*t Cobbett rptak 
for hiia&df — 

Tbii aatUm k fend of nQHt^kery uf all acrti; And thin jiMtloalar 

It BprvBdiiiti tlid LiuuTitryUk« n lU'^tiltuce Lurtiu LyUiswiiiJh 
8p«djl>' bprMit: up tliv Ik'VuI JpiiTi^rjiiii IiitlJkitiou. oud IrnUicb 
mrtUubvUH imiiiuK ixoM tlic i^uirut tj-tiitk. t<pt itistuuLl; tv wi>rk> 

BOHlU;/. Gcullriiiuu and Indies cuaJc the cuiumLhlit,^ u pockoi 

MIlMnoai liu HiuDpehirc ai ItiMt) IhQiI ilid u^ t]LiIcLI> take to lb 
llMbt ii vad oerlAU) ti:> conj off EUcr* ci Ifw «f tlic dif^huu of Ibv 
«Oir. Oao liQuld hiif* iJtOD^t tlifti liatf llio cottb ia tlio C0UUI17 
3iAd b«<Q ljk|)|Hhl to ^ mdt n qnaotity »f otnfF,* 

Nor WAH va«cmaUon merely foici^J ou Htibln'tth ui- 
Untion im a popular croco. He htui to ilnal \ritb it nn a 
ckmmM.i? c^«npuW)ry infliction. At a ]>uMic nirctmc in 
1803, Wiibtiforce and T)t. Clarko advocated tlio prohibi- 
Mod of flTnaitpox inoculation And the (Enforcement of 
VMcinntjcit; and Cobbt.'tt. in a It^ttt^r addrntHtrJ Llj Wll- 
bcrfonxv r^bulcod thg arl>itrftry project in a strain \m- 
pirawivc and dignintti at^ that of Burke hLm?«rir. He 
wrote — 

It Mtoiii Uurr« iLi« lovJudlrcK »E-iiJuiht cowpoi wlJch It In n«C!iti4- 
niy to drntroy lij fc^tu. Thni lb*™ nm prpjudic**. and vor/ 
MroM DMA too, I BUi rcDcIj lo hlltjn'* but I oaiiELDt jt^nv thzLt Ihno 
ingDokoa eboo-Td bp orulicutoil hy intcc ; uur ii it |*ifrliBi)» fikir ti> 
oM Ui« d^frndiiiU l«nii M «A£ir«fiMvu of Uiu di«Ii3^« tvydi m Imi:p 
» [icaikiu (if lli» cviuEUUuUj DutATtftfij ttf tLQ5tiactic« >cju uiv »j 


■ JiM« to Tm^ff Mtn. Loiidqn, ISST. Saa. »£. 



wmJiom lo ccAip«L tb«n to »Jone. lit* «!>»«• of |irQ«di«« btf 
t>Mn f g»fiwi f J bTit laa cfUii, uia w!lU bnl too fiilBl Bfi^MU a^uotf 
•vury on4 oppoiDd to f^h&ng*. Th* tmih U that vho«r«r bftf fcMn 
fbouit to 4^f^o4Tt to icnovbtioQ. hawwor wild in ltK«If, lunraftf 
ilMtmninT m iu eDDMhmooMii Iua (^cniilniitly Iwaft ^oj^iuaid of 

iivf># untl ji^T-TTfittiinrj. luijl hti f#w p*rH|in« &r# niHfn^f to h# Ihoo^bl 
||nor«Di fend nmoriiA, thp ImpntAtlon fn ^inployiii4 fA oo^m* MHBl 
vhan MMviD UfKit«u<. 

Ho then tptly Applied the repudiated recommcnrlaliom 
of inoeulAtionwitb frioallfKix ftscaoaofoT h«aitatioa in, 
antnting to iiKjCDlatioiii with cowpox^- 

Tb«nvM,j«mi»utvaI1 ivnumW, ■ Blnmf- Mid Boncnli 
l|iin,wUoli MTft Icms ^* pnvfeilvA, ifAiii«t Tuooolttllw 
Snklhini ; Mid ^cra c^tmot hvn forgotC«D tliAl lldn obji 

,fltf^A«rsi&, f/w^rdrt/, at ptrt<rtr,; yd it Dow Appcon from fliaj 
ijulAfwof yuur lEoyid Jvuifvrimi ^ooitty tknt U wnild luive Iww 
■««11 ftar Iti* livinui r&cu it Hw i^iayiMtQH trf tJiiv^ iUiterateb it^MT-' 
uil, [tf pcrrvrM gicnoikK haid uiLtvBniiU.v pMalutfd ; t*^ «-ou uow 
tJl w HmX " Inoculation br «pr«adiuif tL« ouolaoeiaii tiiw ouq* 
ttkhv^btj laofMMii Um iQart«lhj oT&mftltpui.'' Willi nn vMuiiplt 
UlU QiU b»furo oui oyw. Ongbl «r« Dot to in vvr j c^LiiLmii- U?w wi 
«dpft>our ui^n riy* Ipmh <>r I uooalation with Covpox? 

Hnou turning upon WiIWforxK in his f&vourita el 

io4«r of ooiuititutlcnal Gn^Ihhuuin, lut proc«cd«J-* 

t^tnv n* Wi^ to ftiOc yATU Sir, how you r<>v<irci]« a propMUiM' 
to «aIMV* tbSa D^T^I jmiAtico vltb tho Hpirit of tttut CMu^tvttoB 
4t vWth Toin jirofon to bo to ^rcftt :Ln ftJiuirvr, :tnd with thttt 
%M^h>Mt ^ urbirh ^11 winili tn !« r^onrJ^r^ as ODo of tbo prin«l|Ml 
^^tft«nf Whbl I Kill oft]4tttid t^i ouJ wh&t I iliu alAmud mt, 
E^p yfopO«Uio« li-k ohlHfn Ml AaI of rArliani«nt which would In 
K M^MlbiB b« iKitlilngfhciH Af foni]kT]lAh>n ou omry nu«n Ur nalfcr 
Sk^^Wttf Ui child to ha Intf mgniiliid with th« dlMM r^f h Fe«4t 
^VB |o ba ft^opUtl tn no cDimtry wliar* th» ^AOplA nw oot 

> cum* tlie^o remarks vrlilcli &t thh tiny h&v«] 
aiipU»tion gtvJitcr oven than wbca written — 

I' a«vor«i]i]in^ lootifTtno* to Aet« of rArliamBnt, 
.t b* I'ft. fltLcl mxaoihi^g c^ffkl t> 1>« Iclt, to Lhoj 
;wbkjQ ftOd montiitj bn^I r«]i;i;loti of tbt r^ople. 'H 
if v«^-*"'vuiiRj/ fRffl in tfcii pountfy, vrbo wcnUd ] 
^^ nfdstt&g And r^ttroiTimg of cvttiy fMlloH vf 
^i^tfivrtvjrniclion tf iho biLmaii fruti« : tboy wnalc 



tncd il« ilmwji, l;iiir hy \iAxr. w* tllA rUtimtmnH (t\d Gulliver, till 
iwm. v\uni W4t Rn/cih4» ^utii >imc t*\in)ji. Ht< 4lio[L!it wi>a(1or hy v/iunn 
v* luul boen cutjftvfi]. But I IriHt, SLr. tliAt PuLAEumit i*- q^jI. 
bud DOFof will Wk »c frv uuil«r tUu jiitluoa^ of tbofta niluul* uiid 
XD^ddUn^ palibioluifl oa lo be iDducjil to pu-a Eawi fur lokiatf out of 
n Hum'* L&uJ» lb« u^nLim:ciuii.-i]t uf LU Loii&tbi>1iL tluj uboiuu uf lili 
^livficUu. ^i»\ t1ji> uurtf vf Uj'T ij^'Jiltli »r hi» I'htlJj-eu ; fot. uuiJer 
Itin wit or <liiiau;ilUry tlii^dvuj. iu talk ^if iliv Ultwriy vt tliv cuuji- 
Uy iTouJJ bo tUo jjiuft oi-acl luookorf whorowith xn 1iuiiiI>1q aitU 

GobWtt. ba it olttervod, tlnw FuiHreMcd Wilherforce in 
180!}, wbon v&ociniition woa m vdl impi^rfvotlv t^Ktcd, 
and Ita advocates v.'ur« in the full b1a«t of enUiuMOdiiu 
pcrsiiftinon that to be JrnniTri^ntl wju U> he mnAa proof 
agtinnt ^mallficx for cvur. \^^tcll Cobbott hud again 
occasion to wriM' a>-out cowpox, mx years had passed 
•way, bcftriii? wi-.h tKcm tho pUaiiUiwtie cerlftinty with 
wliidi vHrftna-tiun biui beau iiin>n&cd Lipou publitr en?- 
dulitv. Xovi'rtti<-^l<tib tlitf procLico iva^ not abnndotkCMJ : 

StttCKcry oiico ali^^c and ItJcralivc* dic.-^ IiaTtI : but tt naA 
UcTirditcd, riiid iu aroloifiaU yxtrcUud tbcir ln;^ouiilty 
ta devising txplbjutiojia and excuses for ita luaniftst 
foiluu'^ Th<T llnynl Jtmncriaii Soiiicty }iad spUt hrtwDon 
Jcnncr oiid XVj%Lk«T, and appltoatloD to Poruamonb wnn 
r^solvftd iipoii for two purptwfw — i\nt. to »avo Jenner 
from poverty; tiud r.i?C'>iid, l<> provido fuiidn for tho 
mAiiiLcitaiice of vattlnutiou, ^oluutary BuVjaciIpUuufl Imv- 
ing fallen otT irr*^tri<<vahh'. In Mhijrt, vaccinnUon had 
lvok«n doivn, and the; Hcu-tc of Commons -vts called 
iipcn to *iavi> it from exiiiitlioii, I'here woro wire-pullers 
in tHc JIou&c and out of the Hounu who were com* 
proiobed by thtdr patronage of Jeun^r atkd bi8 iiijpoitaru, 
Aikd t]i«y had tbo craft and tho pow«r to trani^or tho 
ri:«pjn>iliittty of which thry wrm nick to thi? ntittorial 
«xai«cuL<t-. WiUi tbin OKpUnaUoti, ve shall iiiidt}r%iand 
tbe follovhuig aritclu from tho Ikgietcr of l^ith June, 
180S. Cobbott wrote— 

Tlibc&IwniiiealwiUi Cowyux, wLictibM c^b tljouatton £30,000 
to Dr- JtfUjjur, i* uuw. h «H«ta*, to 1ui\« no Act of rnrllarueab to 

■ PUilimt ttrtflOtf, :eu>l Juiuvy, 1S03. 



pre it oTiTTfincy* Mr. Hom bM bivafilii la a Hll r>r ttit jKKrp>TA 
of oMAMulioifC a «rattvl InMiiatloa In Loni/^oi fur Ih* dfitribJlUa 
ci Oow^iix n)btl4r. wbloli bill lb all BppeMwuM wiU pM ; 4a4 
dbffuaUaj^ Attd dDgTft4in|E rMiudj will Mttt tLo luOMn 
£4.000 or £f .000 anim«ll}, tboosli ti bw bMs clMtly prav«d 
to luir* &iuw«r»d tli« p«rpo«« inlooi*!- Thv. hon^^cr, 1 tqgftrd 
44 oh**p wl]«D ei»ntuTt4 «4th the tuacwM of Mr. KaJl»r. vbo. n 
Iho iMoto. |>ropo**d % ooiiiiriilur/ l*w co tbo Butjoat- U« l4ok 
op tfa* oU ido* of Mr WiLlMrfi>r«v wb^ wm Uj a Iav to prvrooi 
farv&ld ivom boH^icg tluuf ULiroD iao«il»l«d wUli SnuUpoz uaLow 
th>*T djoco to mhJ thftin tj> pMi-b^oMt, tn U> »caM»Uo« ftt ft o^U' 
«lto*l)Io 4J«tadM fR>0Q nnj o!W*t fakhiLiikTni^ Tl^i (teiaI ftnJ 
tjTUitiical pKpMitSoO) 1 nppH*d %t i7ia Uto* : *ac1 I niu liapf ? ^ 
p»f(ulvA tbAt It it noftr nlsioce a3tfori«Dy tipbuUit. 

WhiUt Oobbetl could not Atrvst Ibo action of Parlia- 
mmtj liiT U'RA hliorUtti^hU^I tn ftknuiili^ring ihat tli<* pro- 
posed endowment of TAcoJnttion woh ua^rely & quvstiott 
of the luas ot A few thouaaniLs & year. Wo are fladcUod 
with "Tftc^iLiUoii fit Ihiv <U\% iU co«u ukI niKchi^n, if 
rciLlOfi of the vole for tKc ^iitionJ Vftcctnc E^iUblut^ 
iDOnt in 180$, M sonn as an AiinuAl ^ub^My it pl^cvA 
on the c^tifnatc?], intciv^ are crcolrd, whicli not only 
j^*q«?lual« U«ii]?tfK«<, but cun-*UuUj' IrnJ li3 rnl&r^ 
m^nt i nn'l fiiioh intori»t4, once cTeAl«il, con only bo ^t 
rill ot whi;n ptDViTil tJ^'^Irx^ b^ aj^CaUoh oiiL <>f tUjon^ niiil 
pQTuijU'Eit prL--^iir»> on tbc Hoiu« of Ci^uuuoiifi, 

l{<jrcmrt;; to n notorious outbreak of amallpox atnon^ 
a vac<?iiiati*il population nl Ringvood in Ham[ubire, 
Cobbott oontiuucJ— 

I UioiiM l^o to ha\o heard Mr. Itwe^ rtotcattful of th* cirona* 
BtwiOH At Bmi^^wiKxI.wliE-QDo, jis vA>-i, H b «f Lti:iil tb>t tlto fj^lnn 

who livl beeo L»ni;itUtud wUli Cowi^lia. cimirlji Siuulliioikii' 
at ItiiigwiZh^d. U jk fuH t]i:LC :rv>tn Ihv Kuvtl Jtmit^tW 
oannot deayi nad iIUm bnlni^ tlia cju«, wliAt miui i& hU *eiiM« 
put ftoy faith itt tb« cf&cuy of C^TTpi^i m b prmotlTQ of fianoll- 
pax? TheMn^ i*doM~ It Aiw /a-cAsr^ «D<i il iBvniik tocibdfrari- 
our to f<rap w its npntalion ; for, in » few ycwi it wUI liocoms 
provor1>i«l a* butnbuf. 

A prophL<c3% H will Iv hhuI, thftt. bv not bpi^n Hill^lloil, 
Truo: but in Colbt^U'^ time it adv'onwd Ur to fultilindul. 
All Dhu iini|iia1iticil (i[\>EEji4T.?i uiiil^r nhich vacduatlji 


^^ «& liitmgUt intfi priii^tici% wen* oiw tjy cne Mirrenili^red 
^l^cr ihc counpuUion uf c^cpencDCtx Thi> maa^ of the 

Uie t>oc>T a^ciU^U ; and tliu praiitioe coutioiK-d amoii;* Ihf* 
liudalQ anil uppi^i' claAsen on Uie liumUejtt prtfUixtf — &a 
ftomdhing Uiait luti^ht hinder f>r uiUigAlo wnmllmjx, and 
iQ iwy caae do liltlc fmnii. We haw to Tccolk-ct Ui&b 
the niftniA fcir viiccinAtti^n trhich now provaiU U a rcviral 
of a prcAcnpti(jn which c^ir furcfuihrni had tcat«d aiici 
found wfLnt-iii;f. Vnwin^itujti fi.'ll into iiK^L^ct, not btcauHO 
Uwro wflw indiflVroiiCv t*i smallpox^ but l>cCB,iiso it ^id not 
prevent that dSsoMc. 

Tho f'licnso for tho flret fftUutos of vaocination was, 
ifaat 5punou» cowpox miu^l have bocn t^tnploycd — spurious 
cowpox being the artful lovcntion of Jwiner to cover 
disa»tcT9; artful, and yet abaunJ, for hov could cowpox 
nxiHt umifHiiMh' itny DdHT ihftn MHAllpnic ? Thi? pr<.-dM? 
fwit, Ihnt Hpin-ioua cowjiox wa^ thu Jodg*> of nn un- 
Acnipulou^ miftck WAS iiuluiown Ut Pohhettj but h" wiw 
HliAip «Duu^It to Tvc<]gTiiHu impa-iturv, itod thud wiol^j — 

TliA pnttvit E>f M/^Woru T»rjff4T h iUv vtfaUi'&t AateiMv tluU ever 

»l ii]u 1>f<c^iir<i> It U iM^iJt-ni that biicIi ntEl atwj^yh bn un rxctiJiA. 

MttliLnL^t pito vbi> lolil hi* slioftl of ctiilt:PoaB liiml i/ f^r^ 

/tn£k. tlir^y iiii^lit Juu]|i iuEo n dudk mi milioub hj tuudi lu 

B.Tiraiiiiiii- t)j4ur UTjkltp. au^nt.'^vd utl Llirir rt'|iiuai:LDB h^JlL Kiyiui;, 

IbaI tiKiJ br?keij Luiie?^ w<^f« ^wiu^; to (Lvir 4jwu uri m tiul liavmg 

Ulhi Mid fif?nvi], fur iiruuf. tu i^uij uiuouu tbem wLu Lail ntju^ 

di<ot«Uy vMupvd uithurt. All wliii <:uhErli SmiiLl[<0K tuul (Jit< bava 

CcwpiKUrd witli »j<mLkiJH ]j:jLl1i:r, mid utl whc fmvii iji?t )/H 

SratUpox. uflvr Ujq Cljuj^ix <j|iiftiatioa, huvi- bod tUn pLtru 

; Mid Ml U wiLi bu, t;j bo bLUD. li> the {-jjJ of ihit dmplcr. 

n^JUi in toci^IIocC IhJH ttiijiiiiJt matter, ruid ^fvAcncf ifl tl to i^ocdp* 

lVbo»JihIl lt\l wIutLir Ijt iuoculiito Willi Cqw|>ux or KiDc'it Htil? 

Di Hilb vaitay olhtr diioidcr*, qum of wIiEch 1 Vhtl] iiol uu£n«« but 

wbidi 1 do bopoi that father* and tiiotLoia who hwo si^tn tljok 

cfaiUten that gveott^t of llnuog, a puic »lrcaiii cf hlwJ, niU not 

fomi vLau tL«3r nro about to catitc tbat blood to be inprrfcuatod 

iHUi u^tUr IaIebti from ti^c ti24qruu» b«di«a of otlur*- 

In tiiift Latter wflmJng, wu havo to mnftrk Cobb^^tCa 
inrcbCiencc. Ht k»C'W that it Viox^ impon^^ibte bo tranafor 
Oi]guiM: vm» from rTnt-to-nnn without irnu^fernttg niore 
Umu H'OiS inttiidcd, inclunivc of tlic dreadful dt,-«;a.-u; bo 



indicated- Voodnatort nftiumJIv ilcnicd the poAAibllit^ 
of Bach extTft tnmflmiaaion ; for if tliey tui<1 aHinHtptl the 
pOMibtlity, they must have c<4»cH to viMdnate. M. 
Ri<^(in) Jiiti j)tTt l.lii* ii!(4*rriHt]vtT pUIuly — 

Thff i^trvliMiE fATt fa, UtJtt tr nvnr iLp tr»BniilttI<iBi of tbft dlMWi 
with TiKirtno lyiTijih It rleorly damonitntftd, Vtttxin^tivn mntl he 
aUf/j^fitftrr diMi^ontiRVfit. 

The gI^at demonstration Jomandcd by M. Ricord hu 
besun nbtjmlmjtly HUppUnil; uul wliAt at unc time ir&s 
Conv«iiientIy con^iddred qn^tioaable, i& now fjpcnly 
Qoofcmcd. "Mr, JlrudcncU Carter* vrritln^ in thcMmical 
Exttmhi^, 24tli liny, lft77. tvitilli?**— 

t ifaiak tbat flyuhiUtic <i}DUmti)»Uon by viiedii4 Ijmph is by no 
rscAQt Ao imunuil oamiTCCC*, and llu£ it ii va7y|;aiv*nlljr ovtfv 
lo«h«r1 b««iuM pooplo do n«t knov «|^iir wbMi «a- vfaer* to U«t 
Tor iu I UiJnk thM n liirgA prnpivrti/iti <4 tbo «aNei aT &|1|ai«rII7 
lali^rilibd RjpbilU %T* in tmIUv vnr^lbtl ; mid lh»l IbA «TpbiU» 1& 
tliMv Mflfri iSo4 nni ATmvr fiMJf until thi* *iio of frttm ■fchc ifl t«n 
yuan, hy whkli liTiiJt tlin rolul^oTi bpiuMn CAiun nnil ftftkcl ti< «{il 
Cobn IcfiC eight at. 

And wo havo Six Thomaa Wat«OD'« meitiorabU ddcUn- 
lion in the ShirUrnt^L C<:mtnrif, June, 1S7S*— 

I OMii rMdilf uTTuraUuM nrilli, mod ••nti At%'U^t, a f>th#T «bd, 
with tha prvmmCkS &rat<d or mUR^vEng in 3ilt n^inj. U wilUag to 
mbnil ta tnuJUpUed jTiiUalai paiismM rather tlian axpou bb mid 
to tho lick df an inftetirm u ghaatlj. 

Thua hclatod, thus after tntinitc^ mtechkf to tbc public 
bcjUrJi. the NcAlor of Mi^i3idnr KptH^art and nolc^tnnly 
allowa that th© warning of Wiflfaru Cobbett, given 
ficvcut^^ y«&Ta bfifoifi, was & Imo vrAmiogH atmI tb&t 
worthy of pratao ftri< the vrUo panott who olvo It bc«d. 

Cobbctt, cr&teful for escape from compuT&orv vaociuh- 
titJir, ovvrl(iokod, I ^it\, thn Jnngi^r mr|>i"limt«I thmngti 
llio cncIc>wii]<Mjt of tli<T i^mcticc. Hi> wa» ovtrjoyod at 
Caiiiiliiiffi ejciphaUe tlecfar&iion, that " lie cuiilrj not 
imu^nci any drciiinutaneci; Up'hfiU^'c^ that winiM indued 
hiiu to fotfo\T up tht.' most lavoiixabk report of thu 
infullihility of varcinatinn with tnj mouur^ for ltd 
cojuputnory intlictioii." Ucncti ho contbiued — 



1 lua ii:kd to pfrrooito UinC the Mrniglr^' Un>k <nre t> inliuibbo 
dulr lUtidod hoaljlity to Aoy law for ^rojio^tLiig Covi'pr>« Tiy/ofr^i 
ti7 Ifae Aid cf pairtv nod jn^na^fK^, Xlua boliLg tha oom, I aarti 
hlilo about Mr- i;<i£0 &tid hi^ Ci>vrpox laflbLi]tioa> Tlioea wko 
«liA(i«4 i<y hbvo thuir cliiEdrcn imptc^ntcd from that ebof, will bo 
kt lilserty tn do t6 ; ai^d ttio»o wbo iriih to nt^oiil it^ ioa^h Thin is 
&□ rigbl: tboii^h ii m&y ht very foaliiUi for Gov^miDtitil to intor- 
fm Id Bu^h 1 maUtiT- 1 thmk wo xQAy timak tha ovuutA at Utug- 
wood foi tbo miuEfltariat prot«at ogalrut ccmpDltory maiLtorai. It 
WOdU luv» bdun CiUTLOtu onongh to ico pcDplo ^nvmg paoiLlttai 
fer Mng CO obl1illftt# U Qot to comilt tli<^ir own hvdOi. or IIjaI of 
fh«Ir ehlldiwii- 

W)iA& Cotbfjtt tJiought would bo " curioufi enough" wo 
witncffa 'iodly. En^lisU Uborty. if it bas ftdvanccd in 
Kome diroctioiw, ItoA gorio Imcfe in t>tli«:r* ain(?»s Goblw^tt 
wrctt^ Pftreiila artr now Iiak-d btfyr<? iiia;;ibtratti^, Hno^l 
and iiiipiisunod, bwau*»ti (kn^jwjiij^ that vwxiiiation 
OLTinot ftvcrt smnllpox, whiUt it may Kcrioiij;Iy injuro 
Uic KcfflltK of their chiMtcn, ami even cost thctn thdr 
lives) tliey tefuse to submit to the inlliction. Ncv«r, 
pcrbap*, vftfl titcrc a moro impious invo^ion of liberty 
Uiftn ooiiipnlftory vacdrmthnj, a-ml vat wt huve frrr nii'l 
«n1;£*hlonod l!^TiglUhm&a who oxcu^o cind dvfe&d it I 
Thcsi; lire the PhArLKi^T-^ of Llbr-mlisin, bUtAiit over 
tjn^taiy. e?Etiiict or foT«lgD, but dull to Aimikr tymnny 
within thi^ir own doDuiin. Thoy gamiah the acpulchrea 
of tJi« prophets of frottlom, but (in their j>elty nit!ia»ur«) 
MMat the dwHifl of those who poDocut^-J and hUw Ihiun. 

Lutly, in t.liR article from whirTi I hnv*'. boon niiotirg, 
Ci>bbclt Oftflumod UiAt tho loacrt to thu H»u^u of I'dn- 
toons for money wan oviJeDc« that tho i.*ntliti9]a*«tTi fur 
vaccination wu; abating. He wrote— 

Th« praivnt appliuliou lo l^Jurnont it a pn>tty ra»d proof 
Ikat ('OiirpAi it li«|||innin|rto b« (rofrf vpori' Tli* KojOJ J^nnvrian 
SMrlnty ic/^itfj fUA/U. Thi» mhterlbtrB h«va fnllnn nlT; and lo 
■ppli^RllaO to tho nubile? pilfA» him brcomn Dcajuny. Mfiv iuiTS 
l£a luburriban ioMiax off? Tbtu Vjumdm^y lini aot vitird cold. 
It vfr* ulatitU'T^ inda«d, to buji|>oco tliat^ Bat J (nu^i^rit Ih&t 
Uifdr /nif A Ham wnn^il ea!i1 ; fint! vfh^n llikt U tJie ou*. t*U ac>on 
ilvOcniw tLs 47f Dnaiorp. innr* fcporUEly whon th(u« npcrattortf cao- 
flat eUdly in tba AlpimdItQra at ninnny. 

The fact wa^, that aa vaccinatiou failures multiplied. 

tKv. &i>t! uncd it Co^^ 
obCttiiiuw & vote of £tO) 
ki Adtmi^iiicnt of ft Ni 

AiyiWr, where ho had no 
ftgwn^ but WVp-ord Uii 
h4> Pt*i«oeJ a aerSoft erf p*i 

bi which he T<-ttcrat€d' 

1b» l«*itly hpp11cAlf<in oouTd 

iti^ SmKllpfix. tlio tratk cf 

In tliouKiLiiiU uMn Ibt 

Co* ten ypani, ifa» contruj 

. . But SmillpoT, in iu wou 

«od outIaeI ojr. T iMHJttir (T 1iat« s 

Emb » liundrad ptnurjii. jxiiing s 

B |Mtil^irj exploded 7 Koi »t ollj 

tjiilrgi»rl ; kit ilio tovul «JviiNta|E«b 
(iMkt i^L'rutJU ihv if|wrLtiiJii> acul' 
frifciMhljUEl OhuJ c^ubt free. 
«^»ii>— : thv tu^^rv oliurQci &£ i|Ui 
Wky. IliAt^ in hundraie of ussl 
""ct^iar,Luv0 uk#u tL«i«EJ 

II >i £roia Ihe dlxtf^or o« 

„,ii 1110OIIOD two £njitai:i<«a, 

boM von. «ov«ial YMra aJW ji 

VrilXlAH COWKTl-. 



raotluf wltMllifr h(> liml 1>««c int>fiuiaU4. ''Oil, no-*' Buid tL«, 
"«« an fining t^ haiw him v^^vtAdfAf.** Whor«i)ju>n I, gniisi:; 
Into tha (UvItD ta tha fftthor. ulil. " I do hcp«, CoilJ. Uint joit nm 
ool wtng to bfcva that b«««U7 coiv^CufE put mic ilmt fJti» bo)'." 
**mijt"M>i1 bo, ''j«ii Me, CobWlt It it to b« d^na l^'/mnn' 
AuBV^/' HVItht nc]«vrcif T ifAVf. vfhal mmtH nri'l apilhoU I ti- 


NoiT, hnjfl fl« InainnwB aiirtiig!i ; htit ovnnr fnailar Jiu, bonivl of, 
if natECfin.iDtinuof odiBn. Toqd^ Mr. Codd oanght t^nanlLpoi at 
a fohortl ; nr<1 if T r*obIle«t riglitty, ibviv ttcrn •avBnJ oUict^ vuo- 
ciiisl«4l jT-iTllt* who ^A th9 uuno &t tL« Man« tim«. Quuck^rji 
liov^^ri lift* Hjir.iyaii »,Tji]f!l4< Ivft, Xdw iTiM Ci^wiiLhi Tiivi hfttn 
jirovod Utho nih i:it4mcitori AjjuiciAl Sjjjjttlp&ii, H ijk,-ikrt»i It rniUpr 
tfhoa it cuuichT A ptulty aLuAIu, InditM, thlKt You arc to b« 
«ll jxmrlife ia four of :t,tiavLDi- h j^otsoU o>Dftc>IaUiiu> Ibal wIiod 
it OODIC* tasil it OiA/ oTcitake ycu lu & cuup or oil iLo fica^l it 
will bemdtdtr ' II wm uob tcKj uiiLd Iv kill &l Bluiswoud, iiud ita 
UiUdowtw. ;u iJiv cm'^v uf VLnni^' Uf. Didi]. Jiil Lit^t ivnLraui it fiuiu 
bliD^hig biiiL for H nwiUUci miuiLiur of dsri. 

I fJiAfl But Mftilv Toi^iTt 111* blanii HLjd lUtiirftT (jf Mr. »nd Mr#. 
Codd CD tJitA occufcau^butli of tliQUi Ibo but of uikirut*. uid WUi 
of tbvm pooiibed fi>T liann}; yielded to iftduMiftl>U tiuittkcty, I 
vill not UiyJiiMttij pmiitkcJ ^ for ufTtction fot tlicir cZiJiIreu. Lu 
vUd) rMp«cl tl^vT uvit nuvrr BurpnuwJ by buy iHLrmU oil raiili, 
wUioWiKiof tli«ir I^UuiEijic l^tho duijcqr-tiln'ijtlliJh: ip^ni^Wj. 
fhht too. £« Ibu <iu« wLtli ullier par«i»U ; but ii&r*nU fitiuutd bo 
Ulto IIm mfluoDOO of rfdjt'H Aud cjrp^riinctt oa ncU OAVodci tlukt 
«f •Stctkro ; ocd n«r, aX o-uj nUc. tLcy cogUl to cct lliis r<«Jl7 

Sudi vu Oubbctt* coAc agaliiAt vAccination. and I 
ask, Wfu be not Juatlflisi In hU oppc^lUoa? Hu h&w 
va«ciiiaUon inLruduccd to the ^otM as an infallible pro- 
ventlvif nf Hma11pr>x, nwl hr Hvr-il tii «i^i! tlm Hnini gnulii> 
ally mbiiitiflfrf] until reduced to tb^t of mate iu;; amall pox 
milder! Kveu thii-i Jibat'M, lie hiul to Nli^'inntisu tHo 
daim n-'< n Iiut fntutHL' uf (itrnvkk-'fy. It iti ftA*^rl4^d to tHU 
dfly. Liiut vaceiutttimi mAca i^maUDCx Liildflr. but tbe 
pm^nco in i^xpl<xlrd w}i»ii<>rcr vt^ tinmond. How do you 
know ? In any c^*bc, or in any number cf oAsa* of ainoll- 

Kx, l^lto can d^flne the w vpnty that- hn,-i lurn rMnced 
vaccmfttaon ^ Any motv th&n if I vjvtc to lUT^tt that 
viicdiuitW int(.-ijAitic» ajiia1][io:i. it ^^ould be huiftJoiUe 
to confnto me- Wo can only mod unv^Tifiablo OAMrt 



with indiiffiT^ncB or cooteinpt If it- ptea«« people to 
bfiHevo in motcmptycho^OA or tho coiutittition of Uio 
moon in gictii chi^i^^ic*. tlu nL^n knvu Uiuui lo thu et^joy- 
mernt of cb«Ir humour: On the othor h^nfl, 1 hjtve to 
rein&rk, tlmt ?^m:tllri9K j^ a. tli-^c^ufc of wido r4T^ of 
fntpn^ty, from an ailtiioiic almost trivial to on© invaH- 
My faui ; and this vide range of intcnaity yma «/« thnr- 
acL«rj?tlift uF tlin c!isR>utt linfntH «Ji mucl' tliH inLnflluctJim 
of votKjinatioQ. On what prot^rxt th^n aro mild oasDa of 
nntallpii^ MtnKiUed in tnc inlliitntt* of vnccination ? 
Thore &ro mild mid uaUgmifil cosuh of ftm&llpox aXikb 
tmonc tho vftcciaatod ftMnnvaccinatod, andnot unfre- 
qupntly when tho vacciTwtc*! nnd unvAmnAtivl an? found 
in api^roxirnatfi conditicnu, aa in the sfrmo housohold^ it b 
the nnvaccinnled who are most lightly aHlict*.^!, or who 
tnakv tlic better recovery. 

It uftt^ri h*i\im to VI t:l«uTer aiipmhtrnalon of a poaition if 
ve endeavour to conceive its opposite. We have mod 
Oobbctt 03 an opponent of voccinaticn: let in try to 
thinlc of him oa lid advocate. Suppose hh< h&i joined 
with the pclibu and educated moh in hailing Jcniicr as 
the tiavit^ur of mankind from nmallpcix, and iukutihI tho 
readers of the Hcgitttcr that iJiey wo\ild b*- ecciirc from 
th(^ disca^o for over if inocnlatt^l with ci>wpo,\ — an easy 
an<l hannlcw operation. Then aftur a tvhiJo iuum^iko 
him rt:pui-tiu^ thalht: liad ix-'en ujial^d— that the opoTft- 
tion ^-ju lint no oa«y as r^presontctl^ nor always no harni- 
Ic^», By an<I hyc ho would bo thv beater of a more 
rM^rions revelation. Some of thix vaccinntpd, wiumnted 
HtiCLiro, hwl taken smallpox, but Mich naisadrcntureet, 
he would explain. wert> duu to the una of a wron^rtort of 
coA-poTC, of whicli thero v-ae a fipuriou^ variety. But tbo 
nug;_'(^tian of Mm^E[]n^ eovrpgx cxeatin^ ularui and dix* 
coara^^'cuH^nt of vac^clrtailon. it would tM necossftry for 
him to coimlcrcct thu declaration with the avowal that 
by apuriouji cowpox wai not me:int spurious cowpos, but 
eiiuply irrc^uIariUoa in the action of the genuine virua 
on the aniiM of the vaccinutod. But evitn liicnn cfxcir^aes 
would bo inaulBcient> U wau not difficnlt to aaoribe 


31 fr 

siD&llpox after viusebi&tian to GarcL-u?t pmctico, or to 
yiru* that was not the rJnUt fli>rt of c<jwpux ; but vrheo 
ainnllpox wn> foiin<) tf) occur in niLnK^rotiH instances ftft^r 
Jcimcr'd own vaccinaiion-t mxd thono of tlit; montacci>m' 
plJHh^d praotiiioH'^rs, WhnL wnw ic ho tm<} f Why, what 
wiui Mia, thjit ^vbi'n vaci^niitii^n <lid not prevent smftll' 
pox, it made it miMer ' 

Imagine, if we cftn, C'>bb<?1('A hono^t and vi^roun 
int«1ti^ncc rc^trc^atiiig tlirongli tbi?i nlunlt of apology anil 
pKVBncatioQ 3 Ytt throLigb auch slush every follower 
of Jenncr had to trudge 

I an not Int^^iit on w^ttfng Cohbett forth aa a mod?^! of 
wiadom. I »mply Diaintain that his coDQiuon-aonso was 
ftdcqtTAtn tcj thr juclgmi^nt of van-irmtrin, nii*l thftl ii was 
oorreotly ^Xi^reLsed. Oi pJij^ioloKy and hypeno he waa 
M %Dorari( lu hia conteinpoiarii-s . but if a lotion were 
aola to prevent tcolhacho, and it did not prevent tooth* 
acho« it would be ^afi^ to donounoc it» vcnacrs ns <.\vtiak&, 
•Trn tluiiich thp %viidoTs hflppened to be the Royal 
CoUcf^ of Fh vnicianH and tbc Roynl V'oJlc^c of Sur^rorif^ 
The causBfr oi' disea^He wtn? uucoiinidere*! In Coblx'lt'i* 
daya. It vqj^ not asked ivhy pcoplo sufiorod from emalt- 
pox and otb<T feven, nor wlii^thei frvui? wi;ru avoid* 
abUi Such maTadice were accept^ liko bad weather, 
aj>d cnoountprcd by medical doifg-^s, or by charms liW 
raodnatloD, the more irrational and nasty bcln^ taken 
for Uic more «flcctdvc> Cobbctt bimscif, if he did not 
bnliKvi* in var'diuiLEdn, hi'H«viy| in incifulntimi with Miiall- 
pox, IIo had hii* childrea posed in uifaucy, and when 
m argtwd a^inst vaccination, it wtw in the (.'onfldciit 
pca»e«sSon of « «iittr prophylaotic Taking smallpox for 
a probable calamity that could only occur once in * life- 
timo, it a^«infl<l U> him expedient to incnr the disraa* 
irh«ii cotiTcniont^ and to have done with the dread of It 
How far h(^ wa^mtHtakon iTt thiaconrg© T need nri<,Rtfly to 
debato. Sutlic^ it to say, that h;; th^n^ht he covild m&ko 
sure that auiallpu?. iv*a siiiailpox, ^vbdnt what cuHpux 
might bo non« conltl t^ill, BNp«cialiy aft«r crftnamiii^Qn 
tikTOUgh anna and coiv^tltution unnumbered and unknown. 



Coblic<tVji days. It nev«r even cnUred into J^ntt^v^% 
hcufl tbab t1)« (lUcosc n^i^bt be a conAcf^ucnce of bad 
can^SUunAi uf liffi; nor <liJ ho try ia i>X|>U1n why ihe 
iHAlady wne od the dccr^^c era n« afipc&recl wtUi hv 
mngii*nl pivsrriptinn, Thn i1>'>:^*aw wiia t^laijainl for 
v^cinaUcn* but it haJ avt in ht^ivrc v^ccmaUon vas 
hoanl of, &Dtl waa cootinued niuORg those who ncvor 
rctviv-***! it No winiuiry improvement-* h«d he«n efll^Ctod 
to account f-jr the aWtcmunt of the tH^t'OM. To wh4i, 
tliOD^ wftg >t '^n? ? T nnKwvr, in fuirt nt l<^iu(t, ta n pro- 
grecwivc change in the diet of the pcoplo — to tho mb- 
4tjt,ittLon of tea for malt Hqiiorf. anil ti» the {lUplaccrniimt 
of arifl faro by potAtcc^. The fo<jci of city folk up to the 
cldHP of IftAt rentiir}- wivi thinply akin tti that of uieii at 
WO, and their sctirbiitie habit of body M-fw nfitf>noiiA — n 
habit thftt irndcrwl ncuif* or rhrcnic wbiiliivcr Ji?ii>r'ls"i> 
tlk-y utrt iuljuet bx Tlic* rwDedy came of inclinafioti 
And noc^^flity rather than oi intention. Tea was in- 
Mtini'Uvrly pncfrrmi by ^vomtm, ntnl tb* deatnt^ju of 
proviftiona comiwlUd a^^wt lo the potato, easily ffrown 
find ^'nktffu) tci the pnUUt a^ a imti^ani of the !^Uiu«s 
of beef, boccii, a»d Gih. If any are ULtposed to ^Ith^^Miio 
ibe fax:liti t1il« revolution in tbc popufar Jitiitary. th«y 
iiittv li^ rpfnrrr'i! t" Oolibftt. Ho witTic-i*cil the irhmigo, 
onJ periislcnUy dcnotinced it. Tea-iUiiikiniE waa to 
him an abomiTiation, It wiw n jilatomly indiilgpnw*. 
costly to the poor, and iimulritiouji. Pototoe-'^ w^rrc OA 
jlrLrrttn-bli*. Tl]<?y wvtv iTntih Ab coaijiztred nStli bi't^ud ; 
M'aft*?fril. «iirty, and unfit tii i;ali^fy a nton's afp*ttitQ. It 
i^ :rij(? f.h:it tfa and putiiti.Jt?» 'xtc [HKir funn^ of food, but 
iht o»L* a^ a ^ulj^liUiti] r*>r b^ev. ord Uio oth<?r nv an 
aniiAcotbutic, were eminently u.^cTiil. It in not "did tl^at 
kina^Jpoa IK cauMH] or prevuiittd liy food. pr^p(-r or im- 
proper, but that t^o character of food may predUposo to 
diM^se, and inU^n^ify it; lut bt iimidfuflt un ?>hipdj04Lnl. 
Heno it JK (in the aweoee of other adequate indiiEirces] 
lint I aui di^poAcd to asciibe tbo abatcn^rnt of Mnallpos 
MhU-h hOt in toi\ard tbL< close of laAt i^ntury lo tha 



better blood of Uio poopk ainelioratei t,v that mcrcaacxl 
rojiMHTiptirm <if l<*n nnl pf'lal'jt^-s *S*iin*t wbich Ootbvtt 
HO blimily auJ vaiiilj- lf*tifi«d, 

A k'^t worii About Cohbett. Ilia pT^Ju'dieeo had nearly 
nlwnyii a crt-diUiblv rcol Hlj^rl potatoes bcUAUsn 
tbcy wcr« ntrenuouftly nrcomiaeiiJcJ by \Vilberfi>rc<^ and 
oiht*r go<y] niif) ^ooily pco]>f4> iln rliAJLp fooJ for tb^ pooiv 
Cobbett'^ cotitf^ntion wna, tUab not choa|> food, but 
tioUlic^al justice waa tlie true rcuiedy for jmiiulnr uuM^ry. 
U WOA vorynieooF ^Vilbo^fc^^co and hi^i friends to be 

Ikiml li> tbi; p«or, but, sBid Cobljutt, if they vrere fimt 
Just, the poor nugbt OUpotwe witb tb^'Jr kindoe^. If 
ibc poor hnd then ou-n, they mi^bt have beer instead of 

»1«ji, luul bre^! arid tn^t^ am) b!iL'i>ii Instead of potati>i>H, 
with much cine bcflidc& Uobbctt %va3 often onou^h in 
rrrtir, liut bidiind all IiU pT\'ct>jUir* hiynrdi'Nt gcxjcl-will 
for tbfi welfare of ih* nr^alt^t niutjlir tiJ hi^ ci>tjiiiry- 
n)6tt ; and ibo conudt.' ration novt c-jfJLfj ed by i]iv v/oiking 
daswM K largelj- duo to his dnnntlp^is spirit and tia- 
I unwi-EiriRd l<3ii rluji:^ in jiii^cacttce of what appL-arcd at tliu- 
I time to be omnipotent oppositicm. 



It laay be askL^d. Wby. if Vacutiation wa^ proved 
onlue and ii^iinou>i, w«m» it not entirely dlbco&tUmoil 7 
but tbc 'jiK^ti^m implies a Icgiml €00M«4cn^ wblcb \a 
rarely <.'Xt^itipli11i*d 'm biiitian ^xperlenc^ Yaccfnatirm 
vraa di^Motiniu'd hut it wa^ not outireJy discontiDued: 
tt waa chiiffly r-<mtim7i.-d aixknii^ i}w np|v-r uml nnddlo 
dMMa where faea were to be bad for ita perforicanoe. 
It ftaa adiJjltUrd tlat tho rite Tni^bt not prevent atiiatl- 
pox, but it would make- it luilJur. Tht; loBt ihlnn ^ 
medtciaj^ man admila la, that he is belplo^a and con do 



nothing. Even in presence of that for vhidi t)i«ra Is 
no rt^iuwly, It U^iuU Uj lii^ iHi|Jortanci?, ami tin? flatHfaction 
of tho patioat, and ihE>90 aronad tha patient, to mftko 
Wlicvc to iIq Mont<:t}im^- Xiiw for stmAllpox. there vaa 
110 pfv^ventivo. Its oai.i>.i-*^ ;veri> unknowiL It broke out, 
ftuvl it lil^ppuareJ, iioLie kncrw liow. Jozmcr's hoiiaelioAd 
w«» devAftUt4Ki wiUi fgvcr, TjtiI JI^? auvcr toki^J. u-hy ? Aa 
oWrvod tUsBBsG vra* acofptcc] Jike ht> much bad wcatiicr. 
WhHhrr fcvcr* weiw uvci^lJihln, ^ir wh«'-t!«*r tljrjr wrra 
GO&Muquonccd of ill livioK. were ouoaUona as y«t outsi^le 
Cogni/^aiica The predoniLiiAiit inougbt' about mnallpox 
1V1U4, tluit it micht b^ da!^d, b<f it fromGoc^cr dtvil. 
InocuUtiou vritli smallpox xta^ a «lud]^e yriHi diaa^frdttblo 
accompaniments: inoeulniion nith coupox wi^ a dfMlgv 
on OHIOT torniA: by a ttick, tlirit left everr «vil circum- 
stance unafTeetcd. smAllpox waa to b? ^ rid of. In th« 
naturo of thia^, the dod^^} was incJibcth'c— mercifully, 
iimfliii'XivH i ftir whet that w wise wjuIiI care to bavis Uib 
con«o<)u^nooa of oviJ abated mvo l>y the putting; AWftV oE 
evil ? The dodgo proved iQusory la Uio dtomdcc of tnose 
who recomnivn^o-i it, but v,')iib(t a maiiifwl failure a& to 
tlio main mt^?ntioji. th^-y bad tho craft toahifb it^etticacy 
to randning Urn d]fteaflf> nnUIrr — a plalm m to which do 
tcfit wns IrtiiarMliatcty available. Morcovt^r, iroccinatifn 
had the merit of AcUon, vrhioh the" mtack, whetbrr }fiy cr 
profcsaicnal, innistti on nt nil ha/ara-i. To oonfc^ igno- 
rance and iimbiliLy h M-lF-lnuttl Fur wbicb the quack'ft 
mind is iine'^uab aa w1ioev<>r h ftilin^^ and hjut frienda 
may perceive All come bmrin;; advia? and prcscriptioiui 
for the control of nature, when, M'i(b simple qwi.-«i>nM» 
and a ri;;ht diapoeition of ciiciimBtanc<xt, natuio ifl inaUiii. 
to r-fTeci Tifcovery. 

Tb« foilurert of vaccination i3 prevent smallpox wen 
chieilv vitiihld among tW pwr, Miiallpi^x Wing pn-dom- 
inantfy an offiicjtSoa of poverty; but in l^tl a caae 
uccuriisd ill ai'iiiLocratic life which produced more talk 
and <ii4]nay ttian aeoKstof simtlur ca^c.-i amoQ-; trades-folk 
and artimnK Robert Gn>1^^JnorH son of Karl Uroavcnor, 
vaccinated by Jennrr in 1^1 whr.i; a puny tialx^ of a 


manik oU, fetl ill on 20Ui May. IBll; tn & f«w Jjiy^ 
ftiDftUpox d«velapMt, betttM ct>ndn«iit, ftod the lad 
OArrowIjr cBctt|Md wiUi llfo* There iru ltd mUtak^ ftbout 
Ibo Taodfifttion; thd fnark on tho bojr'ii jirm ifullfatetl 
"tho p«ffcct clud-te'*; ho waa attended by Btr Henry 
Haifttrd and Sir Waller Fanjtihnr, ami wiw viKiM by 
Jtfo^t, who happened ta be in tovra ; and, in a^boft. the 
«viil^icri of UiR i(tt]ub?ix3e ol vaecmUioQ to avevt smaU* 
pox waa coAopkto aad indispatabla, Tti« cocainotloa waa 
mteiue, aitd m a IcUor from Jcnner to Baron we aee how 
it afr«ctcd hu mind. Ha viotd — 

CoaopGs SmtT, Cmabm Caoai, 

UTIhuaF■IX3a^— Ilwai proUUj U ibj lot lo bo d«Ufiii«d ia 
Oik barriUe pb«a ■ocat 4a^ loi^. u lua ufintoaatalj 
lisfi|HQ«d. Ihal a Ultfv b fMciaalfoa hai upvvvd ia th* iuoilj 

b7 aia. Tha bo^ tod coafiuicMi tbii cm* hii emt*! art 
itoh#i>icift>J- 'n*T«fl^wkMrtlidiMlli*a;udCb«kaa 
TulalD«> hLdm ctfitoad lo aoaaa forth. Chansiaal 
iviUKKKicnn iVi mtwi IWTinraiialool— aa Uiol; and 
via oontiaoc in lis* pia-l»«-UirfaHw« iM* akosl lUi aUr, 
m noMkinc iIm itwii cv lo te* mUs iu alkolfav* 1 im 
MmaiapJ to lack «p mj UtimM^ ackJ lUak aft manwro hv9 
fmUie^i »ai 1 adrbo y>«, t^ IrimJ, *o Jo ifc^aaoM; tewaaro 
aualoctt DdihiactetaliMvibrk. It k an? iakaHoe to eoOMft 
al] Ifaa owM I eMof 8MaB|>gaa<ltrifBMlwn.mhjgrMithrt 
iKacan. la ddi ntelatiac I Wpa lo 4««va aiaiil ■■riiriim 
froDToQ' Tb«lMtfJbB«rflrfelapaik«i«an«orUMMMKMtt 
Mp«MiUc, miwtnMaatUnrMMinr<iaaBC»Qal>#tUMiial 
MM^batilwiS wr« Om Uit iUoU t» frotad at fr«v £ fMl, 
and lirotB Hmmc nkh «» la aMBa^— E«w TMVi, £o«ABr Jaaaaa.* 

The dafvncv.ihrnrfnrr.vaa^tlttivi M atladc of analf* 
pox lUi] aot altraj^ arert a mtatA Mmrk. it iraa not 
roaBonabfe to expect thaa yanrinalfai rfiovld ba vmw 
d&ctiva; aod to nab good lUi porftktt, A JUdvoit aaaiA 
was iiutitvCM f <v mca << wjii<laj aoiallpOTL Kaof 
■K^n fovnd, tboo^ Uivf <r«n ^aieffatl/ M^tfiM » 
raritica, whiia t>u.-tr rr«iity «ao be^MnUf 4ki|i«t9i ; liot 
whatever lii«u rimnbcr ur ^laiySwaMai, ^^^ vare Im^ 

- Bifv** L^ ^/h^, a^ «. ^ aOL 



Di^cant in coiop&TidOD wUli tbo imtttnccit of unkaUpox 
KTihsi'fjH rnt to Vftcclniitioii, Mnrrover, tln' J*.'iineriC«» 
Wcr<i UkuntuJ Willi their latu duc-jvjjry ^f winnllpox afUr 
Bin&ilpox. W]i7 hft-L tijvy not 8t&C«4 fi-om ihv outacL 
thftt mnfttlpox nii;vht f:>]]ow vAcciniition as ^jnAllpox 
followed ntiL&IlpDx? Whj, on tlic contrarj, hiul tiicr|' 
a4««>rU>d vAocinadon to bo »n alnoluu* &nd \M 
ricfoncc A^nnt flmnllpox f Why hml they ab 
fools [>r oirTUrtinrT^d as liftm all thi? i^nrly rL'(Mjrt*"r* 
am&Hpo^ after v&cc-li^titiijn ^ And why did ii require 
cvidr^cf^ th/it cijuld not pav^ibly hrr wrig^^lrd exit cf, lo 
brui^ thorn lo an acknowlcd^ineoit of tbv truth f 

Biit«vcii III presence of sucb cir-idcnce, Jenncr ptir^iftttid 
tn hi» twun'oraticiu lu if )io h^d Imt tlio vary simi«i> of 
trutk WriUti;: to MisA Cftlcraft on Ifttli June. l8U.fc^ 
actiiallvclaimA<i Umt ho Wl forr*''.'n nml nri*<lir'l^d such 
dtva^lcnv as occiirrul in the Grrnvtnor liiuiily ! Here 
lire his nnrils-^ 

Triki> n ^mpnilwnnlTD xitv nf VnAalnntLnn, nxn} thim a&k fnor- 

ip^^rl- fill 1fi(i prig« vtliSrh CTnlniiit ll]» Ijuttiy <if Ifiii inoui&e &^ 

jiii.ny lirnjT4 >-iT]cv> 1 Imv^^ Mili tl^" 4rrctjrrr>iicif of MirU &u OV 
lliiiuU riiriU 110 «ti}jirij4r ; bccituiiti liio Cowpoi mu»t jin 
pi-tiiTniiUi'cul riu^vcTh If it vroold g^ic nnUoniii icciirU/ to 

WE Imvu tunrfi tlukU oucr lluutiiud cai^ti to pmit tLuciiu 
Jbrtuiuittfly bcvijuLfvu uf ihtitu m Lh^ fuiii^ii'> of tbtj uuliUity.' 

Olivu)U»lv lirtd suctli hrum Kis iinifiirtn tEstinKiiiy, 
Oroiivcoor icddcnt wouM h&ve oxciitod neither burpnM 
noralano; and lu&rlc thi* iwl<litioii[il hnr lilicnul— 

IdJwiI. T hHvu olUi[i mlil ii wni wnnJpi-riil i]ii4L 1 «hc>nM 
ffon» i>u Tor *U£li > mtTm uf >yiEiri ^lurinitSi^ mq bi:uj> thrmiwads 
ujAuy iii^clAr yfvy nnfiTiiarklirit ^irDaiiLfHtaxicffJi. viUjuul m 
with AEiv lEitttnijitlun lo my mjcgoiu beicon. Acid iiuw XUa 
%olUo.ty LUjilAucet has occuirQcl. riU lu; ]Hv( bbciun nro (b 
ftnil I aiu liciH up by iiicuiy. fcthtipt tLu mjLJviU> of Uio 

iifL}.(ii * lLLi(iilrpiI«udi«tvQU bJiuuld occur? Uivy will bu 

« hviilfcd tiiup^ avci L>' Lljowuf asitoIlM kinil AbfLcr SRuUpos* 

^*Ui)at l}iu^ lie ii»unlivift(-d iliftt U wjui ftir inon; vx 



onliDaty duC yoniij* Qroavenor had amallpox after voa- 
dontion th&ti th?kt othor^ should hav« ^^mallpox nftor 
floultpox, he wunt im Uj uut^rt thut vactinaUon nad ^avifd 

Til* ohiH woold tflvc ciiei (ttat la QQiifTiiillr aUoWbcI) Imt for 
ILd praricua VncciAMiiiQ. Thcro won bat littlo Becoutlory foivr; 

^adxcl, til* whciU pro-n*** 0^ 1"^ dlnoiuio ivon diflbraal. It won 
auidifi*«l bud tnit!^al«d. av,A the boy tvoA iayoJ.'^ 

Such rtoa tlicj »/^j( d* onlrc. If Orc«v^iior had not 
bi»*n v^ie^iintfcl, hr wonUI havt* ju'rinhrdr Thci NaUmial 
Vacciuti Board reported en tlic coao to thv bnain elfect, 
ttixl tht^ faithful 8t}lTi?Td[J therii8elve.4 to het ro-a«:4iirdd. 

Id CoiiDoctioQ with i^H and London sm^illpuv, thon^ 
iaa IttUcr lu Dr. Lt-tUtim which thro^abUll fariU^r lii^hL 
on Jennet's temper and philosophy. Hq vrrote — 

I bare cotnldDniil Luniluu uh the coutre of uijpufillida io tho 
TjtduuH pnollofl ^ bul vwu iLenii. iUHpiLu uftli* biiw aitil iiii^irlHruua 
JadgUKof A £iw bnil miudoj IndivlilauUt tho iijuuillpox Imawoiii^r- 
fuUjr lUctiDiMuI; an J u\ tho |iroviaco« it* utarlollty hu louoootl Iel 
ft *I31 ^ffcilDr iiropDrLiou, Fox tlut gn&t >tiil grmtid ofbtti of 
VavonMioLi Uio nyc ujuat i[iiit tliia \iii\a «]Ktt, and flUETDy it amoag 
otlwr Kurujfoiu cuLUJtrifts utii! MitL more imrljciiliu'lj omooic llio 
TAit eiBponrt uf Amu iLci4 Auioii^a. la Max^^iLiid Pvm UiodtMiM 
tfl neitilf ('i,ti[34jt. TJic ^ociuuuntn vbioU poor in niton lap frvm 
tli4*o dUtant rti^biu AM mc vrith mcxproMilo do%ht. You oltnll 
harecoffaea wb^ I con nrt Item tntfiBortW. 

Tilt abut impadimr-iita t^] tlio ffsnarAl adoption of VocoiaMion 
lA B&kUcid an, 1 am «fro^J«nl, oar aow9Utti>i>ni viU wmo of our 
owfaiutaf. T\1uQ(iTflr a e»«« of vrhat ii oolki] ftulan atart* up, tn 
it n>M to a DOTr»iiapcT, with all tho ci^a^^on^cn with wLkh oavy 
aaid inaJio« can ^^anuah it. f 

Wa« ihorc ov■^r a more d^^licious hit of self -revelation I 
Hw) wickffd nt'WsjmpL'r* ■ Tho hanc, mu^d1^^(JU^ and Wl 
mindcdencnnicsoi vaccination: Thuginnllpoxof Lpondon 
reduced liy vicArioiiH VTuxriTi^ilirui in H|iitir of iu iti?m.Li- 
tiid4>! The conaolaLiou dorivL^d from the burvey <S the 





G^uairit^ of Buropo and tho vast omplrea of Aatafliul 
AnaoricJi witli incxprtsfliblc delight irouo Mexico and 
Ptni T Nfjt Mm, Jellyby liontcif lost in an Htintj^plipro 

of BorrJobooIa G&h Id more picjuant. 



Je?*wer'r wifrTi^necH to tbe guoil ofltcU of \TicpinaUon in 
Londou were curiouwly incon^ktoDt That vacciaation 
ill whicli he firofwr*<;il to rojoicc wai chiofly t}w work of 
iJr. Ji>hn Walkct, whoao practice- ho had d<iQouneed m 
Mu widet/ at v&rianco witD what ho coasidored correct, 
tliatcvcn the wrivrk of tin? R<)y»] Jwmitrian Society wm 

not thought too hc&vy & Pf**^ *^ P^J' f'^f d^Iivcr^ufcoc 
from complicity with hini. Tho London Vawhio Tn^tUu- 
tiom, ciUbli.-^hcd in ISiJtl by Walker and hia frknds, ivaa 
rt'.i|>oiwib1i! for the larj^u itmjorityuf va<;dna.Ui>uii4.dr(H!t«d 
IQ tbo motiopolb. WAlkor waa a puro enthueiafitt of 
hoimdlpf.:* energy, with a rraxc for viu-cmating, Advenw 
TL^ullti liad no effect xipan him: he did not dony, but 
fciiDply did not rccogDuc them, and held on pr:>rh I'^yln^ 
nnd p»ctlaiQg with mfichanlcji] pvr^iKt^icy, Nctv«rrl* 
\isa\ M rui affTOund^ Tho locoino of the loHtitutjon 
dvindlfid inLuv( thiuk £100 ti yvi^r whr>n Andrew Ji 
sU>ni>, a Cunaborlaad uuin, a school fellow of Walkor, 
i-ame to \iw n^istAnce, With & comiiir?rc!&1 ere he sur* 
vdyod the Hitimtion. Ho perceived that though vaocuft- 
tiort Ik&d fallen inlj tllMeimte. then: ri;iiin,mr^1 many 
btjliever* who only re<]ni red etirring up and ^olicitatioQ 
t<i nrovido funds to ictip Watlcor Roinjj anJ to yield the 
eollcctOT a aatUfnctory coinmiision. Aa ihi Hojr^ 
JimDcri&n Soiuety had ceased tc exist for any active 
pEinHi«»} ill 1S10> liuthuig rvtiitbttiing " liiit u Pnlninago, 
A Pr^doney, and an unor^^isad nody of Subicribcra 
1 Ocvemors," it occinrcd to bim that it would be ^ood 


policy to annex those to tlio roviv«d «nt&rpriBe, and m duo 
course A utiifjn vrftw trt'cctcJ. and the London Vaccisb 
IssTiTUTios AMI Royal Ji:n\kkian Soliktv Le^camo 
Ibo titlo to conjiir^i with. An Atti:^mpt was m&do to 
SMum JroTir?T fur PriTA.iilmt, but Liuit won tod }»Ad ii 
atioleo. H^ thua onsweted tlie applicfttioa— - 

CncurKXiutf, 3rd Srotctabfr, ISI3. 
A}tlLOiU(lt it most be eviiicQt that fttmr instittiuoa wliioh tiM for 
itn olijpct (lie «Kt«nmoa of Vac<aii« iD^onJatioo* suit have taj bcNit 
wiiJiDb (\jt lu tucc«T«» jvl| fur mMoiu wbiob on rsflfction lumt be 

Hi^y Impresalve were the R^port^ of the recon- 
sUtuU<L Imtttntion «mder tho patronago of tho Corpora- 
iuiQ of tin* ( <iLy of Ltrnduii wiLh Uit; City Avnin on tlit? 
covers SuWHCjijeiitly tho Kiui;. George IV,,opj>e<ared a^ 
patfion, and the City Ar[Lk& t-aro place to the Royal 
Arxnit. Ainott^ tliuf prvhuknU wvth tho Archl>iK}iop of 
Caaiorbury, four or iivc Dukcf) [oxie of them Wellin^n)* 
half a doxvn MAnjuiuiu nnd ha many BUhopa, alK>ut a 
acote of EaiH with M.K'.-i oiid piouA and philanthropic 
notables many. Su niudi w&8 dik* to i\n* Lact uf Andrew 
Jt^uutoiw, wiio iiu<IcrAtoo<l tht^ nnc of (uuu(«, who novcr 
flroppoJ oae of tht* h-aat m11ut:!ni:e, and, spitti of Ji-iinnrn 
iU-vill»<loaIt with hiN li>ni>iii^ ^nd countooanoa as though 
tluy betoDgcd to the Enntitutioa Bunincm ia hu^incas. 
hd would have naid, and holds no reckoning with pique 
and dinlikc^ NcvcrthclcMi the tmanoial results did not 
CDrre»{)r]nd ivith the iivi^iqu^inttruig p^Lrcjiin^'^. Th<* 
incoiao of tho ln^titutt<:in nL^vcr atLitiLL^d XlOUOayuar, 
vrhlhtt tlic li'ilU for jixlvifrtlsin^ tuid pin^Ljng itomoljimi^M 
appfoaebod i:MKX Id tha R«pott for lb3J vrn liiid tho 
operations thus finmioaneed — 

VMVtlikUii ilnriniE lesn by Dr. IrVklkar, - 4. ill 

Tnm itw httfitintnic, 180S A±,T^ 

By a|ipolBtU TncK'iiUKiTH fn Trfindon anil en- 

Thrctfutln iRSa. 10,9m 

From the bi^niDg, ..... £97,119 

BjF apiigdnlHl tatiuudAtGia ia tliecountryin l^Stl. 

F^B (ba b*pimbi|r :i>JA.430 

524 TAOCIHATroy 

TIi^ inconiQ of the Instimtwn in ISSft wa* £GS0 IX, 
ancl t)i<: cxpondittirc £715 ISh., leaving n dciitit of 
£ii4 17^ 

Tho liguTCK ATO int«TMting, for thev fttford aomo idui 
of tU« i^jtU-jiL uf Ltinilciii vAmiifttidii iliirln^ a ffiiArl«r uf 
a ceDttiry- The operfttions of tho Vaocmo In^tltUtioiL 
vy diicffj ftiuong tlic poor — tJic viwt umjority in 
In tvory city ; an*l if wc* altow thiit in the ^ursol 
fivc-An<!'twonty ycfirs. 350,000, in & population of up- 
WiinN itf 1,000,000 in the fiux of life and rWlli, vuro 
op&raWd on, we ^vi* a Jiboml ofititnato in favour o( 
vAccinalion, Tlirir* rvi-^ii n(> mnny could tinve much elTeot 
OIL tTifl prifvol^ice of smallpox (except for a^imx-alion) is 
incivillCle, urJ&M tliu vicAiioiin ootion of va€citjft*Jon be 
Hirriotihly swi»cttetl. Turning ovtr WiUk^t* njjwrl it is 
aniD.^tng to ob^rre Low any abatccuDtit m LooMioQ 
Bmaltpov WH» &ttTibiiti>'1 to vaccination, and any inereau 
to it» nci^Icct — an in^^nuous rxoniptiHcation of the f^Je 
uf tlH? FfjaiiLi thi? WliLir^l 

Tho appointor] inoculntorF of ihi! Institution were a 
iiumrrLmH bt^ly — 2^0 iHLnir^ luul ji'lilrv:^?^:^ an: givi»n 
in ODH of the B^port^ They v-'urd chiefly LoinJoa 
tracEoHntfrn with a taste for doin^ what they tbouglit 
"gijml/' Ah vncphiiitUm eatnv to In? n*g»ir(lod as pco- 
foB^ioiial work, theio *' unqtialiliwl practitionora" gavft 
CAtifiii for <ifVciinp, biif, VVntkmr hiOd Kt^iiLly to hift 
opbiion, wliicrb ho nJiarcd with Jouner, that vaccbiaMoR 
mi^il bv perfonued by any man or wciimn. lu 
Wfldk^rH worilH, " It in ua^iur to pL^form Lhi^ whold 
bunlucK^ of vacciimtion th^ti tt iii to thread a dc^^Ui 

ypSL. it is pftftier." 

The atino3(ntion of tht romainn of thu Koyal jT^nncrian 
Sodt-ly by Walker wan much (linliked by Jciiner and 
hia OMociatosi and whcii the ronvcd onlcrrri^s showed 
xigtui iif pra%jM*rity, tbi-ir dUlikr dHVL"Itj|j(Nl Ui [ijMjn 
enmity, and John Kin^'a ^orvice^ as bravo and satiriat 
wero called into requisition, Ug 6vat txic<:l his hand, 
anonymoujily, In a volume of dog^aneA, pubUabcd in 1SX&, 



tfUltled 7^ Vaccine Seoiuye^ la wbkb Walk«r ia n* 

I Tua ftjoIlJbvfXBr, 

I Fn^oi CocbnnAoUi I (ARM ; 

^^^^H 1 4a MUad bi W A Prisid, 

^^^^^ Aad •'^notinn ■• vlD fo. will «q. wiU go. 
m JLma m titu'm w< ril gou 

Mofl^ voi^At and oiAk^oliiot, aisd * lew exAtmcUt Trofa 
Une Prslies will m^taim the animoa of ths eotinr nrr- 
fonD&aee Bii^ft aawjipboti «»«, &«C, ihttt Wtuut 
WAa « nipM D^itt vium Uie pnUic r^uifvd to he pco- 
tocUd ; Mcnnd. that }m fnidcatkMi wm ««p«n)iMUi ; ukd 
ibtnl, Utti if m^er EaoliciM for raoiafttiaii vcn 
vaitMl in IjooAic, it Aoi tf d bv k<t to tfe OcT^rnment 


bow b» ftcfa «!« b» 

nuHMT trl 

miufa nfti lo 4* «Mv if Ti 

Otf «U]ilfw-» ImI fl^ «aiv « 9» 4v 

* TV r 
pf. its, ivk«ii 




folniBtH fo d4*tnj di« hroftd td Cim., or n nkobluT to cxUr- 
ttfaftU Uio rwio of mfa, 

Tlio Kii^^M ^caii«^7« pro^iucin^ Httlc ofTedt Rinj; r6< 
turned to tht cliaTirti m Itie fuHuwiu^ ynar. 181(1, wiUi if 
Cjtch'^jA fi^'i/'nsE Kti^iiM 3ivindifr$ qipI Impi>xUm,^ 
The Unuiivn is & -icnos of libcLt. the pucrilitj aixJ exUl^ 
voguice of which w^rB their owu nLLltifioaifoQ, A moUo 
wut taken from tlio Ncto Mumthly Mugatinc for tho tiU^ 
paf^, as fonoirtt — 

1>iit utifortiukftUly. ch« dUooTMry hu bf^on in it ctut dft9r«*T«tid«nd 
ftbortii'e hf batUtrd itutitutiotii. ^^r^nteil for Uia pprpow of fiUlns 
l]i4> iiuckuU of a io£ 0/ a/Jvr*ili«rfTf J ffil^oni ^^kraCimK uil dmi£ 

lntUmfi4, &nf1 luv ntlll fattifinin^, cm uiah JoNt 

Ring ddivorcd hLs iniDd unccjuivocatly. Walker w 
ftn importer, and the London Vaccine fn^titntion proa* 
peruii by his fmud^ - 

Tlioro i« & SooI*ly Sn UiU Mtlmjiolia (ho vrrol*], rtliwly vaJUeiie 

luVt^riptioiui to ft cobriilDniblc Aixiannt Cnd«r thnl ntvun4?il tJjiTIto; 
And Qmo «o1UfiUfig money undDT £Uto BTctnncen. 

An uxdnvit pliyifclui Hrciikiag of tbis Sod^tj anil tU vuc^mAI 
iUiU. Q^od It ft flitewtunil vftl&ny; ami TUlhnjt- tt imt tbft Um 
TlllD.t}y t««niM» it U janiW^fHflil 

It linM nlafv ^npn fir^nJAlrrgLj fl conipfa!* njitfin (\t qtuckuyi. I^f 
gnmliTt^ ilt^flciTnu ta ^cKnoi Irtolly i^Ttoruil of llic Orrt pfimlpl^ 
of t}ii> mAilii^iil iirofeulciQ, uhldi will Aild to Urn pt^iwcil liCMt «f 

No oiiu (<Ai] i]<iw t>MB aIohic iti« »(T»t4B willidul liwutf ftiiaJ^jnoJ 
wltli the iT»Mri[rtkiij, YAot![iifcnoxO»*n*iiiii>K[i7ii*;*Ascn«>sor 
THK IjOMfCA VAi:(ii»t I\ArjTijriAN Id oq» pftii* iif uiiuait Mju:uekut 
Oil Ln ft AMond. uud F^rij^-r BLftiiNtxa ia & Uiii\L lu thtai 
Vacciiiiftiion In how vv^'c i^ drtig. 

TIkmo w«re wonls of onvv and maliee, and camo with 
ikUuu^ IncoaH^istoncy from tnc spokcsmao of J<:iincr, who 
hn/1 ini>tri]Oted and encoiir&g^u his acqTramtflTic«i, male 

?jlCkwfiM««^|>iwf I^'m^^icM^ BjJdMiIUm. 



and ftmftle, to piactiid riicciiuktioa Wc duit, faotr* 
evvr, titke Kid^ «rideiice &i to Walkerii actlrity in 
Lofulon — 

Dr. Wotivr jfloric« la lu* cbvmkrJ, nJoniod, phariBM4utf»Al, 
•nd dcDliifieiil uKtfulkU-n; anil LomUUiaI thit v •xcmJ id iiotub«r 
Acwo 4l ftay oOicr tm«1dc mstlktt j'>n ; bat b« iil«ri«B la bU kh^atc. 
NoH mnntrfntMt^ m4 pond<mntur. Th«7 *ro npmigtDf np oodcf 

Lot-b*4, from Hj4o-Pftrk Cofii«r io VrlntoiLnpcl, uotj ffom \Vbit«- 
obajxl to UUokwaU, II i» Ui« Ji:(t^ oi «ivry »|euIv pnLCtitbQor 
to cxpoc4 iDoli SoipMiltfni, and to tfcoo'Dtn^o ^noh 4i|icuiro. It U, 
in fjiet. tJia roftOtUXLff of Ufc from fruiiiiiloal jind mih^iQLii luotdl. 

Qnv of Lii itK^iiUtf^ri ik Ur- I'Linpboli. ^iio cur<« pJJ Hda of 
bcnrvW* dinwM viUi ifJ»^nf«' Aft/A. Utt Mj« bv Tttpratly 
flBEil :I0JXX>U4Um to Bdnift M Itt. vub, H« iibo Mlla Ui« UUk 
In nttlB At sa. ft). & boT. Th« i>oor hfLV« Ui« Ullk m haH-prt««; 
pfKi <criot cMTVtT i» w«i«rt«d. 

Id Vr«JkaT« rW for I^H.itAppoftrt thfti ho jfruiU hk diplomu 
to Ibne wbo on- nof, u wall m 1o Uio«* «'bo '(r#, of Iho ineilicwl 
pro&mmi< and Ihnt lao^Aton us th« «ouatTV arc ny]UM;UHl tud 
OtrfArviffH tn ^l "]> n bfvir^ witJi tlic folJowinj; inM'rij>lJon, 
PiiaTiri7T:riK tii>v Suau^kix rvnE^ mi: vtAifmov of titk T'r4Vi>a3( 
ViiccDnr iKSTrronoK. TIwd Ch (o fi^lk^w tlia nMim iif Ui« fanivTr 
cobhlnr, barber. barbar-EUi^t^, a|u>tb«cATy, ULAB-mldwiff>, tooth- 
dnwar drM^, ('bmijit, oH'HULn. diocfipinoiigar, dtpAltcr, or 
grocitri vbo dlq>n]»t ibo bltadDg of Twointllru) grutuitoaidy. 

TboiiMilf^ycrwthuBUipolfitMmn directed lomiJceikD Annual 
Balurti v>i ifj« iiumbon uio«TLlAled by ^"" ^ ctd«T to 8ff«U Dr. 
WiJ1>t'h lint; i^rid iucb InocnUtikrfc nro nal Sit lEvmand v*iy nlmi 
ifi tbeir oiTcEiUticini;. Wwj^j at thniD will, in all probab^ity, lllcit 
oUinr qnacl^. prutc^ to « iimidrAl tucca mora tban tboy roiUy 

Thor-c who contintici to bcticvc that Vaccinnticin waa Bn 

fiBfi^' ami fmn:ilr.--v( u^ltiUoti, t^uuld fi.M^ tiotLitig but guml 

nonA^moTit iQ tl>c multiplication of Wnlkora affondcer 
nor imjtbing liut nK-nmiL^ in Ring*:* nnccra nt tnLdcvmcik. 
H&> odSDrtlou tbat ibd uac cf ttio tiU& o[ the BovtU 
JeonnriftTi Society u-jts fraudvil^nt^ had no justiiicatiOQ^ 
ytl it ^H-i bis puTvisU-'ut ruproiicb — 

H^naitj it. tb4 Wit jxjhcj. i thiMCara (tocordy ^dvtio Ur. 
Waikfir Lud hu Uouril, to aunsta &» Iil0f« tb« titla ol th6 KoyEil 
JonncrLtn S:>?<ictv. to which tLoy mml know tTitry Imw not Ibo 
t#aat eliiiTi)* 1^*1 Hn?y ihoulil I* brmiaht bi»fnn> fhn l,or*l \UjVLr nt 
MrlD'll«n, and bo protoont*d iot ol>laii^i(ig inonfiy luuW fiilaa 



CnUtncw, J am infonrietl t}i»t tlipy Iiavm iilrt>jb\v bi^ttii cuiii[iir1LcJ 
i lefluail A \oi:mj of ^lOn ; naJ iUn to be Juipo.l tTij^y will It oom- 
p«ll*d li> nfiinil tti» fwt <ir llitttr tll-g^ttccL utorc. 

Lazily, he apwalod to tJie luombera of tho Jciincrian 

Haw lonfE «iI1 tbvy tfitUr t1i4tr Tiiiro«c lo 1>o jn-i>4litnt«iU '^ncl llta 
|fTi!i!in to hit cUliififtI M' « tt-h of iitiruU'rv kuiI lr»|ii^j;E«re ; hy maa 
w!io ftrn n*lthflr il^lfiiul hy Ihfir miiK, ilUiliimiiJilioii liy tbofr 
talcnU; by a iM of <l*rtng ftilvontuKir* ftnd dMpTealjIfl ujiittarttfl 
It it D. stofi Innnlt anil \nAigaity^ to Whlih no mriTi uf t1i4i Ipurt 
HouHti or honour, or of ■J]imi«. wonld HiibuktL 

But they dkl ^abniit, nnd why not ? Enthnxia^tn for 
V&ccjjiaUoa liftd p*ui!itrd av/ay. It liari l.eeii fnuiifJ out; 
it wfu ovety^horo dietruat^d ; and thosg who hcM by it 
liitil 1/1 MHi il punhnil on tlii< sATuv. Utnnrt iih aiiy utber 
qiiack preacripticn, Wliat then was thcro tooVject to in 
Walker's procoJuro t The reason for Ring* UbeU lay m 
Jeamer'M jonloiuy. WuLk«r vua JontiorH aMi^^rronca^ 
He li»d jointxl in Lhc conspiracy to ouat Walkt^i- from tho 
Jfrns^nan Society in 1306, but tho oporftHou provx<l 
ffl-tjil to the Socii'ty. whilst Watkcr conTcyc<l the crtifi- 
i]>;nce and auljseripLiun^ of the faiLliful to hit* m^w IqhU- 
tution, What wondor, th*n, that JoTincr dUlitcod tfa« 
eccutitric Qitakcr ! Evon woptu ; Wa!kc?r accurjittlv 
ivppmisad Jonn^r's aharo in "tho vacdno di^overy, 
wliicK came, he MiicT. from Jcnnci lu a hint, nnU tVBS 
Htn'eb|K:-d by P^'arson and WolmIvUIu in pmctieo — a taet 
thjit waa a^ ^all and wormwood totlcioncr Mori^o^cr. 
TVidkiT bail writtrn a Ji^niifrij? Oprra in whidi Jcuncx 
1OTL8 rcpr\^yiitod fta a country apotUecaiy ridiiii; tip to 
I/jndon oil h cow, and p^in^ r^^iind a'bL>ffl'ing anton^ the 
nobility and gontiy. Wliortiforc pnyn Ring— 

X* to lli« culLiinay uiJ (Ictrwlioo wliid; l)r, Jetinor and luA 
fridniU huwt rtovivol ftl tlto JioDiUcf th&l lUspunUii iulT«n (iimr ia 
Lin J«anorio Opcva ^ad Uoo^bcra, thoy aro «ODteQt to bvnr j1« pro- 
riiUct bo will aot a«[UD iwo llio Uoguo^? of flott«ty tawai\l i\wm ; 
nor Inxuh bis nooonuamB oa Ibom In tlint pollcitoj chaTiad. tbo 
M^Jioal Joonul- HU tawaiat^ai am d^ taij htU« hanoi wbioh 
u uHn« Ihin «att tw tatd of bia adaiatioQ. 

" n to t%t flitrr klBl. intl nol ite bkw ]" 



Rang w&A axk awkwftH ctiAtnpion. Ho unven'tJ nt 
Walker's diplouuifl certifying Bloras to ftd 06 T«cin- 
atot — 

Tliaj win faftvo lh» mbdo bvtbonty [ho ni'l' Mtl thn ivni 
vfrtnt M > difiloDM Snot Ui« Uoivenitjor Si- ADdr*wi; 4ni m 
All proioUilj will ia & diori ttib* be *o^d ftl tlitf dam* imce — 

FurgeiTa} tlmi it wiu frotn 8t« AnilriTW?! tliai Jciuier pur- 

Witli equal rvcklessDQU, ho dcnouiKC^d WAlker &» a 
vaccinator, nayin^; — 

B* UOli tlu9 irabllo bi htt Ajtlr^ that -"YaMJaatioD wilt «Lod 
fgndolatian auto Uw b«dboiu of «rtiT ^laily;" Icot alas! I 1»ro 
knowamaojafcauljr Uulba«1iJMt iciuua to niBtli* dsj in wttidi 

b U T«ff7 nocMMUT iLaI lib Eollvvrtn pny Uuii tbc Iat<1 luhre 
tMtony oa tLua. if la*r luv« iw uUwr lUncior thui Dc< \Valk«<- 

CoQoeniiDj; tTie oomcqucneea of ^''alkers o]>eratioTis, 
ftin;,'. no <loubi. UntilirJ Liuly. Many cuutuiue to ma 
lbi> day whcTi th«<y liuU^n lo tho JUturing tola of the 
vaccioator. Biit tfjt; tefltiuiony catiK atnui^ly froiu a 
Juiincrit^, wbo nras reaily to awear Lhat any abatetnc^nt 
of amollpox ia London wa» due to tlic vnccinationa 
effecterl in irt^t patt by "that (Wperat« adventurer* 
Walkw! *» -^ -r 

Rin|{ Ti-af* imi»I[iraxM'', iItw tnrJTP im, THTlmpi, iw Wnlk«r 
and ]i» frt«DcL[ wcl^l- aj>pafcnlly iniiucvcnt to hie alriujo. 
ttc ^arst forth ofre&li in tlu LjTulon }h\iiotl i?ir^ti'fory 
for t<SSI, wli«ro among amcli uIkv wo find tbu following — 

lUxovu firaicBTt nth 0<iobcr. 1$21. 
Tba mo«k Uttynl Jnaooriaa Soeiot; it ^rUoriliii^ itt irapntitioiu 
anil lUr^'-Tirionv. Tlia •mvuiioc of ifaii batlnrd iattituii^Mi, m 
nnn^iii, ihouU >ialT«r trmnvportftlion irtlivr* b* any 

I bag kftve u> »\A thtt tris pivmnt ^ir^n^tf bi ilTstfUtniaLl bj Dr. 
J«iil«r, wbo CMlLlatl«J tlio Km[wn>r cf RmsU «{fftiliit H whrni hit 
MuMtj win L(inf)«n iti INU. 

la (ay <7««JiVm Aj^a^ful V'rMjynm* Smn4ifrt uml lapiul^rK, 

r,nli\M.h(i,\.\ in iHlti. 1 r*LHl«il itTMml in«lju>riHof tlii> 111 *tTA«tA M 


Eujd.ofloi Ulv artful uiil wtekod ntrttimami, wm pnnaltteilo rwitii; 
VDt uow io ItM the nrro^Qco to ooD bluiBclf Dtreotoi of tlial 
SfjcJdiy, nod to Ucu« UU tvad ^plomv in iU n&oiOi If t>K* 
VfaXkiiT mutx iuutjitfl tlio univcsriiUra of 8i Aadrtwi odO Ab«tdveii< 
Ut liiiii at leui Lavh liko ilicm «cinic c«r1jGoftl« of qo*lifti a >lioa. 
If lie u <iivifttta\av\.\ to ffTviv rUh try lUtfnix^Ui liim clUo onJaaToar 
to gnv wiic Mid I^UUBtt. 

The diplomat which thns novi>rf Rin^'c wmt.h uvru 
impoHicig document", cortif^-ing thitt tho holUor wna 
&U lIiurtHi- J tu viu^ciTititv, IntciiOvtl Ui \iv ttunwil and es- 
bibitod in tho shop or purlonr. Thoro wfis a mcUiirc u( 
HcmiiTthiiJ^ likr Ml iircli of Wntcrhx> Bridge witK LfJiidoQ 
ID the background and tl^c Royal Aniu overhead; Jcnner 
sCandiD^ 0L1 a pier ^ilh a dead Aorp«nt hnc^iTi^ in limp 
fuld!io%'t?r hilt arm, with thu m%i^\piivu, Ptronntm Ultvtxi 
virtcUm' t-arlola: a vromtui imlking a co^v wUh g group 
of ('hildrcii iirrjimil hiT, ihinking milk mil- nf pLirfiTiyiin*,a!< 
if milk were cowpox ; whllnt tlic bed of tho Thamca ma 
bUickt-d with tilt* iiniiiLH ruf Llic ^r«al &iid ftood wbo hftl 
testified in favour of vaccinatioD — wi allocDricnl «tylo 
of rcfkn»<:iiUitujn tlii;n tiiucb in vogue ArTid Guu^tdmd 
iiikpre«^ ve- 
in order to create prejudice. Ring had niucli to ^wy of 

Quaker of thl^ Tlioiuas l^Aine puU^^m, and like* rAino liwl 
Ms:iiNunt<ii] with Lhr Fniic:h rr^voluUmiivLs ; IuIh ^rhilst 
droRiin^ tu a Friend, atid afiacciatia^' witL Fnenda, ha 
iras too Liuconformable a pcr^ciiialUy for their SocavlXr 
and vra« navor rtccivcd into tncmb^rihlpL Ring's fnuni* 
tatioa» of rapadiy and avanco woro grot^ly aVura Aft 
ftppliod to Walker, HocnTed lor nothing li^yoird sufjTurt 
ID niH work AA vaccinator. It vrmr ^^lid Ilv ^ould take s 
£5 note, fold it, hlick a |)in thioiigli lU wriUv an itidvitta 
on tho back, and post it Ho woofj mrtjlv vaccini^to Uio 
■wrll-ttMla- !f thi-y parno tu hb uHicu, hi* would at^k, 
" WLo IB thy medical attendant } " anri wrnpping up gome 
frcflh matter oo clanM^ irould r^tiy. " Tnkc this with iny 
CouipUiik^.'iita to thy medical JittL^nJant, anil he will cio 
what ia requiaito quit« aa well as my^cHV' Whca lie did 


decnnd tUib* VIm aiMf i 
onADjrciIM Us vife to neriv* k, ib 
dmded cm of mfl ill ■utolwil to 



yaaMrt Aw 

or t^ gwid iravn, AanK h* 
wiMtitetod oftg rf hfa aiimiuw oJdttiifc Fbr 

T«]k«T good-htiBoaredly nolicd. ti>4t Moon m m Gtao- 
gow uiui notunlljr pvioff ftfJ biib own Uiuvmit)' to LhU 
of Le3'd«Q, bot bd too had tame to lov« OIu^t — 

Th«r« £i Aul nn «ihB- w«4 VD lb* m&c« oT 1^ sl>b« vW« 1 
hftro tiHtlttteed & lMn£«M to cocapMo m X obteiMd in il >b 
17M. L«« uj WAtfag wb» eunot JhuM «lMt ttw M w di o n 
HI*! Btmxtt bo olomicd. ttoi U «■« (best Mid Utfv* I «Blirtd bl« 
0]umir»; m»4 tlie ccvcoutl was ndifieJ iu tb» oSoa of Ito CUtk 
of Um Pmc* far lb* <oiintx of LAoariotux*.* 

Walker w^a obstin&t^, but not rindieUve. Dr. itaaoa 
Sims offered bim £1000 in 1806 to pro«eeutc b» «dv«r> 
MTiM for €on«tnrftc>\ but he left tbcna to tb«ir tlovicift, 
BJiil prov«:«l lib (|A))ty by outivorklog And supcrMidin^ 
tbom. Ho replied to Moore's flippant ver«>OT\ of tbu 
caus» tbfkt led U> tho (HvUlou luid deatiuctioD of tbe 


Hojt) JonDerian Society ^ith perfect eelfKronuol and 
nuuilfott tnithfulDc&s, bvit at the aojiic time witK a sim- 
plicity not of tJiirt world.* Jonjier'ft spite, Rin;(*s abuw, 
nnd tho snipers of the BLipcHino <Ud him Httio hftrm ; iinil, 
if vAncmAlum Vft-xr ln-nriic-iiJ, T hIiouJiI lin.Vfr rntliing but 
prsuse for thu ^ood poopio, who, rccox^i^^inf; tb^ ttincorhy 
€i{ hu 'VFork, djj^regard^ trivifi.Uti(ift of m&Dticr, and au]^ 
poi'tod biua loyally aa n fnilbful servant, 

WalkorWBS tiutUiiu: but a vjKViimior, Day after day. 
In mill or ttitnfthiiu?, hi« limk ti;^in\ iitkI u-lf-oomplnoool 
vijiAZQ uiidor a ^vhitc brotuIbTiumcU hal m urc to to hgch 
jtmking thy round «f the vaccine ^tatiotvi. Wl*n be 
utklvrt^cl a room, hn tirist ^Eniuicftl Jit iho tnhlr) on wlitcb h^ 
expected U) find hU b[>i>k?i. If any mt^thtr^ bad plaood 
(hdr chiHiGUs bonntls oi' jjarmpulii thcrcioti, thry w«re 
at (juco swept oft He thou nirigc<l thecoinp/my in ijtdcr 
n^inst th^ vail like a Hchoolmaster^ an^ delivered ft 
^nort fuidrc8« on tlio protection he vo^ about to confer. 
Tlici<ibildrrn\ nnnir-s v/t-rr. lAkin di»wn witli il |m*liinin* 
ary caution to apuak di^tbietly, AVhuu vir^men mutU;rod 
or jpibblcib the Debtor ^-^r^w iiTiUhlr, mnl would some- 
lliucfi tuakiT a trouhlt'some wotrmii sptdl h^^-r infauta natna 
hatf-a-do£eD limes, addiu--, " Nuw tljuu wilt know b<*w 
to Hpirnk plainly.'' Hnving jpt t)if> mitiii^H. be hail next 
to look out for \"iruA ThiTiow oiotUun who bad vcn* 
tarml to rotnm with their vaccinated habes fnv eKAmlok- 
ti«H, would perhaps lor'C conra^^^ nnd attotnpt to o-^cape. 
uheu Walker ■aouM iliivi I'j tbt^ dnof iiud arrtat Inil 
fu^tivo, fcavinf", "Thon foulii^h woman' Jf thou wUt 
Dot do good to Htlirr^, 1 will M<^* thj little one" jtjid 
wonid pn>coed to (jarJifr what ho calle^l htB " Vaccina 
Roacs-'* He pufHUod hi* opcialion* calmly inditfcrcnt to 
ibe «crt»ain« of die ebildi^n axid tbe e-jiuplainU of tba 
mothers, and oa he disposod of each caeo pronounced tbo 
illii^Miry iHTULNlttytiwn, "Thy Hdbl U wfn : fr«r not fare 
Iheo well" 

* Johft W--'' '•• ''J J'i*uf4 Mo^f* Ov Jit )iU-St^4t%atfit rtipfi^ 

rt\f itui VO'' ■ ' "I'-nit In fAt ,\tr^tOfialiM luif Urir O^cwr* and 

litrvan^lt ^•f.^ ; -j -^-^ it"uS, l^frin^fili, IKIK f> lit. 



nbBM&odkni Aomw&o tnei to no^f^ ^mi look 

way, kod tkM «^ tt not Efe# him toJtte Imw ^Sml 
^(•tW fi« iB.M.dti' or .flkMiaii: 
■**'^ir niifilwwMiiT 111(1 

WkKcst IfllHIIMMhrHiii H« 




JK:rsriifs latsb witiTi^fcs. 

JsKKLUg ktcr wTitukgs w«T9 ducfiy apolo^m f«r tiw 
failtinsdl wciiiaikML Hb poditoa yn» one of mitA 
cHfficalcjr. And itn pecotttrity U nin^I^, if eror. Neognmd. 
For vxAinpltf. Luw fcrv kmrwi- UiAt bu /a^rry puEoiAMd 
in I7Ci^», "that tBMC4^|^c«* of medical iodiMtioar t«- 
cot:di%' to 31r. John SnxMX, wii9 ki^pt otit of print whl 
rcfaml Ui mx nLTFlj u possible niter tSOI-1 



TVic anawtr to tho question Uco important tKab at the 
rl«k of n^p^titiLjii T give ll v^xplldtly. 

Tho huf'tirv vnui )TUppn^»8od IwcQUso of iU fiflcription 
ofcowiHjx ttt fior^o^cjwe. 

It was thd b«ili^ of ilairy-m&ids m Qlouoeftterahire 
that bo hAve hftd cowpgx wa.) to be secure froni am&llpox. 
Jt^nner wa^ much ImpnMnj^d by tbo ruallo ftupur^tiiloii, 
and brought it so pcrsiatcntly before his medic&t br«lhmi 
at tlirir rinivivijil ;iN<LmiLl3<-s, that thi-y t.limiti^npil to 
ftxpol him if h* borod tliom any lontior with Uio subject 
" It IS tnic,'* they stul, ^ tlint tim mniilH ItUbvp an attack 
of iiawpox ktJupei otT Htuallpox, but wc know tlioy ut 
wronif; for we are all familial' wlUi caaeaoC sitiullpoix 
aftor C0 1*71 ox-" 

Thu*^ fra'strattd, Jeiuiur'i* iugcnuity t<jok another turik* 
It v/Ks ti\tA bftlipf of farrii^rs tbat if infected in dreaatog 
horsca" grcany hceU, tljcy too were sccurc Trooi smalJpos. 
Tbrnrpaiif thia ivjavU'lioji wilh narniwi^r \hnti that of 
thtJ dairy-maids, farriers bein^ neither so nmnctoui*, nor 
so ob>i-rvnnt of Lh«lr l>c:niity ; but Jonucr cnti^rLaJned 
thoir faith and coavertcd It to hia puipai^ 

Hciwj^AAe projected frcni ftinallpox, if cowpox did 
not. Bui tui^hl there nai he ono «orb of oowpox that 
andvrcrrod to the dainr'-nmjd«' failb, if &aothi.'T sort did 
not' Happy thim^ht ! Thr difotigive soft wa* derived 
from bho nomcf^rdEUiu w)iich protected ths foiriori^: tho 
noiiL-defcnfilvtr orL^iiiated spoil tauecju^ly on the qowk, 
Mvn, fr«dli from iiandling horiK^' gn>ft4y h&aU, milked 
CQVTA and conununicated to tbom the boniM' disooaa. 
Milkmaids, wji^ m turn contracted from the oow^ ibal 
«oi't of pox^ vftK like blic FarrJcr:! secure from nm/kUpoXi 
ym ^d^rrnrer ; whilKt QtilkirfiidH who c^>ntracl<-il pox scpon- 
taneously developed on cow» wcro not secure. ' Tbo 
milknmiiV nulaT^llUolt wil^ thvri^rorfr jtl^ti€nl1o: they 
woTO riftht ana they were wronp — rii;ht when thtiy cot 
pox through the cow from the borsa; wrong when uUy 
got pox from the cow sloiply. 

Why tht'n, it mftv bo a-^kod, did not J;innor di-tmlM 
tha cow fnjui euniiitfcraliGn V Why did h« not tjnsc hla 



pr«aen|>ii<]n on the fiLrrier^' rxpcaicrioc^aiid uno and re* 
ccmtnOQd horbe^eaae exclusively for inoculation i The 
question i» ad obvtoiis coc, but it i« not easy to mftko 
out Jt^nners aiuiw^r witli iiroclnlon. HU H^«e>rlion wam, 

Ttio tiros from tl« liorse Is not to l« rolial npon oa ^vnd^riiifi 
tii« lij^l^cn mcaro &0Tri ttuHcJi^tm infoclioii* Ijitt the mailer producer 
1^ il 00 tbo iLTpfto of tlin ciivr h fntUcily to— 

vrbidi vtnit Uf riAy Llml lionir^^^Hhe iitULirivi] iIa liiglitiMt 
propbyUxj' after trAn^nuviJon thr'>iigh tho cow, 

Suc-li v/a^ the (loctritiQ of thu Inquirt/, "that oiaKtcT* 
plec« of medical inJuctKio." 

Wbcn tiie doctrine came bo bo reduced to practice^ 
diAeuiUcA arose, Cowpox vra^t coiu(iU(r<-d wbolc«oims 
and credible, vbilat horecgrci^c vra,a rcptjisivc and in- 
crwliblft. Rlill fm:i mivk fni^t; nnd nmny were muly to 
accopt hcrai^cOT^a tlirou^h the cow. or without thi^ cow, 
if sudi indeed were the source of tha tmvj anlvatitm. 
Cowpox provind to b^ n rare commodity, whilst hoT^O' 
^rc&'tti wflpS coiQiuori, and numE-rcnia ntLtnuiii-* weu^ inarlo 
to produce cowpos hy means of ffrefwe, but inGftV-ctiialiy. 
At «oin<: attempts, Jennor otiiciatcd. MnnUfttl records 

)&, Sftvtfll, AiUfiUnt trofouor nt tfao Boyol Tot^riiuity CoUo^, 
infenat mo ilint lio wu n n-jlti«t» !<> ft ftc-rim of oxparuaoatJi, twie* 
rvpMliH]. ftt lliA rol1«|p> iTi T.liit jir^Ai^Ti^^ if Dr. Jaonor. Dr. Wood- 
Tin*, ^rr. Wm^hMl, AtiJ Mr, TiiTi)Nr, with a tIaw to produo« th« 
vMMtlD* diuLu on thA ii^ati df a row, Tlia rnjUt»r n' rt^silB lii^fl 
bMolminAillAli^ly uIeati frniTi tha tiAru.iktift TArl^^niily applied by 
iMIg continual fdctfon. piiiictiiTDf, sciiiridrEitlGnii^ iu\d ay te mt^^li^ng 
th*BQrfare nith ft nMidm; b^t (hjin Dime trLHlinf^lthnrinflaitimi^ 
t^n. nor ftny aflvCl\cti rvMiubliu}; a jKKTk rwultcd.* 

To thui diAcomtiturc Jcnncr luui to 3ul>tnit. Hih a-icrip- 
ilon of oowpox tijhursegrease wan 8tigmatlAed asazit-rror 
of which the tc» that was «aid the better. It b true 
Lliat otJier (T:ipcnuienterf( were uiore succewfuU aud that 

* A Poi^^ttr Jivuttnatj/ v/ VattiviJiviM tt-ith irfttvinf iv U* Ejjtfyv tj unit 
Vftnni»|qroftli*X»ti0DiilVvctnvKctn1t]i«lLmoai I^tudDiL, 1830. Pp-Cfi. 

Jj>y of ^^liiiliy at3(l Saceo of Milan clIii|>umo<] wIUi tlie 
oow aa a 8iip>3H)uity and iieetl mntW ilir^ct From Cbo 
hoTw for iiioeuIOition, p(i3..<iiti[^ the vln^ from nnn to anu 
into gMi«nvl ^irciilntion until what was eij^ilno waa lo«t 
»ij;ht of aiiil IniiUtLn^iirsfiAliJo from whcit woa vaccuie^ 
but Jenncr UtU not carv to be JuBtiSeci at thc^ rltk of hiM 
populaiity aud tho moDcy on vrhich he liaJ £iL*t ht>i beact 
He saw bow the vimi of piiUic rnvjtnr wilm lihivring^anil 
went with iu Sinc>2 honcx'^'>^" ^'^''^ dislike, bo oon- 
seDU^tt to iu oblivitjn. PvAnon, tlic chk'F promoter and 
OTgaiibor of vLc^incitiou, a^c^tHvl tit hoTM^grcaxo, niid nMd 
fipontanraiiN cu\ip^x, wliicb Jf-iuiir kiiuw n'aa of ti<i avail 
Bg&iiut aiiia^Hpox [ Imt he. tnXi^rvfi no prot4At DpOD tluit 
ncotb On tbc conlriiry, ht* lot tlu: futile procUee go OQ; 
ho claunud In aa hia own ; and he net about mnniiuiicttir*- 
iDg excuses for the fftilurwj wMcIj wcro iinminonip. 

SpurioiiH CLiwpDX viaL-i vac of tht? tnuxL dcxU^rouft of 
these c:^cii»cn. If iujiiry or Btuallpor foUou'i-^l vac- 
cinuliiiii. tbi? dijafifccr waa ascril-cd to spurioua cowpox, 
JaoDcr'a Fnrthfr Oiwionv'iion*', fublUbud iii 171*f>, waA 
dnigncd to teadi " how to diatluKua^Jt with accuracy 
botwcen tbat p^^crIUftr pn-tubT which is tlio fr»w CSow 
Pock and tliat which lb rrpunfju* -' and in hut Origin of 
thf. Vtu^chiA Inocidation in ISOl ^wn greater 8tn:?La waa 
laid ou the di^tinctkn. By and tyc, hovrcv^^r, tSr cseuse 
worked inor«i hiirui tbaii aJvautaj^'. Pco^iIl* gut h-rrilted 
vrith the miscbiefa aaca^ibed to KpurioiK cowpox, and a» 
vrhldi waa genuine and which Apurioti^t truf only diH- 
oovarable in thelt consequences, they be>;an to dtvlina to 
bavQ i?itlier. lb then bc^^unc expedient to deny Apurioaa 
OowpoX/ u-hich JeiiDiT dld^ He conraHicd to the Itoyal 
CoUegc of Pljyaicians that there wo;^ not a truu ana a 
fal*e co*pox; nnd that by >ptinni>K civrpox hn "me^nt 
nothing more than to espr^&a Irrvx^^l^tlty in titu form 
an<I progreaa of the vaccine puatiili: frout which lU 
efficacy n* infcrKML" 

lii Tiew of facU like theee* ih^rt ia lltllu ca.uiK> for sur- 
pnHo that the piiblicMion i>r Jpnner's /w;H^r'y with Ita 
t'fvo fiuppbmcnta wojt not continut^d. What he net forth 



as ttsentjal v^e^ treated &^ ilIu»or7, vhlht the cowpox in 
ivtiich bo bail tAiiglit ihr^ro was no »i*ei]iity littd bean 
brou;^ht irto ukv cwrj- where- Wby Lhenfore dmbarraH 
hiins^ir with pro<:1niii&tiaiie of hu^ own Tj]iiD«lor« ^ The 
bclinvctv in vocemcilion wcro gooJ-nQturod and incurious, 
and li^j liiu] tlirir homage, wlilcti woa a£r«««b1e and 
proHUihl^, and wby should ne dUapaU it 1 Th« Itiqwirt/ 
won imntcd for the third iiinu bi IftOL hui" this inaMer- 
pi«ce of iiJ*Jkal induction" ha* D(<ver been r**piihliKhrd ; 
Mid bhc probability is, thiht if c\-cr reproduced, it fvili be 
to prove to the world the eraptinees of lU aiithor'8 pre- 

Jf^nttcr'H onginnl |ir^jmi:4es of immunity from nui&Upoz 
br icoGulation vith horaegrdttd oowpox werd flbHolutv. 
iTiua ho wrote— 

TUd povoiQ yrho h&i !<«& ofT^cUl inlli Covpox Virut u far «vcr 
nfWi f^ovrv from tLv in&crtjr>u of thft Sm&]]|h>x/ 

It cloftriy Appr&Td thjit this dLBoibso. Cowpozt lA&ro* Iho ooiMti- 
tation ta & ciwitr of jicr^ol a^ci^ritj from th« mftctica of ib^ BmAll- 

Cowpoi adiaiU cf bf ing icoGulatcd OQ tlio hunuiu ff&me witli the 
most perfect owe Aa4 tftfctj. oad ii ntteaiitil wilh tlie BrngnlAxtr 
iKnMfiri^ c^fct of r^DJcriDj; thron^-h tifc Uvo ponoD lo iooonliitM 
pcffc«Uj: tsctitfl from Ike in/colioQ of tL« 9ii|[iUpox.t 

Expotioncc was not slow to demoruitrato tho futitity 
of lUi»« ti^^uraii<--ir:t^ At lir^t th» faclA w«r« fluLly deinnci : 
it wa* inkTKKsible for emallpox to succeed covrpox. The 
evidence Jtt>w (7 vcr. j^rcw too .'^troog to bo ouUvrorik, and 
then it tKas ^d ilio coujmx niuat have been vpurioun. 
Afl faittirvA accumulated over the opoTfttiens of Jenner 
biniHcIf zuid hi* Hmici' disfujih-s (who wrre luiturally prt* 
Bamed to know a:id avoid spurious cov^pox) tli<ey1)esaa 
to lay ^Tt'ht «tr^?t on tht) fact Iha^ HmsJlpox it/v^lf did 
Botalway* avert a AubHoquent atUiolc; and if i^mallpox 
did not save fromsmalJoox, ^^hy, thoy d<;iiiand<3d, should 
covpax bo oxp«ct4d lo io mom i^ ^Vhy, indeed 1 Still 

I Juomn to Dmning, <23rd Dor., 1801, Bu«ii*t ^c x/ Jmntr, rtX, 
ii. p^^ 


the caaa^ of smallpox after cowpox woro ne scoros to tho^e 
at Hiimll]>4jx aft^rr -<:mal1|iQ^, fimi tlicu Lhc lu^iiiDvni vrmx 
reduo«d to a compt-^ilticjn betvr«0Q vanolatlon and rao- 
cinatioa "You moculators with amallpoir swd the 
vacclnntoTitr "nxc continunlly having smallpox aftor 
Tiiriolatiori. An.l why ahould we be eNpecUJ lo bo more 
Ftiiri-cstHfiil ■ " Wliy, indoorl T Thn innirnljiUjrsi with 
smallpox in turn tJcnicd that iiit4:r cl^omnt v&nolaiLon 
smaU]>oxi!\^riicciirTei.l,uTCftt]ld puviiU^' occur; and llioa 
tho wTfinglc v?cnt oil One thing wjxa plain and cortajD 
— Uifi ori;^ina1 cIauh of Jciincr for the ubm>lute mf^lUr 
Hlily of Horsoj^rease Cowpos as & proveDtivd of Small- 
pox wits rcriuced and nurroDdorod bit by bittintU itcocno 
tcj thu at' \a»t — it mnxlf? Smallpox nuhler ! 

Thcao rcpofitcd sorrt-ndcta were, iiowcvcr, noTcr in- 
|jL<nLiouH. AfiHtikm AFtt uitiviiabli', luiil Llit!^ nn: forgiven 
wh^n rraLnkJ3' oonfoaAcd; but frank eoofeF^toa wa£> noi 
JeDuei*6 habic^ Whvn vacdiiatiou fuHure^ had becucoe 
notorious in I SOS, ho hnd tha hardihctod to ius«rt, that 
from tbt^ ouUt't ho }m<l recogrnwd Uiat aa amaUpox did 
UQt alwnVA avert atnAllpox, neUh^r did ho vxpact cowpoK 
todono; nndoilcdn-^pixiof cf his prcicicncothw pv«»gg 
frotii FiLrOu^r ()fjn/-rvitti(/}\n hi l7Qy — 

It ilioulS L« nLni«iiilj«rviI t.liattlta romtitiitlon cuiQCit, by preTioQi 
JxtToatlDD, be rondnrtrii tifhuUy inMUAccptibU oi Uic vuiclotii poMiti ; 
ceiUier tha caaitui]. ncir tho iucctJitUd NunUpox. wliolhar il pradiiM 
Uib diMDM in tt tnUd or viglmit v&y, otui ji/rrfif^tli/ trUmKi^hli Uw 

Hi?n^ Jt^nnrr tnajli^ a tH>1d ilraft oil his rcHiler*H i^ioT> 
aiiod* It waa bis olaim for horae^reaao cowpox that it 
confcrrpil nn iLf>si>]uU- ^cenritv fi>irji sinidlpox without 
any c^^ualificalion whatever, 'fho oj^uiriM ptcsclenoe Id 
17^0 XA completely beliL-il wlitn vte refer to nis arroj^t 
n^iinlfojito of ISOI- Tho**! aru hia wcrds — 

TIj* wsptiouoj Ihftl appsHTptl Hino'igBt Hi" ninHl r<n]%htrtri«il of 
tmilgiiiHd, vrm highly lRihUbI«. To hnvf^ fulmUlnil Itici truili 

FortA/or lif wfifiHt pvi timfltP'TVGi^ or not Mff nothrii r at fnt^ img 
Variohvt CimWj/jOTi Loiidftti, 1808, 4t«, pp. 17- 

JEXMv? UTEE watTix<;& 


ito #i>i»WB>. <*i«fa*fa *f eh* Swiafjpaf, Kaj t act vEtt p«fiNt 
aiafl J — n fOMHrtrtite aj m ^Ji / am± ■oriity al lwf« im tfa«it 

AT MtliptflBc ftm Uw wrtk A Amm dwl ia flivHy bow 4rpww 

Monfj^ of flw ''***** nMt* 

Coirpoz wu Um MC forUi u ft propfc/kctk vith 
powrn btUufrtP trnkoown wkI oa»<|i»; «o mt Jcna«r v» 
cnl olf frovi tk« clium ot ita cqmralenct 'vrith nokallpox 
in c^HfncUr mnd coiH^oencM. H« Icoew id 17^. as 
wo bftve KC^ Uut mfccUoa with emfdipox did not 
nnulcf tile conatiUiUcMi timof «-utra Uir «a1w4«|amt 
iaioeae* of the diacAae ; iitit in liiOl, u we «ee, it wa» 
ht» rxpnw cont«D(icin tliAi what biB&l1|»x f&ile<l to ilo 
fAaf cowpox Jid^it prot«et«d the cocwHtution perfectly 
an<i for e^er from ankftllpoz, and noUilnf^ to oomptK 
with It hocl iTvrT app^^r^d in the Annab of M«dicin«- It 
vraa vulj otidcr tbc pr^A^uro of exposure and (Meat that 
ho bumiifced hiiriMlf lo wrko lo Dutinliii', 1st March, 

n* MCBritr ffiraa to tb« Muntthdiaa bj Vaccic« looool^tion ^ 
c3i««l/ymMito thalcireabjlh* VftTsobaa. To «Ep«cel mon frt«a 
ilwMudMvmW' AACu1i3n*tA lli« Utter i«o«ewtaatij pni«ot- 
liif ihtnvlrM, m ma*! eip«el to flni tbcc& Id Ih* lbfm«r also, f 

To this pan wm tb« infalliblo pteserviLtive from 
OBMllpox, K'itK nolhing to match i% in tbc Annab 
of rfttiicine, n^ueeij ivttJtiii ihe exp«riewfi of sevan 

'nu! nioftt thorougb-goiiig aiul fai-reachuig of Jt<im«rV 

11hr«a^Jli^^/nufr, Y«a. Up. A 




escii*>fib for vACL-initinn failunu wt-re herpetie aflr<Kt>a&% 
of Ui9 «kin. In bia journal we read — 
Inoonlatotl C, F. m »Mrail titaa. It u T«7y «Tiilmt thai !bf 

tgifk Tho Hvna lup]>«)0il wllli Tifni- D.'t intmt.*^ 

To Mr. Dunoitifi ho wroCo from CbeltcnluiTn, October 

25tb, IM)4— 

How froqiuntiy joca tibo T«ooin« I>mo«0 bcoomo cnUiif M wA 
h^riiM - I MO thftl thvliorpctic 3tiidiioQ«ofiboa*Diovbi>l rcb»«» 
wbUi^ Ihfi huKDJia bvdjnscraUa, and wh«n K«(i«n*«(Ji tbal i1 oat^ 
b» p«rrp«tiuUd by M&iJut. CtiillmTi who Ct«d oo tnuli ftl Ifau 
MftMn of Out f «feT wa fipl to e«t dtfk1«b4*il baiUoa, anil on 
ofUa appom ibont iUolipc, ThJA ia tha »o>t fjnoilkr « 

^ the vitfriiH piui4i& Sdbdiu It, Mid dl goM on «m#U]r<^ 
And ajnun bo ibc sultco corrcspoodoat^ S3rd Ddocraber, 

Uy oiiutuna u Ihul tJju uhj^jf iiit'jHvtvHW wilb the wui— 
VBodnaltoa !■ LofiiLtA tii itintiv fi^nu ut miwU^vt. I bavv dUd i rwrf 
tbftt it !• a TPiy Piutt'Oi. twtimtng oa It iLlnlii !tl tlic obATw;l«r eli 
tlio crofttcr put of tb« u:iitativo cmptiona tZu£ M»il ql ! 

Having tbas detcct^i an all-aufliwDt vxDlanattoo 
of the fftilunT of vnooinciUon to prr-v«nt Mniulprix, \» 
^miALinicatiKl lib* di^c^ivory to the ll<d\coX *x\\<l Ph^ 
col Jowrnat, AngtiHl, 1804. in b pnXMr eriHdcrl, 'Od 
tho VarJoticA nnd MfKliticAtioxt^ of th« Vacchio Puid 
o&oa»ioQed hy an lleqit^tjc SlaU of the Skin." bul 
Gomploindd to Dunning 'Hhat it »eemo^ not to 
exdtcd the rilightc^it int^i:»t^" In order to call attrntton 
nfrp^ih to tho "Subject, be had th© arlWe reprint^il ai^a 
paiBfhlct itt CbclkDham in ISOG and at <Jlotico<tar in 
ISId, but in vAin. He cumplabifl L) Baiun in 1R17 
that ho oould not ^'^t th«i Boaid of the National Vaccina 
EataUuhmETnt to attend to bUcaubioos touching UiGintor- 
fOTcnce of cutaneous dUedwa ^itJi the ^Tc^ress of the 
vnccino vehicle* " 1 am afraid " bo obacrvcd, " tboC tbc 

J/kiL. voriLp^flk 

from 1 



estmn^ ignorance of medical tnon on Ma subjuct will 
■destroy ihit iidr&aUges vrhich Lhe world ou^ht to dorlv 
from tba practieitti."* 

&b of ooantc mudlcal incri with the leoat eovilii 
f<eTc*ived w«w, that the excusp proviilnd for v 
ciaatiou fAiIurcA was too Iib«ml to bo worth onvtbinff. 
If tbc li^ttHi iruUutetJiiH trnifiiion wivi fiuilicieiH lo fruilra.L« 
tlioci nation, what opemtion ooiilcl bo prcmounjrwl <jffi 
cicat? for it could scarcely ha juU-mIi.'J that every patlcD 
should be stripped to tho sl^in mid ininutoly &Kamin«4 
for herpetic vesicles There was nothing tmn.-'itory 
tn Jciiiii^r'^ opinion atx>ut bcrpo«: ht* hai-ped miun \im 
mWhie£9 and onuiiprMoncc 1o the clow of hi-s lifo, 
\Vi!liiim DiUwjn of WallJiatrutow hnviiig nahod hltn 
for an}' ob^trvation^ that occarreJ U> him on thft prfhCtioe 
of vao;ination for the b«-ni<tit r>f Friemls la riiiladdpbia, 
Jcuncr »fpU<^d in a l?tt«r dalvd BerkoUy, lOth AutjUKt, 
ISIU, ID which WTO tind tlie^ fi^marks— 


I mojt CfeDiiUlly ibckutnrliMliEQ thnt T am not ut all auqinml tl 

a pft^tbl pToiuLliot ulioQld now uidtbon hft tiji Els hmd A^iJ>rt 

VaMuuliau. It ii cdUd inlo etUtctiae. not froia maxthlne ^iltj 

m Uit prbciplo, but froia iU wronj: And ii^uillcJona npfUcAUoD, 

^ '^iiV^i « cLilJ, cir A foioUy of nhiMr»Q, laav ba ia inch a 

*? n'u *ho neiht: of tlic rucuio flitl.i tAmit *|jplLijd to tl]> iltlo 

mhrnnho ^\h/ir vliuUy ur tinrLioUj mAb<i>*d. It may tiUjcr piocluotf 

no •HMt ftl alitor it iiuy pwJuoo ptuCnlMi nxyiafi ooii&£l«nbl5 

in Lbair n«o, i^r^xrva aail Kuuural appnruio* ^ou thow wlsloh 

bftVO bMu doflgcalcd^Drr^C. It wua n^otlL iLv j*iir I8IM tlint I 

was fgirti^ia adoii^^i lo ilipoover Ui« Lta»!nil ciiuiM^f lliiMs ^mth- 

*"*?.^' .""? "'* •*>M>or WM it fuLly imprvmhL vu mv mind, Hjhu I 

mMUliM u t.> th« wori^, ya fow. veiy fv^ ioOwJ, nmctii- tUo** 

tvba TftMijurt*, hATD p*id my kttmEioa to it ; >tl 1 mij ronft,l*tit. 

Irom tin ™tWw of Uji, ptwitko on » immeuM KiIc. that it l« » 

inntl*r whwh Um a grtat*r tLiiin on ou* itUnli-^a Umu my od* 

MUnff WuH<^ a>m>oaUd with V*ccb*lioi3— i»J«J I lu^y *„ ihaa 

■^X *^" ^""ir*^-. ^^'^ ^ '^iT>*'* "^ i* « coincLloQt trill,iiv» .bitO 
nf the ftkiQ. prin^ittliy u^^ri^. ,^i,^( „^ ^^ ^,j^ bcrprtio w oniplii 

cUnriwlcf, If wi. n.KL„ftt< a <UU under iU lafltiotjco, wo are »l 
wi^ppww«o lUl 1. ti^UxT vac.b* oor horpoUo™bn^ 

* ^e 9/JaaKr, voL IL p. ^^ 




of Jt«M«'« fol^grtiM «w ft punUrt ib 

o^ft #1 vaooBiiML Tne wquhAm witli cmpoK wen 
faofbf**! wiik MilTiMT. wad -mhta ike MHUpn cfid 
Mi * Ulur i< WM «Mi( - BchoU O* fvfcet frD««Klknr 

T1» — "r" JMcatitora gMp faU f t Utlorl j of tfa 

trptimm. b in a Ism vitb beriiftl oamUiaa, ik*l tmiBm 
pos will &M'ttJu.'batlfy«ft«rftwUk.~ Aiiiltfa«yilfel 
b7A/i^a«Ule,MMl ii wm EooDd Ifaai tike rttficmfttol 
oooU b« mdcnbtcd whli wptPpox lika tht nB^aociitttvdL 
IaJmtI, wImo it w teak th«f the v«cdiHtc4 ftU victitDa 
to «nU) pox, maoj vho iud bnai raeeffiili^ waorUd In 
lb»««AD{)oxioo«abtonfor tb«ir anp|>0Md condor pfo* 
taikiii, «M m a a ta J it willioafc ^Mcaiictt mn ui«lr 
p rrtww TMrimlion, It tlwrafore be«u»e iitilidiutts w 
diHVwii lb* ¥ftrii)tou imt; bat Mtlicr m tliifl cw ws^ 
tbtt fforrvnckv fnuikl/ aiftile, lnut with pcevaricAtSon that 
deprived it of all gfTKc^ What the wuJ^x Inoculaiofs 
niftlnUiiwd, Jvnner tttd to aIIot, but KfU*r iHes faahioo— 

Uj piMMl «t4N« to U fiMH tho*» viM m^ Utiak fit id 
iufllMB f l wIIb iMfiiliini mitt>r ■HiiTtrfiTiiriiinfiiimriiinin>iwij 
■!»»■: A pa»UJ« qttyaoMattrifcM b* ifcni aTdtAd. u 0a IbaMvJio 
tor* p wftiwly ipnM Ukrori^ SstftUpot ; C^brlta «cUoq to ih* eriaiti. 

£r«K nf VmeeiMaiic* U Pr^mrriuff f/tm Aha AtfAmv. ItuladalBbu 



For tbe rariolovi he tecoauoeoded the MtbBtltQiioo of 
the Tmcdnc tc&t ^ M^jmg — 

«fioMT. ft»4 mfaitoly k«> kMM4oo9 » ttM re lAKctkA of As 

Wliir.h v(tL^ in jiajr tlut wnaudion ixuni*dUi^jr after 
v4«cLa»tioQ woold W fovnd impoanbk — the Ifttot pnetica 
of periodica] r^TnccinAtion being vnforttMML 

Jectii^r utigbl hx\c bcTOci%'«d that tfur hu produnft- 
tioo of lU« infliMDCo 01 becpee on TudiUhUoD. ibcK vas 
nothing to be lud for the vmriokxu it^^ \Vhvn he con- 
[•cntcd lo fva vaocuiatioQ oa the midc Lcmui Od Ttriola- 
tioiT, suwl fuimiitwi tluit it wcniW !» wrwiig lo exp«et 
nwiK from the ono firacticc thvi from Ibc oUkcr bQ "vm 
IkiluiU Id €Ofiai±t<^iicy to allavr that tf mccicaUu;! w&h 
fruatrated bj -aniptiofiA of the bkin. it wa« Duttt^r of 
ccDM^qocbCc th&t ii'«noUti>oii should be frustnied b^ the 
fever of vaeelfMHioD, He Inforaed DUIvryn that he 
tle&troj'ecl catoneoue ei«|A»on3 hy Ibe appUcaUoD of 
U^li^nttttn J.ytlrar^yrS 'nitrati, vkI tbiMi vaccinate 
mih fiucoe«. The uiullpox inocuJatord did eo likevbe. 
When the irr.tAiioii iiulucr*] h\ vnccioation had bud time 
to Ru1i«*dc. they ivii \'anoEai4Hf -wixU »ucco«. 

The lettirr to DLIlwyn, 1818. oonluiuAome other paints 
whidi it u imtnidiw to Hiote. For vxawple. the follow- 
ing peaaof^ provoa two thiDjC^^ timt. bovr iMitorioiin had 
beeon>? vtLcrinmLinn fniliirfs- aiid, ivcond. how vacdna- 
tiOD, from an easy art that any one uaifht practise, had 
beei> converted into a mystery to which even "on cinl- 
nent auigcon" might be uncqeoL J'cnncr Miys— 

One vtrd noon with imooet to fvejaiic*. H«v &tKii3oall]r 
faT» w« »a»n ia tlio jpabUe pnal* pAn«impfc4 of ttu« d«acnptbtt — 
" A nmtlamttQ'ji ElquI/* oHuutug of uitm or taur or liftlf'«-dMaa 
dkflons, woro Taeebatod bf aa Mokicait vargooo, aad a11 waii 
llmnigb UiO diiMM in iho mod ■vtnlaotory manner, and vwo 
wociovaHd «fo ; T«ti oa botai^ oxpoKd to thu iabotiovi of Ibo 
emallp^K. ^»}' ■!! l-o^ tho iUmam, bat lifti?i>ily thuy all noovai«d>" 
HorOi ^tf* tl^B mind bMomoe anlftHgEod wilL k biM aeaooiattoa, 
lb* pobh^ ooDCcivo Itikl on emin<af fttvyeon matt ba a t^rfHl 



matter of tbifi Ulllo Imiueli of ijut ori i h-ii it oAcn 1id|wds 
ho Ivm u;»l stooped to lock »t vuytluag bcvond ilv o«il£ao; ttai 
ifdim d«Tiittu>aH luiw io iho nrotenn of tlie pu>ta1«i [u 
WpM] to lb*l «iloEitwUich I liATo poJnUvl oQl ra iu' 
tlio^ ftra pu«oi1 W viillmiit AUnbctLag Uiy pfirticokr fttUtttioa* 

A report bavluf; got abio^ bbat Jenat^r had reiiotiticed 
hU faith ill vAccinAtioHr H9 ropliod to Dtllwyn — 

My (viJiilfJiM in iho effiuM/ ofYiDcmiiUda to ciur4 tLv aoa- 
»tUuLiuu frum Sautllpun lb ttJt to Uio lva»t it!uiti]i>l«nL TImI 
aiM()lWiu I<J HtB Evilir hjLVf H^<;itArfJt auil tl^tt tLoy ^iU •bjfuva I 
Am tfia^ to oOtuit. TUu> h%\ti bjtppi^itod bftor Snullpox Iiil>oi1i»> 
tku; ofld b.y th« uun» in\e. u ibo tvo dinctuo* pre »o nliuikf* 
tlwy wiU idto liapi^a nEler Vaccine luooalAtion. 

Til prtwrncc of sucli adocUnitioii, lb utciLty Ui iinjor* 
Htand wh^* tbo /n';u'<ry witlj >U ftuppUm^nU wat kept 
out of print, antl never referred to. Hia di^nfiLlcnctt UL 
vaeciDatlon noi in tho Icftfil diininUbcd! lu tho worte 
dtcd. hti surrendered afrei»1i tlie okiui with vrhich he 
fttarted^And forwhioh he was paid, nRtnely, that mtvnl^ 
i\i>n vrith oowpox rendered the coiiAtitutioD proof A^uDst 
NiuttJIpox for life, anil thai llm iJiijlectiori tliutt alRirdad 
wafl witlioTit precedent in uicdicftl oxpononco. 

Having thui, under .%lri\'w rf nrctiiilv. n^diictd v«ed* 
n&Hcn to the level of vAriolatioD, and iriod to shelter tlK 
fftilnrrs of tbc one practice under thwc of the other, the 
Hpirii (rf t\w uIf.1 ijUiu'lc HiirviviJig, he went on lo proj»b#n 
in the famiiiar atraio— 

It U ft ?i3rtctic nud m/wt doli^htfel foot that SmftUpfti ■ fl/lsA 
boi^>Te VflcHiritti^n in nJl Jircchoni. In Awk1c divtrirt tiToun^n%l 
•mhrikPtriK l3ir* mott pnpulriTi* {■mrt of Hw firmly at ni^f^pwliv^, 
t?a& 8fi]hn]wiir ik ripitrrtily henril 4^; Am! if it Joaa h^ppMi 1/> apipMr 
f»om ioftictluD bratight by tliA v^mtlnrlsf; piiipar. U olihiT Iui4i 
11<*W iiumlntAd, or in nndflrcd ln(*ij>nblfl of Emvaiiiiig 1:^ Qtv^g 
tmnBrllaloly tho va^criao tf^i-nrity tn xhaaii adEuiu \U nlisixpbar* 
ibIio nuj hftppoD to ramnJn nnprciUebMl. 

Witli Jonncr'u turn for n>manci:i, there U nf>n<Mtd for 
dealing with a Atalement like the forejoii^: serioaily. 
e\s^ we niij;[ht a^V wUnt u-itq Hk* prnvA^iCio nf Mnnllpox 
in Uloticc:itor:ihiro beforo vaccination ! and to what ex- 
it liwi it bi-en ciiltivatetl hy mouulators ? Tliruu^^liimt 
Inland thero wa? a romorkable t^ubsidenoe of smAJlpox 



praoeiient Xo tSe introduction oJt TaccitulioQ (for Ai'hicli 
vDccinntion obtainod tho credit), which aubsidcrc*- was 
no Ofjtibt KCctflt'tatoJ hy th© cc«iuition of vniiolftlion. 
Jonooc roaumtt— 

Wbtrrror YMMUfttion liiu bcou vHitm-tflJ/^prftotiflC^, tlicm ti]« 
SmdlpoE MUMi to ORittk II mftttcn nal Ww wide tho dlntriplt or 
h9W popnlMU tbo aity, (h« ramilt ia, and, from iho aatnrv of tbitL;4>> 
i»ul b« Ui* «iLmc. 'HiVTv iH ntKnoly a part <■{ 1i»< ?;vi]iaAd world 
UifttovuQCitbcartocUmany UlltwtnilLo[tlfU|>mtilu>Q. iTur o^toat 
«r torritoff^, W4 may Earn car 0T*ff ia ojxt pououinui id llio EnH. 
and lo VMnou* parti uf South Aoa^naa ; iaI to tovu tLml citJ«0, 
IMI17 of th* m<>ii ri^riipiououi in l^orofto. 

In th* iniiLn^l nl Coylon. iho ni*i>giiW of SnuUpot tt'flT* clrAArifol, 
altboQgh mftny titti>ru huA \ittn mjuU l« tM^n JU fbUlily by 
Toiiolow Ino^Uhan- Tlur. wljAtvror It wma pmctiiod, pralncccl 
ft tpnnding of l)]n iUhub», actd maila n faAd rnAtUf waru - h^ lliat 
lh« p*op1e vontd huw ootiun^ to do with it. Pul af^*r 11 lilLl« 
Urns thAf Uiok lo VftcOTh« InoflTTlaticn voxy rMdily, ttrnl Smitll^i 
bwnflfl touUy ifittnitt 

Tram SwfilAn, l<^f^, wn fiitve » voport tlikt pniv^ thfi AttindlJnn 
of SiiiAlT|toi tliroiioliont Ihn Icingrliim, TCow a« tlip good MCM of 
the Svrcd^i broiE^ii abf>TLt ihiA liAppy pvnnt, why ihonll not 
BriUiia avail lirrxelf of tlm grunt gin, and omplcy [t to tlie ruu* 
•fbot ? Hriv 1114 Itcion in dwtribuleJ with n {urtial ftnd n ^x^itrSnif 
huid. hail cuOHSineatly 8irjiUli)oi «till flints iu Msv&ral |i;krU of 
oar liked. 

Thdcv w{^ no ohiOGklng Jcboat when ho roao into 
rboclon^onlfiiJo fthoub the tnyri&dA of Afiia and the vut- 
Tie» of Ariit'tiaa, but di^contltn^' to tho d^linit^f in Ceylon 
&nd S^vodofi w« can t«dt him with precisioa, nnd as to 
tHjtIi \Ti> uhult linil hU stdttoment^ nt witic vari^nn^ uitJi 
facU. For the pr«tWAtj howovcr, let un koop to out own 
coanttv, intrl ni>t« eapeci&lly wliab Im h&d Ui asjsrrt of 
Londt^i in lbl8 — 

Novttrtli»loa« t h^va Ui« b*ppino«a (o abj-, tlut itRO« iZi* Arvt 

gemnlsBtlon of my iliiOATuj in 1706, th« doatbn of KmaUpnx m 
B BritUh Itonlaii^ oooonlfnA Co tlit bMt •AtitnfttM I oah farm, an 
rodtiMa tmm mom tliftn 40,(XK> to loui tlian 6.Qi)i> ftnnanUy. Tbo 
uio<Top>li« (or tbo lft*t l*c or tw«Iva y^vt* otbibitwl a rvJnrlii^q of 
ikbont OR* b«ir onljr; hiiE during tho Idiit two yaiui»i Viu^Sohll^tn 
liu b«frn iniirA f^ttHriAirAly ]inu^tiw«i1 llum aver, botli frciiu tJio 

l)AiiBVo1nnc4> nt prirfiU in4iTtilii-i]i nnA t]i« rooully, atiit by pablin 
ImtitatlonA ; and tK^B y>«r, TmIFIh pntn^iina & &t mnUu rodualbu 
in th« nninbrT af (]cAthi tbnn Eicy Clint bju pm^^adnd IL 



In tootei ift 19U At ^Mtte 
VMnl In fBlatke to p aca dJ i w yeag*, H«r we 

































































From tlili fttatfioitffit tre aM t&4t the decn^w In 





to do with the il«er««M tbctc b no rettaon to b.Uow 
vnlm tn m fju M the new pncties diseoBraged v, 
tion. HoWt wv 4Kk, conM tb6 vacdmtion of oeio-C«iitlJ 
of lb«t Luckdooer? (U so maD>} reduce the soultpo^ unoog 
nimst^nthft f Wo havo a1«o to obwrrc tlut roortalitT 
froTK f«vcn aliair'l in cotnmon with smaDpox; wid it 
mnnul 1w pTvt^aded that that abatonent waaalm duo to 
vaccination: Tho rational aasvmption h, that vhat 
dimlnUh^ fisvern in Lori<l-xi, lik^wMi- JiinlDbked Hinalt 
pox. Not ahoul'l wo overlook the fact, that a« tba 
dtntlui fn»n Hixinllpoi flcclincJ, thocuf from mconlca IB* 
croa^ ' nor the probability that x&any deaths fonnori]^ 
a«c;ibcd to smallpox wmc dciiv<xl from tncaftlcs, and th^ 
part of th« deeUno In one column Is accounted for by tho 
iDCf«4M in the other. 

Jniiii-A aiBu-rt!<in, tbnt the imtionn] nirtrtality frnm 
ania]}[H>x l^ad hcen roduocd from more than 41>,UUU to 

JE1«?CBX9 LATVR munxoa. 


IcM tiiAD €000 uwtijUIv. had no }xi^ •vhMUrae !d 
rvalitj. Aa wc IcDow, tbe 40.000 deftUu vcre £o4 W 
multiplying t)t9 <lcBtb>: of a bncl vMr of Loodoa unoll- 
Dox by the population of thr? Cnitod Kinzdotn — » If 
LonHoD w^rn tho ri]ui<Ur>l of Knglnnd, freJan'], and 
Soolland * Uow he obtnincU the rc<iuccJ number of GOOO 
we are left to cotyeeUire. In rvvlcuiu^ Jt?iinVA writ3ut{H 
W9 nT« «tevU^ irUh hJK iii»iiiii^t<^ciei*, «ftrj ooarci^ly ]«ca 
with \hc c&rcleKmcss and credulity of hi* lulht^rcntn. 
He s(^( OQt wiUi Uke ooidbiod knovledge that coirpox did 
ticif proTvnl ■nftllpox, and for tliat rc«»o& he mbstitutod 
pox genemtad by lior««greaa« on tba cow. Horsi^tfafifi 
oovrpoacootUd xm, hoTovcr. bo procurod oa dcntaiMl ; and 
wu, tnoreoTvr, dwlikod on ih« Mom of iUori^n; ami 
covrpox waa teitctted to by PeaiBosi and Woodvilt<^. and 
diffused eveiyw1i«nt witb actlaiAation ^ and Jcimcr did 
not only not obj^it, buL Uxik credit, and actually w&a 
akiowetl to take cn^lit (av ih^. pox h« Had de^tcrioed aa 
lDet1«otJve for tire purp*ie de^igne*! ! By and bye oowpdx 
from borr^grca^c, or Domfopox* aooordtDg to the oii^lnAl 
r«d|>tf. wa» oblained anil brongtit Into drculuUtin wltti 
Jenn^r'fi ^mpaUiy. if without his open approval— h& dU- 
orming tltat ptAi^c atid pay vecvo not Vo dc tiiid from that 
iKvtIofL Aft*r a whik\ hors«g[reafie, or horii>poxH w« 
used For inociilntton without tho Jntervontion of thocovr; 
and that too vnu*ryJ into ciirroncy aa vaccine, Jcnncr 
himaelf enioloving and d»iributin^ it, alUiotigh aooord- 
Ing tn hiH intfurr^ iL vtut nob tii Lk Lrn^t^rd to prmreni 
Mill all pox. 

I repeat tb^Ao facU, oven at the HhIc of tf iliimi, b«N<aiisB 
it ift eeiMntial to haver them (^JoftTK' apprnliendod. For at 
loa:4t three <^eACrJption8 of virLi>i Jeiineratood naponaibl^. 
namely — 

I.— tIor»egr(n*c Cowpox — the vmi-i Vp-arrantMl in hi** 

IL Uowpox, knr>wo by Jcnncr to be incrtgctivc in 
pT^vi-nf.iug iii]iall]^)X,but favuurnd l»y thw uie^lii^ pio- 
tonion and thd publia 

III. — noc9^;rtano (satd to liarc been hoiTtcpox), also 



fioflcribf d br Jeniwr as iodfecliv^, but latterly u«od ud 
diffuAnl hy him. 

To which of thcHO did ho Attnbuto tfc« sum<«im cbioitd 
for vaccixiaUon? ApiMi^iitly u» all indiffefi^nUy; l>titif 
dW w«To «A goo^ luc thit r:iLhf'rK, whj did he oct «%j 
ftud proceed to c:cjfkiit h<jw lb was tbftt oowpox dji 
■oive i!w 01oEi«Mt«r6liin> milk-mud*, nor honognMat tli4 
fftrrierH from noullpox ^ Wjls it thjit the power to ^ 
tivch qMi^ioQH, And to ftiLHwer them, iloes not eonu^ wiili 
tho quakck'fiintolUgoncoi and that in hivi lucre be rciU 
contcjtl? 0b9i=rv«< too, bow wbeii crrniit waa to be bid 
fj-jr LoncJon vaccination, Jemter took it, thmigb nt 
iMimity initli ttiL- cliicf agent iii tbo vi>rk, rc]>tidii 
Walker's practioa a* iubveriSvo oi principle** he con*' 
lUdorcd oedcntiai to aucc^ra. 

Jtginvr'x (liijU jm\>]u-nti<in In IH2& hjul nobbing to do 
with voceinatiiMi, but was a bid for fatuc in & n-^w direc- 
tion.* Jb ^'oa an attempt U) uri^UiS'te a new titf^thod of 
CUTV by inritntjn^' Ow skin wiui tutaratcd antiuionj. 
iici biid dilbkd with Uic cbemioJ mhtn a yoiin^ man, 
iini! John Hunter hurl ^uggVAt«d tbat hii pwiparaljoo 
6JjOLild licKold tuid putted aa JcnncrH TartJir Einotia In 
hiA laat y&An he returned lo it, and produced a ib^nes of 
ca«M to provo how many diMascA mi^t bn alloviat^ 
tomoveil liy uMii^ it n:t a oaunb«r*irntanL — juht as ta 
I'nqiiriry he Tecomiiienclcd c^DWpox inocnifttion with 
^t(jc intention. Tht inatt>?r d^>CT luit oanccrn na fm 
tli^ii lo ubtierVL- that tlie vr-^ide^ anil ^cai-* pnxluctfdj 
tArtnrfttcd fuitimony arc almost indi^tin^'Uiehablo 
tbo^ of vnctrinntiifn ; and that Hufi-UTnl. tlL« Oi^niian 
ICe«tcr of llodtcinLV taii^bt aad proved that tartar eiueti* 
WM every whit as ctrcciiTo against smallpoK a» cowpox— 
an opiiiion from which 1 cm no muhmi to disaenL 

PLyjiclAu u> ilio Kbi^ Loadm, ]^iiif2 -^o, |ip, 68. 






Wr owe inuc)i tr> Baron'» Life of Jcnnor, >iat a^i a coITec* 

It IS rwboM &nd loosely put t.:jgi-t!"cr, a-Tui woiild liovcr 
bo read uiUcm b^' noiui: uiit> In (jtit^^tL u( bifunimlioii, or 
with nothine betior to da Fotliinat*^ly Earon was 
ftvorcnt lUKfuot enticul. Jcnoor vtoa to him a sairrtMl 
bdng, fulminttilf* In aTl ti^lftUoii^, whose only rtint«&tioa 
va» wtUi "tho bl)mInc^^ nnd wickrdnc;^ of hb tra- 
<liic»^" LivtN wrltUii ill tliiH b-!m|iur hjk nii^n ntosl 
Instructivt. ToJos are iM antl Ictti^n pr£>duooil in pious 
ttraplicity that bio^rapht^is of tlie juuiciouii or^Irrr fli^- 
creetly sappcv^. 

Baron tarkHc Jenifers ac<|iiMn(Ajice in the auciiuer uf 
1808 wli*n bo wa* living ni Kladong's Hotel, Oxford 
Street, rosTlling in n fool* ^omdUc 0^% ta his import&nc*c 
£n ibe rtjrmHiiuu of iJio Natiini^al Vaecin*? EilAl>]i«1jmen(. 
Biuron bad reoeoUy como from K^lirbiir^h, a.nd Miy.t, — 

I WM Jhbont kt «ommo&o« pmdiot ; tl\ the ^oM vm befbra 
B)o> In smIeIac the wqavcloaott of J«aii0J' 1 km Iiupollcd luaiuly 
knr a JUaba lo i^ luaiAiptt lo ft qui whoM }>LibIic iiil T>rtvnto g]^U'> 
•cUtLm] ftb«ady looortil ray wiutocatftdii^tlatt. [ liUU tht^ogla 
Uttt it would 10 ir^codilj bod I0 im niiinu«y« ftad utlioiatclr to a 
Iri«a4ihjp, wlu«U lenuinnkd oiiljr at bi> daailu ani iiltkCfJ £dc in 
a raUlioatbap t« Lk iu«iu^4y tliAt do i^uo «ou]J Lav« iiaticipatcd. 
Tba p:nAia*«» i>f hb TAmci. his oxoltad Ulont^ and tbjo Lotaonn 
bMpM upon him hy tJX wo moat dlitiogaUbed iiiblie bodiM of 
Um dTdiuKt wgM. nhib Uxtf mado loo dwrnnw of oflcrinff my 
IhboU of rocpaot lo tuia, fcrbulo tho •sp««talioa of moiv tfaui «tieb 
«■ ackaowlodgiDont ni a ycutli, «ipiuiiuloce«d lu 1 vu, minbl 

of tho varkL. hl^ cond«fl«ind«d aa to art •ijiml ; tlm rMtraint ua 
cmbBTrumMDt tlint might n&tiinUy bavo b»n r«U in ti^o pf«ft]ii«o 
ol ^iQo to Aininont vinuliod id tn irMUnt. Thp limFla djgtii^ of 
hiM vijie^i, Uko kiDil kiid ffimiliar ton* of liii bu^cog*, waJ tfie 
|iArfoin Hinccrrity und good Gillb iDATiir«4U'il In atl b* idd ftad did. 



eooltl nivt ^ lo wia tbo bothri <pf eui>-<ioo not inooMUe to midt 
c^uftlilioB. HiCD^b mora IhAn Imnty yoM* luvo oIii|«od cfoot IhtA 
ititnmcv^ took pLaao, I ramnubar ii. and all iU aofrompapimaia, 
witli ILo most perfoot nociuncy. Uo wiu drou«d ia a blu« oait, 
vkritfl wftint^oali QujIevoq brvoolivii aad whiU ntocrkiiiA. \U 1b« 
t«bl«» ill Iii4 upartm^Dt voro ^oTorod nith lolUn nc3 papor* on 
tl]« Aubjtjcl of i/ikooixiAlioii, ami tlin oilAl'tiiJitDVi^t oJ th« SalioDkl 
V«cf«lii« iTifltltutlaa. U* lalktiLl i« u* of th« *xMll«ut &ttid« 
wbioh bod Ifttoly ^ppoufitl Id tba i^tftiiAnrpA Jferieto, r«l»Ur« to 
tbo va^«iD4 coBtn>vcrtj, Uo tpolco with gfvot ^od hcounir iW 
of th« conduot of til* auti-vdcffimtUi ftod gmvv nw vonio pvnp|]l«4i 
iUuitr&tir* or tlw (Fontrci'ony tJitn icoio|f on- T);^ cisj b*fora ba 
bj((l likd nn InUrvUiv with 111* IMnoMt of Wnltf*. anJ h» Mh«vif4 
iQ» )L TTA^f b vhlcli h«T Itojftt Hlflinnu htA itr^tmiod to liint <)a 
thnt ocriulon^* 

Tlie paHAH^ Is a Iod^ one. but \t Iiaa Roine valiio in 
iUc-lf, AnrI kTxhiMU Huron's hfthitual Attitude ttywonl bs 
lirro- Tn Iuh pTnutf- rrluLi>ia\ Ji-unt^r wax Mitimlilo, 
but It U with hifl niiblic life that vr^ iu?o eonoemi^t). and 
fiod so r^^pirebcn^ibk. MUchiovous Ic&ders and t^^adiers 
iipo frcmutntly (lUtinguished by private graces; and 
auftUrv pcreonal virtue w ftequontly a^ociatvil with 
bbinci i1ldiftc^4*nc'^ to conventional imirtoralitim ; &tid W« 
nceil not 20 far to difbcover counti-ri^rlrt of Jennet m 
riTiltn&ry Ufa NaUniig is comnkoiiLT Ltmn sauvity eoa>* 
h\ti*n\ vrith hc4f lov'^ tFut in innlt^^Tiant rwd Tni>n(fadoiu 
vih^n Uiw^rteJ^ All ih |ilva»jLiit u loitjx a^ tulminitii 
prevails bat with dis^^ont nr I^^s^i^ftn(?^> tho sunny lej 
vaninKcn, and cl^nid:* uF conU-nipt ami fury ovctspi 
the ^piritnal sky. A sharp tet4t of character in a inaa'a 
diapoHtion lo hi,** nfiv<irsaricf» ; and Jrnncr Mas uctvr 
inngnajutuouft, Hi» trojidm^t Ut Vvixrtmn, WundvilTn, and 
Walker has hctyn i^iiflici«ntly deacribed; and similar 
jealouj^y luid j^jiil^Tfiilai^?^ wcn^ displayed to wlioover 
dared to Impu;;^ his infallibility in thu nrevtiiition of 
ainallpox, No one, for instance, could (laTo broiigla 
forward tht? fact thnt MMiUpot occftin<)niv11y vace^Sed 
vaccination with more *inipIo good fwlb than GoR-son; 
yet Jcnn^r wrotni? nf him \x'ith trunircmhU insolenc** — on 
inMolenoij tliat ia Uircjwii into atron^rrcliof by the knoiv- 

• Vol. li, p. iss. 



Hin bully, too, Johr Ring, nttjicfced Ooldaon. and Jennet, 
in writing to Dtinning, S^rd December, 1^04. Uiua cx- 
CQNcl his brotftlUy — 

Ton v[ttsk uf TEJ»K ai»^ GoIdioQ. Ilccullvct thtirv wu ctil tiina 
to bo c(x>L Whftt ki\«r of Vacomatioxi— wlii^ iuaq, vr»U Bixjwu»t4d 
wUb it* EiAltire, and tlint of SmftU^t. could tcdJ GolJ*u»'« bo^ 
nuij Uy El dovD cooUr ^ Hin^. thv mDmont bo re«d it. tbud vhnt 
luJood woa iofioitvlr vor^ Limn tbe book itcolf ita martl'iroas 
bftrbiiifftJ^-llie »tlvnbi«fiiJL0t^L fn^tiuLtl/ cburvetl 1u« lilundorbiun. 
4ad £n.<d il in Ibo &c« of tbo outhor. J miutti frMly ooiifQWt I do 
tMtA It^l »7 oool bbotit tiufl Mr. GoldaoD a* you ilo, Hin book liiu 
MOt uftu; a vidim to a |rronu1uKi i^rav^ ; o^d would havo nut 
pnftoy B)CLt0| but for Iho biminiijly Mil raal of ^ounoif and otb«ri 
who Dt«piK*i rorvrard to oc^mUtncl ila ihvndful Unduncy*^ 

In th? imiiK a]>;rit IiQ irroie io Buron, (ith Xovcmtcr, 
ISIO, of BrcwTi of Miis'i^lbTirfih, who had reported Mr- 
tain caHca of sinalJpos after va,cci nation in & London 
newsjirpnr — 

Sotuu n«74irp hhikI. bn rB^cii nf Mr Bi-i^wu'Fi tuiriiiniinimlinfi ; but 
U hi' thfrikA h(i >^\tnll bu aUa tij ilmw mit Inlo rtintn)ir'>r«y. bit will 
EiilHLftlkiin. nil li^tU:r. iwdcr tljo viiU at caittUiur aejJ LlKirAlJt,v, 
lull iit frnMl nnJ urUikt:; foj' bo h^onx UulI dv^\ fn^iiiUMLiiiri 
'and arcuiii<?iib bu liiti aJviunvil. biive been rcfutod Ij lljc flTHt 
modtoal diaiBclr'ra in Kditibur&sb &iid DuMm, But tIiL< juilJ, 
gmtle, oDinpljuMicil aaUcoui^tt i« a cLaractor luunt difQeolt tg diwL 
yriUi thui <jil« wlio boldly iLow* bU ferooltj-f 

As ni^^ilji-il Ui nrown. aagacloua and aioct^re, ihvt wiu 
the vm* oota^jr of nbiiao. Evon Brown's ftdv^raoneit 
within nb own nfiighlimirhcoJ* iiltimAtoly yielded to Ina 
eoatonUon. In the B'Unhnnjh Mcdtmt and Sai'ffktd 
Jin^rmd ot July. ISIS, vrc read — 

B«foro wc Mindndc ura miut in jarii^ to oamzlru piiT th* 
jwniiirii A^Moro^^iT to Mr. Bp>tni of MuBMlburj^b, Trbooo cpfnlooit 
wo fttnnnoiuUy ooiitro^ortod in ISOO; »nd to wiiioli wo nov^ta 
1S1^> confsM ourtAlvcn portly eoDP«rte in oonioiiiMnoo of isoroaaad 
o«pcn<jDH »nd obMrTAlioD. 

Ill adtort, c&Ini dJACUB^on of Tocclnallon with Jonnor 
Wfts npv*r po*sil)K Tn<|uiry wiw borne down with 

• Vol, il fL, S4, t rhuL pl <r 



cool J not ftluifsotbor ttcapc" mvs Buod, 'from the ^a- 
noyance occmohp^] W tKr. hlindnem cfn^I '''i'i'>''.fji^s8 of 
bu tmduccn'* — «od all vettt trftj^uocn vho vtiri) ooi 
lielii^vt^n). Indeed, Biltod couJd ool^ accM>uiit for Lb« 
porvMirity of tho«o vho did not tocoeniM) J«nn«r aa t^ 
saviour cf Ti&&akuid Trocii amaJlpox by a rcftori to tb» 
doctrine of jnbreirl ^kpravity, sAjiag — 

W* AT* Miiiip*U«i to beli0T» ihht tb*n tt a nmiiilo ta 
utiir* vhid) bw ico Mroof ^n aAcJIjt lot wtiat M untio* to 
mil lb* v^vntAiiilinf 1a dtccmi or ft«kiifi«lod|{i« u m 
prit;«ipliB til] both A« mood juid laloUMtiu] tMod lua' 
porlflftd Aind OfvnglbMiBd.t 

Pnrifivd and sU^ngtbeDm], and tTw affinity wjUi fals«-; 
bood diMotved, it becatnc poniblc for the qnJcT>uiK' 
to appreciate th© Wrtisc ot cowpOK and Uiu w-racitj 
Ita adrertibcr I 

J^nner, it may t>e »aMl, iii*lir«rtivi»1y r^n^p^t^'l In^ 
ntaoQ. H« was uni*asy in eonadotiit duplidty. H< 
Kiww Uit*r« waa Do safety in vacdnalion ax practtsod 
for th^ oovrriox employed wajt not tbe hoisopoasc < 
pox be baa commended aa eificacioov. Wl^: tie 
prescrlbMl iras diOT«igmrded; what b^ b^ condcn 
ira^ AtipTovod : but, ^tran^ io say, be was prai&ed 
rv^iTArik'd by tlie worM a^ Lf i^upfiX liarl Ivmi bin stpddAfil 
Jgrii-:t oooCTptrd the fittiatJor, and p08»ib!y taair to be-j 
lipvr (afUrr a faHfiioit) tliat be ua^ ^ri^'iitg nr» mora tbanj 
bis own; but niKtor tbo czrcumstAncee it vran not tmr 
priain^ that be abrank from criticistn. kept bli 
publlmdoivi out of tho way, and resortod to j 
and fclirickiAfi: whoncvor acrutany appeared iuunltirnt.' 

Womc ewn tbftn \u% behaviour to inrostjgatorH and 
opponents waq bU trodtiuent of Iboao wbo converted 
\:acciiiution to practice- Tli-? fnq\ur^ waA do bandbool^aj 
and TcATvOD, \voodvill«, and othct early Tft^inator^, badl 
to tuaXe tWr own way. Dot only unafalHtf-TJ, bvit with 
Jenn^^r rf>fu1y to approptiato tbotr succesaea and to re* 

• V«l. iu f. I4S- 


with tbeir failuras, Daron avfin that 
hlB^'ln tlio nrt of vftccinntion was due to &Qy otM) 
Jfoncr hiiijK-lf. iiuAltfyiij}: Uitri pmcv with & Kti^ht 
ttxeoplJoD to favour of Dr, Bry«> of Edinburgh, who 
nubde ttte discovery that if a AuHjrct undi^r Tao^nataon 
U9 ru-\iu?ciimt4>ii, the auhs^quent inocnlaticn 'w caught up 
and bn>uj-ht to tnattirity with tho precedent — a pbeno- 
BMEion Uiat AK Brjn^% Ti&l wha mi'd tn imtHTliiin whether 
bve VAcdoc fov^r was optjrative. But ov«fl Brycia re- 
oeiv«^1 seaiit ndcnowWgincnt^ and Bnron tries to make 
out that Jciin«r waa poaa o t oe d of th« fact en it wns 
aonottnced.* Jenoar'a Kacannesa (award thooe who lt]^- 
fila5*ed nny intJ'Ilij^t ini}i'pi<-n^tfncii in co-opc^ration with 
Dim in wntl^^n at laivt: lu Baroci'ii bto;fmphy, hul with 
mieh liiDoci>n^B that it wmiM bp nUiiri t-i describe it Bfii 
indecent. HU i^nod faith is iiccfect, and it it only a 
critl[?a] n-(uW ibal flads out bow be h UleuiiCM^ witb 
Ji?nQ<*r, B^^r^o;; nidrit nowbore aavt? in bl^ abject ficrvicova 
aixl fenuiunc r/a^uA 

VaodnatOTH at thi? day allow that tho lofiuenG^ of 
vaocioatisn ^cacj? out and oii^bt to bo renewed; yet 
Jonnor would not lUten fur a Tnuint-tit to Kiich a modi- 
fication of ite p^^qMtq&l prophylaxy. Boron wriLctt— 

TLa year 130i. in Jctmtr'a eetJmolioai fbraied ui 9tt> ha lh« 
lutlory of th« Vmtoln Vaccia*. *nio •mdioQ, that the Oowvo;i 
«iDMr4e4 only a lesiK^nuy MCiirily vu ILeo iiuiAtfld oa. Hod it 
"becB eonvol, i% «^d4 btre dopti^ lb* litctTvery ttf QMrly all itft 
Tain*. Tkia uikHjui v«# Tonr eaaily nukcl* ; anj in tZio i&^cy 
of UiApnkrtkopDiUJQ»lbe'*nJrdi>pTOved. Te tJaeM oitoamnlAnotii 
H TM i>win9j tbnt (ho tmdc nt;(i imniptMrted rttUoieali af Uri 
ioquired uny infliuaae. Dr. Jim&fv bJawelf, from th« 
NoiODtt pemircd tliat ia hU caAVt «f ikilor«, C«irpox lidd 
b««a properly l&kea- 1 

When in 1813 Lord Botinffdoa introduced hi^ bill to 
ParlUment for thd ri^^tricUon of variGlaiion, Lord Eilen- 
bOTOUgb oUcTved— 

No doulrl Vriccioi\lioD ii of Kime iiMt but U IJi« ccbla Icrd ooa- 
ddm it a oooiplaU p»T«altTo of SauUpex, I difliu' from liiia ia 


• VeL L p. 4G0. 

tVol. it |k W. 



otiimc'ii, Al tiy* auna tlcao. J hitxe frfivisil tay rMpcft Ace Ih* 
dii«(ivrTy bjr having myef^l children iniof{iiat«d< I bditfVff In 
Uiu pfHcMj' ofTMC'iTirbtiOTi tn % etxXaln *itriit. It rciiiy f rn-i'Mit 
OiH ilLPonlt^ fcrT i*iir^it <'T iii'iH jwn ; Mid Id n Inr^ rrrly Uki? ItiU 

In this declAmticn the Chief Jnfltice wi? not -lini^jjlaf, 
btit cxpr-?'Wcil the gi^ncnil convicticn of the pulilic wlio 
hM hy vuuiimtiiiii in ft[i\Va at tlii? itiaiiiftst fiulitrii ol 
the early proici^i^ made for \t. NE»v«t-ttiel«fl8 Joujmt 
w.t<i cxtiriiH'Iy aimoyv^il : It yitu to Iiltii il*i tljv fortnal 
deUvGonuctj of judgment. Baron t^&ys — 

1 hue uldcu «aan Jtoaof inoTis dUtorbvd thito lio wm bj iMs 
oeeanvnct; &oloortuiiJybMftiLft« ho lud any fa ah chit tho i>u*iip. 
poQTtfld b»«rtioix of bu E«it1ihip wouli provo c<or»olH lal bocituit 

by «udi r^ jwrtuu. id naoh fts usambly, vaa mJoliI&:vi1 to do 
uurMwkoiilo icIvohloT bjr unMtUiE^ Iba «OQ£d«iic« of nucaWtav 
ADiIomi pai«i3ti» ani by Atitmptukg to dopnvo VocciiiAtkiit tif am* 
Chw ball it4 tirti]*.« 

Tborouj^ u&fi BAT<kii id hit def«nc« of Joanor: t^ 
tDCon:^tri)q\- nmnllnl hita. Ho records in cnpitJil^ (w 
pvcduQKl) tlio lollowin;; m JeDner'tt m>]vc!iw usd fiaiJ 
testimony, written, a few days boforo he cxpUcd. cii tht 
bock of a TuUcr, bearing tbo poHL-mark, !lth jAnouTt 

nuT rnojiVLOjkrfto iuk XfctcorKar. Ii ta mot tx niB i.kiit 

Bm3G0T]|CK£D UV U(T CTitS'? TB^r ItAS UA^TSMtD, n>ll IT COCLD 

(um MO eT££if4rn ; rr J« >ot ut rni: u-jjtr wi--aiii.xe:i, i^a tr ni 
VAiLiUvn too >rUkM or iiaii vor HAmimp, hie Tturit cr ift 

rill.n WOUU5 XOT HAVE UEKS 31At>l£ OUT, 1 

Self-d<;cvption after thift pattom is fM' from uncomntoot, 
EUkd ia proof Jigiunst 4<vidoncu nn<l dffttb iUt^lf ; but Jennet 
wtk» not ^vuto HO cTiury &a Im words mipjy. Frnm bit 
flrel otiinion RbuLitn vEu^^inAtion, &nii Us Jifmohitc elQcocV 
i^ftiDet ^^nif^llpox [iinhkt.' auytbiit^' biLlit-rto Uno^rn U) 
ittliuol n^ieritfiit'u) by had iotff.'a.l':d t^oii^iJt'mbljr, Knu 


f VoLiup,3U. 



early as tSOl be hnd roducorl hia claim for vaociaaiion 
to cqiuility vith varioTaLiinn, In tliiit J't'^tr lii? olixTTvcd — 

HVtiftt I Linv» wMon Vu'niimLiini U Iriif. If ]rrO(Wrtyconilnot«(), 
1i MconM tli« MiifitiMittfMi nn luui^li nh VatiiiIitiia InocttlAlkm 
poMdhljr cm. It. U ihn fimnllpai In u f unr fnrm thno that vhJtdi 
Iku MQ oamat 4moiig lu Tor twcilve ccntuHoi put.* 

And ftgaio BftTon i?U^ hint sia H«ytng — 

Ttaly ut/1 fSdfrDtly jierrctrin^rl. ViMtanlioii will protoot th« 

ilbMMiU«lf vrUI. f nrivrrjipfrlrJ lArti if t^ultf if? men-* kiiiJ it 
wiU tttt. 1 b»U«vs, do ]«tt.f 

Jeaner ]iv««nTneJ freely on th^ foTKotftiliKss of tho^o 
ho afil<IrcA«cH. [n a ^lociiiiicDt 90 well known a.3 his 
petition U> the Hcmii« ijf Coiun^ons in 1S02, bt* cTim^ily 
claimed ih^t a |>er80D inociilatod T^ith oowpos was 
tbiimhy " n^ncli'^'d pnrfi^ntly R^ciirn from iJii* it^frrtlni] nf 
amAllpox llroTJirh life"; n*>r wouUi Uie furore wliicli 
alteiuW Uie mUtxIuctiuu cF bW pi-nclicu tctve beeu 
poflsiblo bail it Won sot forth ft« no more than a milJcr 
loriu uf v^rioUticu. Tliat cowpox won rrjuivalctib to 
aiiial]i>ox Tot ini>culaticn wan laufflied at by i\i& vario- 
lAtora; but tlJAt a vofcitiati^rl pcr^n wm aa sofc from 
aii>all|»ox a^ Dnt> wbo iiarl paj<-ce<1 lUrrx^^'b Lli« iliteaw:*, 
wa» truQ in do otbrrr A^'Ils^ than that Jonncr wished it to 
he IrmT, iml iim^ilirsiiid aecardiM^ly. It wa* by MHih 
oontrivanc^-^ thai bu broke his ovrix fall, and alloviat^d 
tin discncboutmcnt L>f the credulous. 

Oddly enoQ^b Jermera flctloD. that vaccumtion w.i* 
•a ^od ogaina^ smallpox as frniallpox It^df* waa revived 
in th« inooccnco *>f TgnoranciT by Sir WillUm Oull hrforti 
a cotumitte of tb--* Houflo of (.omifiona in 1871. " Vac- 
einatioti u m prot^cttro a^aiiint »iiitallpjx wi smallpox 
itfietfr aaid tb« faablonabl^ jiby^cUn. Confutatioa was, 
however, at hctiid. Mr. Manan (for tbirty-five yeara 
rottdeiDL >>urg«on of the Ili^hj^'iLt^ Snuillpox Ho<pital) 
AtUatcd thai CAA^ of imallpo^ aRcr ^uiftllposc were com- 
pontivety mr^^oob I per centv; wHiUt 84 pur cant, of 

* Vot ». p, la. 

■f-VftLR p. I3S, 



tboae admitted to tho Hoxpitd ia 1864 w^ro vocdnabxl. 
An iostructm eoatroAt betweon Hit logic of i^acy aod 
mattitr of isict ! 

BAroQ. with uaF4cni]>i]Eoii4 disni^rd of ovidcDCO, com* 
plrtins tliat vaooinittwi HhoiJtl ev^T liav^ bewi reprowotod 
ftaaii iiit'jLlUh!'>pr<*vi;titiv(jof imallpox; ^o thnttv^ fKtintfd 
out i[) tln^ R^'jHirL ut tW ll<»_v4il (JullugH of riuriitutm ill 
ltt07, "th^ iftU> fyi thn n^w pnictioo wha ma^c to bang 
00 the occur roncc of a Atngtcciticof ^nuillpox '; imdgoo* 
on to cbserve — 

Thu» 1 ^m terry io w, wu ft grf^t cnaBELpfirDJiatmoa ; Qm 
oppoMAn ar V^cinaCioQ MiMftTo^irad U> p1u« tho fat« of VikCdAA- 
tiOTi DD tneh nti ik^o; butU Jeiui»<r*H i^nndpl** b«iluly ooon ~ 
\m n«v«rat hn^tJuiA lUinoUaiiod flioli an idita; &dJ long 1mJ( 
^riLotioA nf VMntn&tli>u boeftm* g^iunJ, ho ftitUdpAtad fafli 
sLod cip1uri«il tho crircmnttutoM nador vrtii«h tho^ won 

Uki-I^ to OF COT.* 

Th^ euQun&ry aiuw^ to this etat^nie&t is, that it is 
untrue. Jcnnor anlicipjvtcJ no ffiilurc^ On the con* 
crary> he vehemently Jcnl^d tliom; asd when denial 
coiiJd no bn^^r avni], he inventoil a variety of excasaa, 
HMch KH !ij>Luio(i-t u<.nvpLix and [>ntnipn«i>i)t hcrjioai, to 
account for their occurrcnco; thcuffh alwa)*^ wiadj (u 
wc bav<j Tii^ni) to hurk kick Ln Iiih i>ri^'init! ^v^isi'rU'in tliat 
vaccination was "aa infiilUble prevtntivtr of ■maHpoat" 
Baron did not like tlio woixi "miallLhility-" lie wrlUM — 

I am not iiuri^ lliftt tliD KXpnBiJnn ww uv^r used by Dr. JmiMt 
hiniwlf. If Lu di<l tiae it, liu ontuijuly vrrj iKkoa AOoeoipoaM tt 
with llio iivcf iuo' ijijullIl<^Blit>j, He tiujr uarLbpe ut tltfl ouEiioi 
lLHVirRtiL4Hl I [i A u|iin III II MNJtttwLit k)i.i iW^JeUl^ ; brjt 11L< oii« qufaS- 
^od Iti juJuH Wi iliJilLt t]j«t IjiTtju Um wry Wffiiiniiijf I10 w&fl 

pottenod 01 Iho 4e4ii|E*D ^! wUidi to loouLiro Ui« v&tu«c «f Vaocin* 

Whothsr ho did rimk« nwr fif the word " infrtllihle " b 
of ftli^ht Importance. Thora aro vftrioun inotlc^ in whicli 
the saioe meaning may be convoyed, ajid Jeniier* ira» 
uncquivx>cal. It wa^ In 1^01 that app«alin^ to tild 
rigid acrutmy that had t^iteu pbce in the tit^t profo»* 

VoLiLp.l3S. 4T<^U.p.lU. 



ftloDAl cbclua of Europe, he deliberate I jr iJiocUumv'd it &£ 
<»rUin — 

Tluit lh» hamui frnmo. vrhen onrs il tcoa felt tha lafltlcDCe of 
th« E«Dniii« CowpuE in lli« viy tbut ha» btren dcMrilwd. to D«r«r 
alWvhnK tX arj pArlml of Its «iJAl«fioeB aanlMdA bf lb* 

When Lord Ellentorough !n 1815 d«3«rtbed vaccin- 
ation fts aflordiDg no more ti^n a tcniporfir^ security 
froiH !iii!!jil1|i[]K, lit- i[ii-n'!y (^v^irt^Mt'd th« itimiiii-tliEU [?uu- 
fid^nce of the couuuunity in the pi&ctico; bui it it* the 
haliit of ftdventuroni ta AAcribe ntlvoraci manifcfttaUcna of 
public feeling to putty oiLnttc^; nod thua Jeitner held that 
tbtf t-'hicf Jttitice was mdiilguig & personal trrudgc whon 
he t^rvw doiiljf- on thn p«rpi>tijftl cHficAcy of liU t^nwcrip- 
lion> Ou cn« occ&naon. so ran Ui« dlory. El Icnbo rough 
wi« ri-latmg in n cOfnpnn y at St, .IniiifVx hnvr Jeuner 
hiul HJ little fnith in cowpox tlint lie Wt JiteU £ioialtpo-x 
Lo ImxiiInU' hi** "rt'ii LOiilil, wh«]i !»■ was ^luUJfuJy con- 
front«*d by ftn irato jwr^onsge, who (^xcliumctl, " I am 
Dr. Jcnti^r, uiirl \fbn.t y»u ktvc %tnlvd In uot true!" 
vbereiipon Ellcnboroiich shuik nside in confusion. Tho 
fACt of the rrncoDtro in the sciiAalioi^al form, vre nidv 
crerlU lis yet* pli^iLai; liut nbuut tb<< vitriotiilUin of Ji^nneTH 
child Iheco \b no doubt wbaUivur- Wo h&vd the eircuin- 
vtAnn? rumnlrd liy hiiiisLrIF witli >iidi rxplanution n& lie 
GORbidcT«d Xbdoqti&te. 

Turiiing to Uiv /fj^uir^, wo find under Cose XXIL 
that Robert F. Jcnni:T, iig«d eleven nionthjt, wa« vac- 
dnAtod on 13th Anril. 17w. and tb&b Uo did not receive 
tho infliction." Tn4> opotAtion wha not rop^ftti^d, and hn 
rotttftjned unvficcinatcd. Boiiic ttmc: nik^wardfi, n^biEat 
JenneiT WAA n^Hldhi^ at f!1ith'.'rihaMi, Mr. <'ot.her, ii sur* 
ggcn, linpp^nod to dropirt,iLtid hnvjug tiik^n th(> child in 
his arm.H. tiirnUont--<l in Llie coume cjf ccnveTHjUleii. that 
he had just loft » family &ofl*ritig from smallpox, "Sir," 
cried Jernnr, "you know not vrhat yuu are doin^! That 
ohiM is not protect^." AVhat was\o be done * "I'hcro 


w» no ^oubt on my mltifl" fui^^ Jvnncr, "(but iha ^^of 
vraslnf^ted;" and'haviD^ notmot the precious hone- 
grcuo covrpox in bin potiM^Askii, ho htla Uiat be mm 
without ftlt^mfttiv^, jujtl hy Mr Cotber Ibe lad wa» 
imoiediauly inocuUUd with asiatlpox. 

Thtt fort in lino coiit»o gtit abrond, nitd, an BuxMi 
rekt^i, was luikic tbo most oi by Uk< oppooente of mio- 
ciTiAtion — 

Oud olnerrDEl. *' Tit, Jina«r mnjf my wb&t bv llku «Lo«t Vip- 
ciimLinn. t-ut 1*0 kiiow fur ArrtAiu llidt I10 hns iiiM«;liiCod him tjmw 
*oa will] Sni^tixix/' Ancthn- rvp^atvil th'a »l«U&ioEii wHb Uw 
aJrUUoiit Uint lie liHf] doii^ w livcMiiM* I10 (u]»Uiu1od VAcdiialkni. 
A tlitrd iJUol) ftUoUier lint Irj ilMp«n Uia coltraria^ offlnnuig UuU 
be kunw Uiftt Dr. JttUQDr liul ftbaudoucd liia gunfiacbcc iu Vac*ioi^ 
Lieu, uid Ute jirouf fj iuociutost*bloi i» bo bM tiw«ulAt«I bii inn 
D^ild triLb SmAl]poi>^ Tb»c etorici j>MeeJ Itxaa mcuUi lo n^oCAha 
ftijiJ hfli.<nvafJii ■ppearvJ iu jirixil niUi «f«rj owlifxijuil iuU^ 

SjkiU tulk wjLH vi^Tv nnUiml. nar WAft it wlUiout jliBtt* 
ticaiiciL Jonnor ou;:ht to have proved bu sinoerity br 
tbc vAccination of hiB ioa; And he vho denounced 
variolatlvD and vAriolutom witli fmch bltt«ni«v Eaifbt 
hftvo accepted tbu nak of uifcction from Mr- Cotacr 
ratber than hnv« com prom iii<?(1 lii[iis*nr tut tnjurijttfily. 
Mor^ver ^a^ wan n.-^kcd at tbc tiiac) if tli« child va^ uv- 
tiBcted. wliat wiu^ tho ii^e of iJioculAticm ? Vadi^fntioii 
and xaccination fit ^lui ai^cd} may bu aer^iecctblo in 
keupiiiLj ^fTnixmllpiix.bat ai-t* of no avail aft«r iufccLioik 

\aceiiiatioti has beon d««nbod on a rt^m^rkablv «iir* 
vivai of nupcnttition in hygiene — inanj, who ili^vroii:^ 
all ntlierdod^s for the iuaint«ti»ncB oF brnlth, hnlding 
by itv Of cortra* Jcdikt kn<-w rjoUiing of h>jcUno in tbo 
^eriLirie hl^tim? — It vta^i r^vKiEi^d flft£*r IiU limr; Uil it U 
notoworthy that in none of hi.) p;ibIicati»nK or Ivtlvrm u 
tbctrnny AiiUcipAtiozi nf Ujt truth that htts provi^d bo 
fruitful in our cxpeHcneer namely, that ill-hrallh indi- 
cates ill-JIviDg. and that the misery of disea,«> b only 
re<nc<]inbl4 in ko far mt we eome out of the o)ndit1ona of 

v»L a rp. f^ 40 aba 10^ 



dl«eju^. WhilAtofKurh truUi bo fcr^wnotJiing, be might 
have known nomrthing. It lay plainly bcForc liinj ianX 
ftiDAllpox wa& All afllii^rtion of (be pour. Ami of tlid iirun- 
peroiis in 00 far a« thoy flbarod the con^^itionA oi tbo 
pxir, but liu riTMir rtvtufnispil Uif? fairU On tlj-- <T(tritniry, 
li« cborifiheJ ^ho fanU^ that vaTioiis di8c^iA«8 ^ere 
donrcd fiom Auociaticn vrjt)i >iiumal«; txnd UiAt tbu» 
amaUj^ox orlg!natc<L in cowpox, which Sn turn came trom 
horacgrooao. "Thcr^/'aoid he to hi^ ncpbcw, polntiof; 
to a liortu iritU p^yt*y hi'els, "iliun* U th« jiuutcu of 
Ipox-" * To entertain ^uch an opiiuoD wai? t<i bo 
<T-hlinil to till' tni«^ cnu^r.^ of ilMnL-^*?, nml lbi*rrfor<; 
w« liav« no n>a<'>n for aurprUo that thv Jeiinor hoitsebtild 
lived ia chrcmc iU-Uealtb. piously *ubmi«ivc to wbat 
tli^y »uppoM>rl tho divino ivilL TypbLs fever va» r&* 
current in the boiue)iolii without a aiupicjon that any- 
tbing was amiss on tbo human aide, llicre was a genius 
namH IJftwcs Wfn;pm, ^hora Jcnncr rcccivi-<l into hi* 
family a* Lut-ir t'> hl> -mii, but <*n' a yi-nv bail i'hi|i*eU the 
poor Mlow liad two attacks of typbuu, and finally 4uc- 
eambed to palmoiuiry cdnanmption in IfttW, in hi* iuni> 
tMatlL year. Cliantty Cotta^'e, Jennet's re8i<knce at 
Berticlcy, vms no temple of liygeia: on th« oootrarv. 
ftueliaplaeeat thUday would bi?a t^rrrfrr to a resp^etAbla 
ncigbbourbood, and subject to t\it att<riition of the aanl- 
imrv in^pivf/kT, 

The pnnciple of vaecination conevdi^d — that health 
may be »urehai>ed by diat^sM-, it •w&m not nurprbiii}; tbat 
JtvA« (housHt that mea;Blo« and scarlet fcTer could bt 
extirpated by Mrnllar trraiinrnt. Sir Humphry Davy 
BnggC8ted that IiTdrfkphobift nii^bt b^ antictpatc^d by tbo 
icoeulai»n of nnotli^r animaL viron, but JcniK'.r held tliat 
cowpox sboiiUI Iv tiirNl — "notliln;; ]\ke lealhtr" It wa^ 
reported from (.V.r.^tnntmoplo that th? plo^iio it**?lf vraa 
fltayi-tl by \acrituiiion, aijd ilj»i- rxph-rimtiilji, uxactly 
Uk« thoee umh] to d«moi^trate ita p^-i^r agaiost small- 
pox, bftd becA rqi«t«d with complete ftuoccaa. Then 

•Vd-tv. l». 



iru Dot» however, ent^rprif^e in the Evit fcr Uie i1 
opmcnt of the ffuftclccTv. 

JcDD^r Uuf^'ht tUftt Jiattfiniier in dojcs w^a ptereatibie 
lij' viLCciniition, htuI ftccumiilatefl n \'Amty of "' first-f»te 
evidence" in prctgf. lb vyli no inuiBitory n'liim. He 
viuv-injitcd twenty of the Kin^''i* stn^hnHinU in IHOI,And 
in l^Otf contributed a pftpcr to tho ModL(!i)'C1imir;^c4l 
Society an Oil? Miljjp(»i, whiri>-i:i he eApr«8ewd tliL* ofiiuifm 
thnt tho <3U<?asc haJ only oxist^d is EoglAnd for tho 

Eftbt half ccnitirj. Sovent great fox hnntcr^ hiui their 
ounds viu]dnat(_'^, &!id the roatilu vr&r^ pmtioiinoed 
^ati^factoiT* Why, then, was the pnurticc not con- 
tlniiwl f Why iK not ilinMiiper exltTtiiinati-d 7 May W8 
not my the r&ft£on ia pUiu ? The firat-viito ovidonce ra 
lihj-tory. Men iirr apt to crrJiUt th^T iWtf* tln^v U'lnh for, 
but as defiire BuheiUea, ihey reocK-ef their normal eye- 
sight Cowpox, ne arc pcmiAdoJ, wa» riA j^oo*] ogainsl 
diiiteutpcr :n dog^ im ogwmt nnallpox in htmian WiQg)> 
and hut for extx&ncou-t onunecL, it nould have basB 
aliAnilonod fnr the nn^RA for the other. 

For J(^ni;r tt hn^ to he ^^d, tliat if decejred« ht; had 
much to excuNt? hii« fif1f-i]t«e|4tirjiiL T!itri>f Art) men 
ponoMood of convictiom which they n^nintnin in tho ItM 
of an indifTtTiviLt o? imUi^iymni^c vmM. hub Ji^nnor wai 
not Kiich a man. If hta Iaqu\7^ bod gone the vay of 
wflrtU'-parigr, he would hare offered no rcatstacLec ; tut 
instead. It voa proclaIm<H) by Peaxson as vrorthy of 
univcTMl dttetitioti. fttid the ticur being propitioua. th4 
iiiEddli!*af{Bd coimiry ilcirtiir Niuhh-nly fiJimd IntiiWf 
treated as tho dirlivvrc^r of luankind from smallpox, 
whiUt Pcjurrion, liis proMotcr, wils jiwr^pt wxidi*- a* m haU- 
hoftited vo»hippcr of the new Uiviniiy. Adulation wai 
admimstered without meaaut^, and if Jo<ruier took ii fcf 
IniR, anil was It^d t^i iinn^iro that ho had more in him 
ihUMX ho ever imo^ncd. in-bat marvel! He beeatue tbe 
(vfjirn of rt Kiir<fp<^an crnze of n chftraetpr An<l intpni^i^ 
that irr pcrhnjj!^ witliout partillcL Empororv and hingii 

BAlia>r« UPB OP JCNlfER. 


8t*l«smcn nii^l philncthroputfl, men of edcncc, and id 
flhort the wlu^te <-(]u£*uUd world c-rimpirGd ta do tdm 
Tovunnco. The ctazo ^adu&lly abatLM. end the abate^ 
it WAi inaU clr-ddcl in tlii.' coimLry »f iL-i origiTi. niii} 
(fly ID London TL-her* cuwpox aiid ila udvL'iiist^r wL-re 
moftt closely sci'uUtiiaL\iK Jeitimr abhor rod LondoiL 
Th^re he bad pri>i)rj*.^d to ilciurisdi n^ a \\Vst-Eui phy* 
vdoc* and ih^m te had ciiOftiatCTed a di^^uial fculuro. 
Tlxfrc, L<Ki, Wis nrjtpngonUu wciv< iici.tvc, nud their lU^iium- 
Mfation of the fuliltty of hbi aMe:rtiond moat ccrUoItL^vo. 
Wc >4^ U\s t^injii^r Uinanl [jMiulon iu tueli a jifbAn^v tm 
thefolJowing from 4 letter t» DuniUTig,dat«dClivlU!inham, 
2l»tFcLruao', ISOfi— 

Wliat ItkVoo the AntS'VricciuihU likvo ULAdo In towu liy tlio rv- 
bllOLlaotklt i<t Vb^oIoua luoculuticiQ t It it cumt^led llml ui^t 
Ihm Ifcas tflOD iHrreoun iu lEi?* luttiupoLia, njiil ihc wljucvuL tilliijfiM. 
bavdlvlki^ vtoCijijiH to Ui" ^utallix'X f'wi:v AiJiil ljul> Onu viruld 
Muoriy tijncch'it it inTHiiUo. but iht^hv tuurJeira aiK for iIji^ mofit 
ptrttto be^ttnbiiUil tij tL« kbi-Mil iiEuJoctiutiH (if Mo«vluy. iLjwUy^ 
vid lldl jKjjt little &]ain«iJ« tvuiy JioUiing uf Gulalaon. Itb ulxjut 
LdHlon Uiai Uio raaou of Uic«o dai^ly aerpc4it« obleU; £ova.* 

Wliikt tho doot« cf altfioat ovory eoicDtific cotporation 
in ttie world wurtr thrgwii ofivii to n^cuivv Ijiuj, th(^ H-jyat 
lege of Phy&id&na of London malaUined an honnnr- 
twicrvc; and when in 1614 hw doijn to admiN^i'iii 
WM Hb^>^^]y iiTj^od, Ihv majority hialstod tliat, if received, 
lio should Mihmit to the u^ual osuuDQiDation— a suthc^^rt 
check lii Jt-mmrVot^i'.t Thr Collri^n lijuilnviL iijinmi"U»?d 
for iu tri^atnieot of " tho inmtortal benefactor of the 
liuioan ricc/^ but it i» foigottcn how intjQi&tcly the 
l^aduio iticDtVTii uvru acL|tjAinU;d with hit immuttalUy, 
and with v>hat <)ib^U9i il^^y muat bava nceived his 
ctmf^iKiioTi in lfi07 a* to the non-exist«nc€ of *piirious 

Toward the clow i>f Lis lif«.', Jenn^r Tangly appearod in 

* VoL iL >. US. Ha Tyin Ami ^U of MorUUty rtvcml 1 6AC ^^thi 
In llCa BiHi HAS in IBOG fnoi SniftlI|H>x— Bunhun in do mpoat 

tVB].&]. p. lai. 



Landrnn. HU UU vinU tooV placift in 1S14,ivk«r] 1» 
pri'sont-i^J Uj tliL* Emperor of KtLwia. " I m 
think/ wud AleXflnden " thaL voii Inve reodved'Qifr 
tliftTkka, tUo Applftutt^, An<L Uld grfttituJu td tlw world;" 
to which JeQQer uitd^ ftUftwer, " T h&ve recefivnl the 
thiuiLji and thd ftpplnuso, bnt «<>' th» gratitTido of Uio 
vorld" — the &Kicnt gT&Uttidr! hoitig a [>t-viphru« lor 
&ht«>Tit cash, xa6 a hint to the Cz&r that ho mijjfht n^pOBt 
the wup'*b tnunifici>ncc of hin grn.Tuimothpf, Cntharinc, to 
her iivxTuIat/ir BSiiistlMlii. Tim Kiiipr?ri>r, liii*vevi-r, i^vis 
QOthiTi^'.o^nil Jcnn(>r rvtirtd kootily disappo^nUxJ. Wbat- 
uvcr th>i i[ji|trripLl (l^ntTiitlon, Jr-mior did little to renEkr 
it iDoru pi'upilioQK by usitt^ hipf audience to donotum 
W&Jkcr &nd the FriLiiii^ l>y whom va«cui&tioti wm at 
that tinio chicily pnnnutod ; for njt AI«-YAiuU>r itaid. *I 
lovo tho good Quakers; tbcy aro my friends, iod<»e<l;" 
nnd u-h(]i'vrr vlAndi^rrd t.honi wuh not likidy to luivftnon 
in }m favour, 

WlUi idl he ;(ut Jtrimtr rt^L-koiitd htiij>it-]r ill-p^d ; 
tiikiiiL; tho word* of hia aduiiror^ for ^iim'^T**, ho wfta 
pa,id. &i:iny «k Aiicoc^^ful nUycT v( bis kind had tnudb 
moro ffom the lloiiso of Commciui with le»t^ fi3«A thaa 
their ideal preserver; Uit thcro U oft^n ii mciLiDro of 
fabicfTily u'ltTtlti IimiEic^erUy, ^ud iii&nv of th&f^ vho 

E raided Jtrnnor most TApturou^ly f<i]t Urat }io had not 
etu d<-«lt with iIlibi'Tidfy ilh thr- lulvrr^l^fT rjf rirupox, 
j4?nnerV wlfo died id 181^. an ailing, pii:>u^,afri?:rUciQftte 
wotnaD, and thenceforth be dwelt in retiTrmcnt until his 
deatlt OQ thi?2tiUiorJanuary,lS23, at the a;;e of Slovenly. 
four, * Wovor," ho wrote to bie Friend (Jardnct on 13lh 
January, a \\t^^ hi^fon^hinIpniwir/'NtTer wa^I involved 
in «M> mfiny pcqjIoxhieV HaiJcd with acclaiija'.ioii in 
1800-2 as the Hnvioiir of innnkmd Umjh >TiiftlJpoXj <hiriiig 
tbo riimjLiiiinif Iwenly yjiam ct hU llfo ho imdirwoat ft 
steady ojiirae uf dihcr^dit aa failure after failure waa 
K^c^rdttd and atU'^t^^l agaliiit vacciiution. Appro|>tiftte 
Uitrefore voa hb farewell to tbo world in 18S8, ** Stvcr 
was T involved in »*> many pprplexitir*/* Thpn» was not 
it.iiii-^iD left to cETcct the interment of hvt rcinainn in 



WccfLiuuistcr Abbcf, and tho f jocmt took pl&co e.% 
Berkelejv Ad att«nij>L i*ftfl maJt to obtain a j^rant from 
Povli4m<Tnt fcT & moDumttit, but tho propo>^aL f«U il&t> 
Baron tlifn mt on foot a subscription for the purjume, 
bat it met wUb littlo onooura^iem^L Tho ouly i^ubUc 
bod»c» wbidi contnbuteil unytliiug weic thtr EJiialrurgb 
Colleges of Pbjticiiui:* uitl Siitggou^, tbu lir^t ^LnJing 
£50 and tbe a«oon<l £10. With mucJi difficultjf ouflid^nt 
iiVAAw^ni£MMt(iignt,bi»r to onW A«iAtiinfinnt Wii-vif-r. vvhidi 
VBs set up &t the vccit end of tbc nAv<i cf Gloucester 
CRtlHfilrftl. Tbe front pan'^l of tbe jkhWIaI oii^inMly 
bon tbc dates of birtb and death, but Baron had Uktu 
removed, «on^dt?rin^ Ihc word Ji:>'>'i:Lt &tl ^i^mflcjint 

In hittor tuaes, in M^O, ft ^tatiio h'ah rrf^ntrd ti hm 
meiDorj- tn Trafalgar Siiuiitc, London, ckfte Ij tlic College 
of Pb}mici&ns. but it was felt to have an air of [ww^iUr 
(luackery about it, and by and bye woa *ii»ctly rcnmvuJ 
to a <«tiiiT in KriL>ingtoii Oardi'tih. TImti- ih, oh T liavi* 
remarlc^.amoa^urc'of dLnc»>nty«veuia insincerity; and 
it u ini|KMmblc for any on< with a lively nciur of vcmcity 
to hnow Edward Junnur and oiitortoin fcr 1dm any 

rue mi:dicii FocfiTicix IS less. 

VTuo Jetincrrdi«d in lS23,tbejudgTnentof tbe majority 
of Ibcproplowasproncunccdagnir^tcoiiTpoxinoctilfttioDi 
but m«<JicHJ ineij, ubrj nrv i^^iTec-ttJ lo I'tutw soiu (.'tiling, 
and do so«nctbin^\ against €1 very ailment, raroly&urrcndor 
a ptc.M^ription until It am \tv rciilArrd bv nnoUirr. Tho 
doclott therefore hold by vaeeication, Lul on nio<.lifii*d 
tcnas^ and tha position to wlicb t]i<^^ hod been reduced 
U«et forth Snan articlL* in ilu- Edmlurgh Review. S^t 
November IS22, c^inceraing wbicL Jenncr wroto lo Gard- 
ner, IStli Fnbnmry. 1S2U, n wtrk U-fimi Km di^jitb — 



I Knvo Mil nltwrli trom % aoarior I ^Ld &o( txpMi. ibm 
Jicvicm. T]i»BA pflonU tiftJoarttuiil Liti«nbar< tifttUr U 
It wilt d» mcnlttolablo miiohi«f. I ful II dova nt lOOjOOO' 
At l«jk9t. Novnr Wtti I involvocl in n> muny pfrptaulioi. 

What an oTtraorJiaarj" arlicIoT workicg ini&ohiof iw- 

calt^uUlflp, Mill luul for nt U^n.M- nnr huiulrrd Ui»iixuh1 

donthsl A cnlicifim in tbo Qtuii^^rl^ \a Aaid to bava 

kiilcil Kohto, iipoii which Byron remarked— « 

TVu atrtaffc tbo miud, tint t«ry fic*y (iDJtio1o> 
Shoiild Ut itdolf bo mo^Dil out bj ui uiii^lO' 

If.bowcvar.Jcnncrttiwriffht. itMillbcaUowc^l, I tbink, 
tliat tht* mtinli^r uf a. ]>L>rt ailh i<iL'evi]iv.1 In alrocity hy iLe 
vlnughtiiT of at Ic^vut ono hun^lro^ thousand ctxiiaary mor- 
tftl^. ^^lr^rpfl1^i^ to Oi^L^nvrr i\iv munncr <i Hit? ^n*t 
miinity, I b^kvd up the Edhtburffh Review and 'H*- 
covii^xjJ the diaWlical article. It » entitled "Vftccin*tion 
&TulSmaUpox'*;itobvlouj)ily vrritt«n',1^' the editor, J»]trr«y; 
and th« rock of offcDce was at once apparent. Doubt U 
tlimwn on tbf* (ifflcacyoF vaccination to prevent imi^llpoK; 
tr^'i. viMTcination tbun diAcroditcd will tc Tic(;Ie«te4l ; ^rgOi 
VBccinatjaD tlitis iif^ylecU'iI will onlar^ Hiv d^niun of 
tmallpox; <rr^P, at Ivaet one htmdred thouwand |>onoDi 
will [xrisli. Q,K.D. Bub it will be aaked. ' WfiM did 
JcffVfly aay ?" Th^ artJcJe tbiJs op«n9^ 

Vncoin&ltan, vn kl-c istirftclly p«rHDnilcLl, b a verry jCTcat 
lo ciankmd: bnt nntijuitaMi irrrnt i blcninj;- iiur w oiuitil^fta 
IiruUcLioD. lu Itn nrly clrft?E](3i-rfl (iotJt:civei1 tt t4J W Hivi |injuf 
thJK }iuM li4?FJi ndiuJEtud ifi^h vrviit rpTiicliLnmi ; but II hjM lUiflD 
iiJiittity boaotiJ?! t*;!* blrunif furilutLijd irrixm^lafiOB. Tli«fint 
jfLvr^; ti) till: iiiJituucwit t4 fiiilurv, witb whioli tEjo fiiccdt i:if Yi 
tiooi woTi; iiTOMod. were, dU)«r tbU ^ft di*««a» wbitih li«d 
ftflei' VuooLDBtian tnu rhiakcupoi. nud noT. Suulltn^'i ; vt ihmX 

pTDCMB of VBOCinofiOQ L^ bniil imnhjIfrlUy ur iiiipfrf'^ctty ooo.; 

ciutvil ; or thbt it w%9 ouu i>f llivw verv ra^a rttftM whiob oc< 
(d tljti tiiunx of IcuTCulhtioai arn\ tcotu whieli Vfrc<ui4tian itovlf 
not |>tdI«iiJ t<i bo vrboHx «ierapt. 

Tlie Report of tlio Vaccine Pock lA^titAitioD for 1 
U cit<>d» liM follows, to allow how alwolulo vins the eoafi 
dciicc in vfti:ciTi*tioo in the dayn of inoxpcricnco — 

W« hAv* b<u>n oinimad tv^ or tlinu limoi with intolUgob** 


ttU'Unro"* Llin Cat^J^oI. W* thoiitflit h oar <Liilj tii viiul utd 
•xjUQtaft tLf4« pAtEcQtd, and olatt Il> f uqmro iaUt Uxe^it Liftory uaoiiic 
Ui«£f ttldtdaUtB, anj b/ t1u#G iiu&ai Vo ^IjIoicwJ tlio «ompIctcflt 
Mtbfootioc UiAtihvprotcuicd Smallpox wMgotit<ralIylL«ChKk«Q< 

A« lime went on, OL-icf* of .<nnAllpox nficr vaccinAtion 
k«pt multiplying, and the vArfou* excuses to account for 
their occurrence, though objitinat^^ly osBcrtcd, utU^tly 

to Le vaocinabed in th^ tno^t Glpp^>v^ fasUioa att'orJod 
Qa guarantee i^m^t xtitfillpux. In 1AS0, flal<l JeHVoy, 
UiA soard of tne I^ational VoociDC ButabHiimcnt -wah 
compelled to make the following uolancholy &Jmia- 
ftion — 

It ii* tnif ihjit wn hiitfl ri»r^ii*il uriviunfji trnm diiTHpnnl jinrtt 
6f thit cuinntr^* at nnmAmnftRtwflnvf Siimlli'iiii lin,vipif^ omiip«(! ^ifloi' 
T«v*lTiftllflu ; and wo raanotili'mtt that llio TfrrJTiilJc*of ibw pui^^ilti 
»jf*lntl tliin pToiontlvo cijioJUni are iLHilenal>lo {nnil Bi»t lilloiji^thnr 
nTirt^oAiinkh^j' pnrliiLptJ Li thSii dioho, tTku vwum thn Ifonnl hiu 
been ludn^lh^unly omploj-cd in intE»tigntJ&g; And tfaongh It ap- 
jt9^n (iul mkiiy of ihooi ivt unly ou lioMwy vvideDOtk iwid Utat 
^/^Uftt tentim Ui ]in\« iiAd«nros« the VmcJiic ProvoM ti]ipi-tf«cll7 
toooM jSftnhii:ci>nr]i«Dllwun«uiwcdl iind«r«tuod.aiiii1nruciLli>^1 IcKji 
iUEfdJij tliAiJ Lt oiijfht to bft; yot.ftfUir tvcry n^imuQAlilii ilfkiliiolbu, 
ve an Dtuupdlcil to tlbw Uiat loo mimy itUl rtriiiftln ou mult^nl- 
ablo procir, u> loniv vij doubt that Uio jirvtoimoas o( VudoA- 
Ikm tij tho iDcrU cf a porrcct ami i?xcIu«ivo sMurUy m aUcuo* 
■tCttml 8ni&llxiu£. wftro MdimlUtt at ^ni tou iLiirtevtruiUy. 

Tbo ulc^nificancd of a coiif«&«[on llko the* fort^t^oirc is 
not to be osUniattd JitL^rally. It w&? exacted nnivj irro- 
%UtnilA pri'wviin^ *if fwi'U, ntirai?rnn*, dnfintfco nnd nn^I^m- 
al>lk^. nfter evory iiii^thod of cxoufiv and pr^^vnn cation had 
been eiliBti^iti^d. In ihorU it vtam an nutrroritntivL- r»'ir»c^- 
t^ion of tlLO tlairii]f( medioxt tt^tiinony \vith which 
WN^inalicn had Wn oonuneaded to thi; public in ISOO, 
iffhen the hcadq of thf pirofimiion Clionght it their duty 
(o declare in the ncw^^apcnt — 

Tbftt U*o*fl purtctiB ulitj havtihiulUioOoa'iK^xsrt i>tTfMtlj Mcoro 

from III* future ^bfocLcu cJ tho Stit-iU|jox. 

And of Jenner'a emtihatic aa&urance— r 

TJi&t tb« human fnoiao, when ouco It liw tt\\ Etu infi(i«M4 of I 




gcviiutie Co^i^f^x ti ii«T«r frftervbriUt t.i viy period of iU ttMrnDt, 

'i'hc occnjtion of Jcffir«y'« Article! wav the pubJicAtioa 
Ijy Dr. .Tolm TliotM^j:i nf j% trriliML' nn a vtutf^iit (rpirleuuc 
in Klinhur-ifh^Rnii cither parU of Scotland. In ISlS-Ul' 
Till- tH.-nTiNi" ililliTrcJ from otditi&rr Hau.l1p»x in rcsjHfCteJ 
the ^TkiallnL^its of tht< puatulM, wbiclk contained % milky 
iliiiiJ, and bcgftn to dry up en thd Fourtli or fifth <lay. la 
T}ioiij3icin's wc)rd!4 — 

Tl» 0|)jii«ciJCiifi'fAr*Jl to «xltibtt ftU ib« TarifrUfti ftf SjciLtQ> 
from 1b« mildert to lb* moal DaaUcAAOt; aqI it wu tmrvoi te 
obMm Uut tho imldoit toaai, m w<U m the most mAluauit, 
iroro BtricUjr vcaienUr cnptioiiv, i« irhJcb scwolj^ ■ tno« ofparv 
lont nftltor wu to bo stem from tboar wnamoiKomoai to thu tai^ 

\V1iRthcrr thi» cpulcmic vra-f ^mfiUpox or ^hlckeiipoi, 
V'fLs tho qii-^^tion. It was chfckenpox %a^6 some, ft was 
ntoditicjj amallpos fl&id ocHcr=^ I ( probably ^nia chides fi- 
pcA Hiiid TlicitnHjm ; ttnd It ,%a, ho urgtivd, irhii^rninix 
6h;>ii]d be Accounto^l a vatioty of anuillpox, Th^ tiutd 
C&use of UDcorlAinty W£u, that the racd[tikt«d OHutilutcd 
thu nittjority of uulTorera^ 

Dcilliitif. it npp«ftn lo 1110. hut Uio nio«t ucnimonalJ* oMpllcin 
oouM ovnr luitv raggiMUd a tLxibt of llio Jiiomo bidzt| f«EUiU|# 

Thoijijon reported 5^0 rauea in Edinburgh of vhkb— 

810 bA'l boon Vft^diuUd t 
41 hjU ]u<l Six»allpox; ui 
20A hp^ nfltthcr bfifn VaocmottJ dot bad Scaftllpoiu 

And WillLAm Gibson, sargtson At Robert Owen's mills, 
y^vf laimrk. haJ 32J oflsw, of whhA— 
^1 L«J b««& Ytto«loiiiftd. 
11 hftd bjid Sn^poi, ipKtUiDooiu or inoenUuJ. 
C7 h»il QcltUcir bm VAO^iiat«d not bad Smallpox* 
8 hitl had Smallpox nad Covrpox rimultaiMMilf « 

Jon, isa). Pp. 400, 



* usiuJ in ir|iiilrnLic« of ranallpox, it »ah ihn 
who woro the majority of Mi&i^rs; ThomBon 

Tb« cfiiJiiuiic IiM t^cu ubwrroJ to attook Uioee cliitCljr wlio w«ic 

TllOtTlHIMl 4lt|ibi}[U^J Ilia UtlioiUlt ill&l cltll^krlllllMc ttUc] 

kllpox weT« iiitoTc]iAOC08LDl« vAriotioB of variola with 
cogent cviilcnce and ar^uiaciit. He cito^i iu^tonc^s 
ft-vhich Uiev occurred to£;eiri^r, otto constitiitian Inrlii''- 
ing forth cTiickcnpox vhnc another brought fcirth 
Mnmllpux, l^'?lIl^t titt infvcliLni vf mic Appium?!] at. Litiiu^ 
in tho mantfoatation of tbo oCnhcp^ Ino controvvray 
in not onvvn whitih it ifi nc,c«»sai'y U* pninQuncT^ jinlg- 
meat toyond ftayin^ that Ul6 wholo unft of philoeo- 
phic pathology 14 novr in T!iO]jT«on'?> favour; and ioilccd 
at Uie timo he wrote, hh* portion wouli not havi; Wen 
fiericualy cot\U^t&il, »vo for lln? diicudit it accmnulatuj 
npo?^ vRpHnnLi^m, One* of Tlmrn'*<»n"t r(>rn\spoDileiit*, P. 
Mudic. M.b., of St. AndrL'wa, tiUlcd Uio dtnicuity with 
artTte^ lurci'. lie wroto^ ISLh Octol^er, 1S18 — 

Of hilt yMin 1 Ijuva mmukpi?. Ihat tliA dlMOM oillod Chi^k^Ti- 
pn bun 1i«cu iDtifh luorv Aev«f« th»u fDniiurly : Ami mnny fif tl:« 
CUfW uociiniit^ iifl'^r V:imu»Uki[^ no iui]i;}i riiM<inbIrid Striciitpoi, 
tfinl j/my wi'M*f A 'J J n*»f burn 2frfjiiili/ii:d liffuinKt 0^ jr\>uihiliT.)f f/ 
rufJi an or^wrrvntv. 1 ihmild have pronfmucni thn ftmptkm I'l hiivp 
boon of « i-ojrialDUJi nMiUT. 

NoCwithiitaniJin^ hU oxp«rioii«o, Thoms»»D hold firmly 
by vaccinati[>ii. Whibt GoiitpdIc<l to admit that it did 
noc avert cither fcnn of vRriola, he maSnLiineJ with 
conoiu fcrvoitr that it mai3o tho dincaw milder, aa if U> 
cxctise hU partial htirrL>Dderof faith. W« all acn mor« or 
Jcse accor^ling to onr proposeoesiOQ^. and wo need not 
hlatiie TlL^ni>(.iii if with hirt [jfir>p)riirity hr: ^ta UDc^ual 
U> the entire truth. Th& vnocln&t^'l Ivloi^^d to ela«ce 
who wcrc better litHiindj l^cttcr fcl, anrl hotter catcd for 
than the tinvACclnaud ; and if tholr aiIiDi>m ha^l lv«ti 
iDOftaka or pneumonia in place of cKiclc«npox» they urould 
havfr nil thn rtintti madr l>rU4ir trc^ritrif^ FrecJAOly 



Mine cmTT tPt mfliio at (hU day i wbat w Huo to IdaiUifc 
ooiiLtitioiid or life la a^crlbrd ia iraociuatiuct- 

Some trl^ to account for the nitnlf«<t fAitur* of tu- 
clEfttlOD on tlio supposition that tho oncioal rinia had 
lunb iIm for(*-n in trttnHniixsinii from umi fo jurta, Imt 
Tbomaon would not allow th^t it b&d de4«rionit<HL Ho 

Tho Vnociii« Vinui iuoi3 ia E4iol>ur^ for a *crie» «f 

\ J#DQ4r M <h«n«Uvlfllio <i Cowpox. I loww, ftUo, 
•Pl>v<Lmneoa *>i lh« Tacoiutt TtdaW |>valuo«d by Uiii tjutlori 
&tijf4 b&To bABud tlir^oeb a vaoooAftioc of At JM8t MX) tacKridoili, 
u^ro^ t^a^liy witb thoM •xbibil«d by irDd«i»« ncoiticod b^ hioa||h 
tion, wiih titt mcr9 Ttc^mi ^wtu ntattfr irtA irAidb / 
UtUljf /tivotiv^tt by Dr. Jwmner^ 

Tho lalt«r TTordft ato notowocibj. Wben JennBE'ft 
Ascription of the ori^n of CowihOT in Horttf^reu« u 
T^L'rri4 to, tho fiJuwcr frequcnuj i^ that Jtuiner was 
iiii!^a(;i'Ii, nni) ihjtt \u\ itlil nut pifri^Kt in \xt^ opinictt It 
ib inie tliat ho did pruaurv«i a judiaoun ^oncc about 
horafigrease when be «aw that it would mar niLbt*- tluui 
TDftko liiK fortimc*. But when be obtatood aJI bo vas 
likely to pii. he re&uaied the cxpcvftuon ot hut origiiuj 
opinion, fimlnu^d and LlHTiHcd wfaatWdoe^b«<daa)ior««* 
^codo ; iLnU thv vcAiclcH rolNi-il t^ the viruf> and tho ckft- 
trices wlitcli reiLtained were tdepUc^l witlt t)io»e indaoed 
by aO' col Jed Cowpox. 

Anotljor p^nt devflopod in Tbomaons cTtdence was 
tho mivtaJ^c modo crediting vaccination with th^ prevow 
t^on of fatnallpox where there waa no amal1|>ox to prv 
vont y\w victiirips AHirlli^] to vnccinntion ver? vlctodtt 
cither over aa imaginary or a retreating enemy. Wt 
cannot Uio l^rioly InsiAt upuji ILla {.Hjinl la pri«H.-ucf! of thm 
cloira continuft^ly fuivnnocft fur tli^t Kubju^tion Gf emali- 
pox bv vjicciiiutioi;. Fur somt; c&U-%o undofinod, unl, 
probnhly in it^ fnl! pit«nt> iindiaooverabK a aabaldCDCS 
of aniQllpox over the wJiote of Europe jwi id toward the 
close of last century, and continued during tlnf 44LrJj' 
ycoTA of tho present ; and to thi?^ ^ub^doDce tho favo^ir 



that vaeoinatloD met with wa* larijely dii**, TIir ilrc)itii» 
in the dbciuc concnrrcntljr with the intrc^rlnclton of viU' 

prevatlw) amooK an orerwholmin;; majority who find 
never received raceination. To make g^xnl Ac claim for 
vaccination It would havd 1>^ea neco&sary to mcantain 
that tho VBcdoc rib?, as opplic^l to S or 3 per cont of 
EuropiiAnx, otr(^ct<H! Uic wJvatiQD of fis or 07 pr cent. 
Fcr cxAotpk, a ;^oat point was inadt^ by Jonner and hU 
friondHof thcrxUnctioi^ornmallpojc in 1' ic:ma, accorvling 
to iht) folloiving t^)i>^ 

1804 ... 14,Q3^ 



ti35 (iroaoia 


Gl .., S88 

ST 689 

3 ... 7.017 


Bover protondod that in tli<t»<:' j cars moro than 
of the VienncttO wcro vaccinated, or thai the 
<lentii-rnt4^ of tho city was rerluc*>ii hy thr- disnpjv^mncn 
oC amallcox. The lilcc fabnity cbaractcTi--»^[l the vrljolu of 
tlii> vaccinatoti4* Ht&tUtics, Smallpox Uval declined, tli^ii^' 
fore, tboy_ arcued, vacclnntion U tho cnTiu:* of tho doclino, 
and inuHitudcn wvr<;cri]tvinci^d by tlic illtctb lui^ic When 
vaccination was, bowfivcr. brodj^fit to th^t^^tof opidDmic 
AmnElpox. it» iatfficacy became mnnift':**, and thufi Thom- 
son hjid tt> avow, a» th*j r*snU of Idn i^xpent^ce in the 
Edinburgh opidcnitc of iSl^-XO— 

It ui to lb« lOTnity or QiIa «p1dorale, T am eonvliiW, tlutivA 
Oimfiit In At1riliitt# l^iA i^amrtH of xhe nnmh'T fif lbn vocdQUtdd 
who TiATo hfum AlfARkAt by It, ant} not ti any dtitrdomtjou ia Iho 
■XQAlUk* of thn Cftw^ioT VirUJU or t^ any dafccti in thu lunnuer lu 
wfalaih Ithwbeco lunplfiyoU. Hiii «£ c^^rio^iu OLrEa^t^nfi^^Ft o/tJut 
afmotpAfTf i limllar I0 ILnt wbioh uc Lavu laMj viimriuiiwi]. 
«£Mm ii£ t'ktf Itnte I>r> Jrjtrvr brov^hl fuTtcaf-i hi/t iliicirfery^ it 

Sucb was the artaclc which Jenncr " |tut <3own for 
100^ dcatbf at l<wt" Yet nctthor JclTi'c^y nor Thorn- 




son Ts^noutn^rd voci^infttion 'th^y AgT«<*'l that wJiU.-il ll 
could no longer be truiitwl to prfjvcnt iraaJIpox. it iiuul« 
the* i]isea80 mililer \n tliose it Attacktrd. When n ch^'H^hwl 
boticf ifl surrcnjlpKH^, it is rjirnly unccmditljnally : it ia 
only hy tlejfn-ni that tM cmnceNMon is iiinJf? unto trubK 



LiiUViXO Kn^lfvnd for ftwhilc, let xif^ how it fared iritli 
viiLtrjuiitiiJti 111 wmie iiUii?r wnintrJKv 

Ad boforo obt.otv<HJr tTio in trod action of vnccloAtion b> 
practice ia sometimes dcacribc^i && having been a labour 
of di^culty, Q Atrife with preriiiiico, a victory of %ht ovor 
datkness; but there wza noUiioif in rualitj aiwwynn^ U> 
ftuch mn^niloqiUTnci'- Thr* Imttle wd^ won for vnecinatiooi 
by vanolatiou, for which it waa t^hibitcd ltd a harmtotts 
and. iDOTia eHiciLint HuiMtitiite. trnli'H^ th<:^ enlranco of 
vaccination into the phicc of variolation bo rcco^iicoci, its 
quick and eady triunLph h ii^t\|ilie;i,bltf. A novrtlty Utat 
Kin^ GQor;-o and Quoen Charbtto, the Prino? of Walos, 
nnd th? Hoynl Dukcfi accepted without brnitati^jdi or ic* 
aorve, could not in the nnture of things have required! 
cxcrcisac of mnch intcliiMicc, Any scmua n:^s» 
pTOci>eded fruni thu VAnolatiin, who (VJjLHiileriid thi 
craft in danger vbcn p&Tsona, womonj and tTade^niai 
wcro aripnivnd of n;^ vaccinators by Jfinner hiitwi-lf. Such 
oppo^tion to vacciuation as it common at ibU<lay waa 
not possible in the early ycara cf lh« present ccntuiy. 
W«kri-w f'lnt ll :iUh ia the bcsit dofcncc cf hf'ulth, and 
that i!l:i :- , L ,.ji af ilMivinjj; but, to our foreffith«t«, 
illiic-Ax wn-s H myhtiTriniiR difippniiatinn tn bfl nirrjunti-n^d 
wiik subiuiatiio'i, n^Uuvcd by prcttcriptitiim^ inagieai and 


HonCG not only dull Royalty wa% involved in 
the cowpox crn/*:. biU nKsn of science like D*vy, Wollu- 
ton, nnil ]>Ai-wiT], wlUi thu whole troop ot ini-n of letters, 
of wliom Sir Walter Scott loay Iw tafcon For k^pfjk"o:»man. 
I>Bicril)Uig Qvimth flurvilimT in " Tlin H«art iff MiOlotlimu," 
hesftye — 

Tbc Ixdy hai\ ftamtkMy i\\W'l ftAtiuoi, Qionj^i lomofi^ftt In- 

JSMiiTafiiiB tUifLiikd to .Tcnat^ij can now Umo w eoailf m lun tuto- 

For cTvdaliiy tliuii rxpnuiflnfl IhnrA WiV* lar^o r.'xcuae. 
What i:il'**>. itiJt*ed, coulci one in Seott'a poiilicn navo bfteo 
««pi^ct«H to lielif^ve f It wsa only throiigli thti \\j\.t*i iliii* 
6D<^i^Dtm4;nt if oxfcmnco that vnccmatiou diU not pr^- 
vent Hiiia]![ji>\. ih>t JuitiKHlt- iin HcverHy, nor was in it^c^lf 
hnrruliTai timt the er^rly H^linuTu nbatod, nud n \irt% nhid 

The wav* of conviclioii i}>rea/J from Knglaad ov^r thr* 
world, nnil nowhcic voa the substitution of vnccinntiun 
tor varioUtion wi*l(*<>nio'l nior** mUuijiiiuUt^ly than in 
Now Kn^la,nc3, An Bcuton lei the way in 1721 in tho 
pmcUoR of WEftllpox iiLociilatioii. so from BuhUki in IHOO 
waa announood tho project for tlie OKt^nnlnatiori of 
smallpo;^ Lycovqjox. But eic advaucini; farther, it may 
be wdl tc luiy n woittl nbout l^^ton miiiulpux. 

Boat<m was *in 4:oclr<:tnc!ly unhealthy town. For Jifty 
yi«ns from 1701 to 17^0, tho hirths wer«?i cxc^^di^d hy 
the dcatfatt. In a. pnpitlation of nboiit li>,U0O, tho aunual 
dcaLh rat*! ranged inmi 30 Ui 70 per tlioiusand. There 
wofts vpid«micfl of fever and of siuftllpox; tho Utl«r 
occurring in jreaural at inl4;rvnln of icn y^^irn. wL^n large 
nnm^K>n died, the voiallpox &a URUal Jtsplacm^ nthi^r 
form-iof fever but novoctheloaa r^irg the m<irlxility of 
^he year. Thi^ mntit deadly unthr^k of Binallpoi was 
that of 1721, Iho year in which Cotton Matlicr and 
Za1j<ti«l BoyUl^'pn intmiluinHl vnruikilrtj. The luortallty 
of that year wa^ ilO'2, of whioh hS4 were ascnb^d bo 
innnllpox. In 1752 thijre was an extraordinary ^ptdenuc, 
but how mudi of lU prevalent} wiu due to eircumstance 



snrl how mitcli to coatnva.Bci:'» It is impoMiIili' La olivine* 
Here aiQ tho figuroa, which otv cf lingular iQlcrcet-^ 



TotAl, SS\3 


llonnn for 

^imNlHH [rj 







tJn/Ior th(^HQ ho^is *bft f^ntira population of 1-'^»*5f^+ ww 
liccotintcti tor, vrilh the imporuDt C3:ce]>ti{>i] of the 
dif^crlmlttation cf the r>008. whoso Iiamiirity was pn- 
suppoAcd, icito mtbjc^t? of indaccd tnd spontMi&otti!^ ^mnU- 
pux- The dt»dt^, o^^)^ yvvm Icwi tiiuiirmu-H Oiitii in 1751, 
wht^n 8H4 died, but tho diecoae wto moro widely diffuficd, 
upWArrl?> of one-third of tho iDhikbitaritx, ^5+j, heli^j 
fttt^kei, Thf> ^iMd^^ruic vxhatistcni it-^lf i^-lthin four 
mooths. tho rccora dt&iidiii;; tlm^ — 

Juiaajv, died, ■ ■ 1 i Jqao, dl«d, 

Ppbrnwy, „ • • S ) Jolj, „ 

Maioh, ,t ^ . tt Aiig^ti ,1 

AprJ, II - - 110 [ SfplomWi n 





The diDVtajcn.of the epidemic wae lEtr^^ely dii« to.j 
extensive varioUtioD that went on, 09 fewer thaii 
havirg bcjen inoculated in the pitnie, uul tbov moving 
freely about m tho aasur&no^ oi a^fety, epieaj tlie dia- 
t«inpor OH i^v^ry *i*lf. For cvcrv *ivft who hwl tho 
tmaJlpox, [SO to ria3\ naturally, two had it arlilidaily, aod 
thfl one nDxt wbh oUiiasL oh " cAtcliing " iw Uie oUiur. li 
wa« on iiutAnco of il community (oxccptlng tho ISiSt 
wln.1 l!td) mshiiif; into flujalliMix Ui tiiraijc fram &ui&lfpiHL, 
The <loath^ of Si Wliit?^^ nnd i> BlaclcrJ fiom viLTtolatioO' 
gave rUc to much conci^rn, r.nd by igmc ihcv were .ipokcn 
of as 80 many mvirtlersu Agauut tliis fattuaty was. hoW' 


ovor,QOt tho lowdcath rato of tho regular miffwars, 539 out 
of 5545, or Irast Lliiui 1 in 10. The R<!V. T. Prince, wbo 
communicQUHl an accotint crt tl^o epldonilc to tho GtnfU'^ 
maii's iV^^CKi'nr for J75'J, p. +1'), iva* pucslcd to jiccount 
for llw variation from Hit' LonUon ?mudard — 

Dr. Juitii uvuiipuU^ tLittl tLviv icuutntlJ^ Oln lii IajiilIvii ta Uio 
aatunl wnj' 2 iu 11 ^t IJj ki tljo 100 ; but lii DmIoh no too that 
ucil m^rotbui 1 la 10 died; wlubt in ll^c jucculjiUdvAy thoduvthn 
wnro aioro Duanrouo tlioa u ecmmqtilT nll»>wod, Wh^t wi-ro tLq 
oatur&I caiUM, undcf tbeiJ Divine DirccUir, of Smallpox in Ui« 
nalvral wst bfiiuj; Iqm uiortMl la B?^tc>ii Uwi in Loadoci, luid more 
mortal iu Boitun tbrm Ea Londoa in Lli« iuocalakd vAy, aiAj to 
worthy of oiir Lumblo kniuinci. 

Tbu JIffL'ionce wa* broader than Prince perceived- An 
ontbrcfak of smallpox m which n third cf tlin population 
vra^'i AlTt^ctcil nevtr occurrt^d tu Lomloii, and a mortality 
MOporti<maU* ^th thflt of Hwtcu among a third of thi- 
Londiorkcrs would bavo appeared like a rccurrcuci; of the 
Plague. I uai in innvjAc (^initHnir^d t» iniimmKu Lhe 
nrTAf^ «>f AiuaUpox when conditions art prepared, ac of 
design, for iU d<iv«'lomiirnt i but 1 Jn iiijslit on their 
accurate definition, Bo^iton sufTv-rod a«v^t>ly, but was 
bv no meana '*deciu>ated'^ — the invariable rhetorical 
pnruo, Tbc <)< nthx wort- at this rati? of 1 in S7, i^id, a^ 
otoervcdn wiiallp^x rcplactd f>tlH;r forma of feven Tho 
53fl dnatlij* froTii sihttUpox wmi not rxtrji*; thr 
cxoctat waj IcMti than half tJiut ntiiubcr, and nii^fbl fairly 
be attviluU-d to the cxbraurdliiary t-'nt-Tgy dbtplaj^ed in 
propagating tho diiitvuu hy tnociilation- 

Spiteof audi ads-en^e exp«muce, vanolat ton continued 
toboacoinmcn.thnngh mtpTmilt^-nt. practice in Ar[if>ncft» 
aod <«pcc^al]y in Ne-w England, wheri: the haljib of due- 
toffin^; fi>r tb« cure of iin?fteniarlMK'iitf..aiid th-i prevention 
of anticir^^tc'd onftf, waa crttjibli.^^hcd mid jiivctcmto- In 
llcDton ihr pianliot.- l/ccatcv HV^trinatbii-ci. and tlii? inocu- 
late ir«re ccnflnod for three ^reek8 to an hctipltal eituated 
on a protnontory in the Charles Ri^-cr, whtrc tbey were 
treated Ba vorltahlE^ contra of infection — a coimw ^fc^hlely 
diUcranb frcm that pun^nod in tbo epidemic of 175S. 
NrTrrtliulrsH, it in not to bo ntippciKr^t thai nmnllpox waf4 



Dt, Watcrliouftij wrlUji^ in 17»7 cjlfttr-^vd — 

I ilo Dol boUaro tl^cro In at pnui^at n Kinglo panon inibeUd hj 
Qmai\po\ in nU Ibu four Kow Eji^glaad Govcmtadate, tbU if* M 
OHO in ■ niLlliozi of people. 

Tlic >1)M«n.4if Ittul^t' ii\tt. Tn»n- iiiLf) Uun, Jiinl wrh nlwayn 
traced to BOio<> waj'fatet, or ship. <*r pftrc*^! of ;;ooda — 
DQVor to bod draina-^e. or no drfiina^ oi the stcnchca 
that pt^rtHKlc'd thv dcim««t(c icLtcri^jrit of la^t cenlary. 
whether in America or Europe. In this matter, tbo 
sxrrcii^i* of n littlr ima^nntion ik TCijuUiU to rvudiKit the 
hbtoric facU : they arc' diMLjjroeabk' ; Lut if peopb wiU 
jDftist on cotnpariiig the ttumllpox oF thr l.Sth ceiLuiy 
with that of tho ll'tli, it may huc*OFiii] nuCu«»ary Uy M 
ujijilidt aa to ct^claia iloiuestic JiUiil* cuncoriuiig ^hidi 
th^re i* a eonvnnlional ri^M-rv^*, 

It was by Dr. BrnjaTniii WatrrhouBe, Professor of llM 
TliL'ary and Pruf^tict* of Fliyalc in the Univ^T^^ty nf Gam- 
briiJ^^c, >^Ina.wclinsclLi, tlial vacdnatiori iviifi irtrodiiocd 
to Am4'rk'rL H^* dr'^crUn-d llienew rit.t' eie ili*^ ^(>^w./h/wii 
C^fErttf/ of 12th. March. I7L'1». JWiSonsetljins Onnous in 
the Mi'ilir^!"i and formally pn*mLi!^niti*il thi; nnvdtj 
a year ofturwardei m a patiifjlilut thim etuUletl — 

J. i^tpfiot c/ Kalerrninalin^ 'fit Smallpf^; beinir M« UlHorf 
ttfihe KflWofir Vac^iaie^ ot Ixtn^ I'oji, ft-mnnttiy taU*4 !kt C^m^ 

Priatcd EarUwAittliorultJie C-nml^ndMU i'nt^ Lj WlUmia Hiltuhl 
anil nld by Jiim liTiil t>tli*r Look^dUn ki Ifoitou. ItMXI, 

Kiuff Pox! Why Kino-Pox? Tho reason !b Mated by 
tbt^ Doct(jr — 

Vranx "k^nv tho pfural of ccrw; thiiH in I1;« E%orpluiw, "And Qio 
tcioU two iiLikh'ktEii?. (ind nliut lip thmr c4i1VMi at bojuita''; a wiotA. 
erjntitly «xpri>nivfi. imc1, in iliu c^iiiibu uf «aQjf« uioro lUVcialc. 

Thorg wc have it: More delicateJ It \t had beiB^ 
buLI-pox the ohjijction itiij^'ht have been inMipctflbk* 
Writing to Jftnn*-r, 24th April, IROI, Waterlmimii sajj 

CoiiM yuu 1>tIiui^B tliat not n thiwle incicutATJuu *it1i Cow^ji/i bn 
ytt bui^u «niwl«il Id FljilHiI«lxihU? U muuih iLiAt iLo 



Tlio paruphlot on Kino-Pox ttvl foTtU the rnyaitory of 
Uid nvw inocuLaLi^ii a.'i rectrtvud from EoKlaud wUli a 

E&ncereaau! Wakrhouao vtilh tii GOTTtnpondonct: with 
Ponrwm, und Pi»nrsnn may have told blm hovr not only 

JutcrtiililiriJ, but "huw tL wan Ulctj tn dainii the whole 
th in ^' "i which might have boon trtio onooph, but if true, 
Wli^^tc then ftttJud Ji^nmr? ITo knm thnL cowjhj.x ilUl 
not prevent j^mnltpox: the fact wa^ iiotonous amon^ 
the mccticoL men m covrpox iJi^trict^: and be had ox- 
preidly pledgei.! his faJth in tho rntjitirtj u> Cowmx 
begotten fratn ]iorsi:-^i]aao and io nothing clac. But 
HarwgnsLW C»wn<ix iVul nat miU thr iiiarkrt,itnHl it wjis 
withdmwn with Jcuncr'ti Incit awAont, flitd Hjjoutoneoiifl 
Ckiwpoi ailvarict-J hi iL^ hteud, au<l aci^eiiti^il ita Jvmivr'ti 
V4>rilablc ibcovvTT- H might bo good DiiHincs* to drop 
the: huHM; out of the c^kic, hut M^hut wa.s tt cUo f 

<?owpox, testified Waterhotiee, was unknown in New 
Engl&Dd, liiit he tcccivcd the revelation concerning it at 
ODoe — btit ruft. he it rapeatoJ, jL^nner'n rL-v^-latiim : that 
h» soppr^seoil. Ho had long su^poctecl that euiaUpoic 
ws» cinmiiLtiiirRti'd from hntu^ ti» thi^ Iniinun mrn; juid 
now hi]» euapioion wo^- confirmed. And, iuoh b(?inf; thy 
origin of ii'aiii^Ea, it fteemed to hiiti not unfL-aaoiiahli* that 
tb« dbea»c ttii it existed in n mild form in kinu might W 
asod for ioocol&tion with all H^c advu^tagee pertaining 
to Mnallpox, whilst atumded with TKither injury lo tho 
iDoeulat«4l, ncr with ri^k of infection tu oboiit 
lb em — 

l^liM m(dia« thifl n«wLy 4lkcovoT«d difioaso &> verr oimoDs, uai 
io »xEjeiiu>[y iiijpiATtJuat ia^ that cvcty p«noD tLm ulToctvd, ii cvor 
a11«x aovhtm from tho ctdi^uy b'mnllpoXi Ut bizii ha avtz bo luueh 
«ip(»»d to UiA ^tTvat of it. or let flvci m miuli liv* StDiiUpoi BtftttsT 
U ln««rt«d Uxto Uio «kin tjr taoflolatioit In othw vorui « (««m 

• Tlsn>a'* Lifi t/Jmflflr, kjI, l t- 44;. 



wLo IiBs ust]«fi]*>ti^ *l^* \qc\\ iImitiii and •ptoiUs fowt 


mc:uiutiou5, to say iho icaat. wod tbv oODcptiintt 
of this prophecy of perppUia,! a.'X!iiTityl With lew Lliaa 
ilmo ycojtt c^Epcrienco an a^olutc prtsliction vaa fie- 
UvertiC nTtioitviJ, and te|waied uver tlie wUulu uutli u 
if by pArrote. Such* how^vor. U tlio hoUt of m&nkiiui 
when powcoacd h^ a slrcng dclunion. 

In justice 10 W aterlion^'? it has to be said that he did 
oot commit hiin,*p:lf opcnlr^mti! he ha*l gone through 
tlm i]kiM>ry <r\ptii]iit^jiH iiitLt wvrt* dien fuahiuimbiL- in 
Ejigtand. Ho had much difficulty in obtninin;; a eupply 
of active vini.% Several n^mittiuic^^ failr*], hut At lisi 
be lifld oia^, an inch aod a-half of infecUd thread, froai 
Dr. HiiygBi-tli which proved, it wan Uto;jght, ctli^ctiTc* 
HI» fint patjtsnt waj liu van, Daniel Oliv^^r, aucd fiv«; 
tUt^n another child a^ three; then a ^ervanclad &^ 
twelve ; th*>n a weftnrd mfftnt of one year — nil five suc- 
coiittful, whilst two domcatiei faiJcd ^Hj take" — fwvon 
e\|ientiieiit8 in hE& own boii6«hold^ TL»n h** had tlie 
chil<lreA t«kon to tho Smnlipox Hofipita^l, where tboy 
were luucuklcd by Dr. A^-^pinwal!, &ud is^miii^ w^itlicicMi 
from th<^ XGbt, th<< truth wqa taken ae demon^traUHl, and 
there won no need lor fiiiihcr hciitation. Four g^ntl^ 
ii^en, includli^g a phyolcan, otTend thcmiiolve!* for public 
CDCourogc mcnt — 

Ou» of lh«ta I^Hjs Wateibotue] cIjoao to livo prvitr frody 
yr^y ot •sponmaali nod ILo fobnlo Bytaplomt, t^spceiAllj heitdj 
Wfirv fuU M laoch M hv oonld bt«x and valL ikbciut vribh. 
cor^inccil otft lliat tho RtnA-Pox wiuf ft (Iimhm not to bft 

\Vaterhoa»e th^n t^^pealed tc the prid« of his country* 

* ** It vu Br. l4tl*>in who Hrri «vDt tb« Vimioo Ljoiph 4«r«a Ihe 
Atlanlk^ tuiil «cituri^Hl it e^ thf> frRV^nd mm < J liit friitui Ttr. Witt«r- 
\iDlat." ^fntilipv'K^t Li/r 01' LfttMOm. yol l ^ U'l. '- Dr \V*t-r»io(i»c 

ciF BftiL, wtu foT-vu>U<l It from UnflCoL"— Hu^i'j A{/> v//'*v»,'toL i. 



T]k<i |ii>>)[»1h of Now E^ieUikI, iiulicnlorly of IJo^toiki Mt A uMt 
eLiLi&|iln (o Uiolr ddor l^nllven of Old Ec^jliuiil, Jo ftiloptla^ thf 
TnrkUb pndko cf tnoo^ibQ for iLe E^zueUIjkix lu nil- Now 
tha En glish ill Uitnx tiiru, Ifliid tbft 4B> iu i i>nLi]Li(Mi aIIU nigto 
•i^ntiiBrQUS' Vat llioujflj tLq liioeuUt^on wliidi coiuraouctid iwcu 
in lT2li Htrjj)iii:[l UihC ^urti<,1 iLacbii*. Uio SiuiulixiXi uf luurv Uimil 
UaII \i> UirvrH. yut it U tho Eino-Pox tbat wfU viTuet iU viUr- 


Following tbi» prophecy cama a Fruik i^uost for 
busincaa — 

Dt- WftlArbAti» infmrmn ilinat wbA hATA nfpll*d to lilm out Oif 
CiUD bridco Id inoi^nlnio tliPtr fjimilipi that ke dOQUtMd It onlj nntfl 
tha diKinlfiT had pDne ffiirJ/ tjironifh hlHown Aunilj, and unlJu boom 
of tlicin liftd li««n LncMLilAied lij Dr. Aa|;HnnnH. and atli^rwiM ox> 
poMd to 9mid3iH>tK Bat ItAvIn^ nov oonf^mirJ liln lAwrt^irn, tint 
tli* KEnft-Ptvc iimtfieU Iha acuiHlltnUan Croat tlt« {nfAditrn of 
SmiUpot by a. fair ntpqrlmoitp bo U ntdj to ftttAod ihtm vhui- 
•Tflt tfioy cboou* TbwcrtvhulirDJu Bostoa ujoy rut ftvuml ihht 
&Dm Old pnuiiuity cf hu midDnw to tlip tri|rital, bo iJldl niuka 
gath unuii^raiBmtj u to b« pbto ic «ttctjd them rni piincttijilly u If 
ho nnd«d tlierv.— C^vwituE, leib Jvjiui, 1800. 

AtUr wi EnglLsh pattern lio publi«hod tho follcwiog 


Ona In aOO ^IM. 

It u L]k« «Toirinf th« 
ittMiin in Jin old, 
Z«bLy boal, vrh«r« 
ADO In noa |i««libM. 

Ifc l> Uw oooiiuA 

the ttrOAID CD A uvw 

atad i*fc bridge. 

Otto in 6 nrbo tAlcA 
tt dtMt. Tt i> Uko 
sn ftUOi^ to <TOM 

bj mrfTanil&{^ viuvo 
oiufo dxponsbM. 

Tbo opcTftiioQHi M> hopefuUr baffUD* cuao apiMHiitj to 

fr&ot In It IdUr fttldrmod by Wiuorhoiu# to Joniwr, 

Oda inch uul it-liflir of EnCvelod tbroftd from Dr. Hajctli wm 
tbt nbob vkJck Jrots vfarao* f«tbapi 9000 ponooA havo baou In- 
rfirlalTTl h»i Ifiar (hv ^reuiMf porf o/ tkfln km 6««n fjivriovo. 
I^vooul tbal tUewbttto wi>miiftlkTo«f*bto»e*»ginfo»tla»»ew 
jixicnUluo, Kid by IbiU iiK<WN I ttnapoDdod Ibo prviioe (bnuKboot 
tlio««uU7 lujtil ihii iiTTiTBf nffWiJi rnit>nr»nfl vunxUttfr. Sonr 
«o ar* c°uf OD »gaU, bulool vilh Ute f>itb ii^jJupfiU ol Uiv UbI 
Boow vaJndij omo* htttu lUuaiW iLu ftrdvor ti & jxv|Jo 

wIm rocdTod tb» bov Inocokiioa vUfa a cftadoor. llbanbiy, 



Ana frVM y tt<Ta f i(y, ntscb U tbnr ofeiit. Th» first pcJilb*! 
DTiil tilonry cdttfM4«r« iD ma oatioB at* alill wara MtouIm iW 

^VAt^rhouss continq«d to corrcttponfl with Jenner, aod 
was rcgAr^lorl a,^ hia accitditod ropreaentAtive in Neir 
England Wriiicj^ to l>r Lettdom, 15tb Novombtir, 184)S, 
ho ttya— 

Dr. Jenc^r his jnrt pent m* a inMnt I blfib^ pziz*— « lilfcr 
boi ialiuJ nitL ^^old of exitnmto tMtd and work£Ouiilji|K bevtng 
tili* iDsoriptioa^ 

Bat 3Xr. fiioK aniioioil llio iHfi^rMriptLcni in ntt>cr on 


WjibcThounc wjis a mail of an ingeiuouff biitn of milcL 
'Whvn troubled vith UUrasults from bis operations at th^r 
•od of IbOO, he tried what boe idncc boon called roLro- 
vm-vliiiituji], |)ftilml}ly fitr Oie Cii^i tiiiiLV H*Te aro fall 

words from Ijih lottor to Jt-uccr, 2Uh A(iril, l>01 — 

t iaocoIjMcd OQO of my eo^n with tic Vacf iuo Vinin. uid rJiUtorf 
ftcia bor a oj'op of aiattor on ili* nktli Jnj, wbjcli produooJ IW 
diMDM) in tUo hnmut snlgcct (9 p'^rfootic^. It iLu •ipdricuot 
koown uDonj; jon? A» I cj>frati]d mwlf tL4to waa aa »tcsq* 
OpoQcd for iloa|>iL>ri sn iJto wiiolo cipMimcoL 

A M!iLt(?n(.*u wbidi Mlowa U too diara«:li^riiiLiG in ht 
pftsscd cv*r. Soys WatflrhoiiM) — 

t h&vo iayATiMj fouad that wc«blv obitdrun hbiro boon ^^ ^ 

filod hy ILo Voooino InoonlatioDT fkcd tvxuo it l^a» onrfrd cf Iht 

Ami thLi nft^-r It-M Ihwi twelvft montha' exiiirnt^jct' ! 
liVaUrbcuBt} bad a-Jso to relate a Cftdo c>f cowa lutvitig 

M outf vt mir iMirioJlcal LnocnlaUani, whldi ootav la I4«w Eqg* 

• B*rcm'4 /i/V o/Jtivii-r, ^. I p. HO. 

t Trllijpv*'"* Xi/r q/ ^rJifWJi, vol, Lii. p, 400, 

rjfTHonimnox to trk trmrKD statb*. 


Und ano* lex al^bt or nine yoELrtp^ ureriLl fnrtnan Jrara thdr oovri 
to An honiltal tinor & popil^iii vllliu;v. thnt th« pAttanta might have 
til* bonral of Ihair niilf. The row wi^rt^ milkoii b; pfirwrji in nil 

a of SnuJljioi ; tinri in f^nuKfrjut^TirD 13ii>y }i\\l ati <iru|itivp iMt' 
00 UlaIt laaU linj] uthlvTti tliHi cttirt omi iu lli^ Tim^iUiiJ. ftit 

ftjl tJu phyKlfJan irhn UlrE mo, i1ncLn.mii inui Smullprix- ^ijictt 
CotiTiox hu Sa«n Ulk*d oC tbk toooaot bu bam rnTivnJ and 
onclitrd. Havo jou foiwd acijlUmc )tkv it in Kngkud ? 

Wiitr^rhmiia* hm! tnquiri«>?* from Virginin. jui<] wUhcwl 
wT to hi liim havon if pofuible^ a picture of the 
rinL^ vtMcI(t on tlie neyrc — 

Coold T prornro Iwo or tJiroa oolonred rlilt*, doliDmtffig tijii 
■p|>«AnLno«« on tijo nkic of 1b*< uom. T woiifi] tenil Ihnrn IrtUt Hnch 
MOOT duutlif-ni l>tnt«« IB un Mwkenail by thnw dejfnkluJ bpiiiRt. 

"Some m tbifl ooLUitrj-, aw wcU ob in England." ob- 
servpfi WaTTboiiw, "hftrin™ Imrl nil their <ilyrction*( to 
Kinc t^ox ohvintc^i, pirM^t in o-tklrg, 'Whocnti tell wiml 
may |jtr Um nfminniviutry Ui tlx- Imjhit f»( y-mm of intru- 
ducin^ a bestial nnmoar into the buman framed' I 
aoevrcir thcnt os docs Mr. Rifig wiUi a apinl nnd wit 
vortiij <jf Fmnkliu, 'Wlio cau t«ll ivbat zuay Lo tJid 
i30iiE«qiiet)C€a m tbe Iiwm oC jr«an of iniroducuig milk. 
b«*f Ntcftk*, or Biuttj^ cHnmn, into tli« hainiui rmn* ?'" 

The pertioacitj* ^iUi wfiich tbiA "iviL'' was employed 
by tlie «>rty vsccimti:!!^ leads us to suppoHe ttiat tbi-y 
found it ctfccttvc; l>ut woa cv«r ar^mcnt by attalo;»y 
aior*» abburdljr ttjLBap]>l«Ml f Milk or ^tt^ks from a cuw, 
or chops frotn a t^ovp known to W »ufr«ring from pox 
iTould be icjcctcd with l\>atliiii^; nor tra^ it i^vcr pro- 
potted to cook and t^i cowpox ; and yet con-npcii>n, itttrre 
ModatJon with which, would render milk, or nUftks, or 
ebopa loatlifloinejt vr&4 nut thought aboiiilDAbId to lutuae 
into l]io blood : ^ 

"T1i« first political and literary chamct^rn in mjr ii&* 
Xiwx aT« warm advocat«« of the practice/* Aid Wat«r- 
hotoae ; and U waa ao. Praiidciit Ada&» waa ignite d i^ 

iHvutatAd hilt SiotilfKa nimaleMiwwjJi. m tbat tU bi^ Ufbfttd 



ininJ with Kin^ Ocorcc in ;h«t rc^i^Kct; and Jcffcr^'Wi 
not cjily approved of tlie ]>T&clk.v In commiJii wltli Qitven 
CHftrbtU, but. OS eooa as lio ooiild obbam virtu, «ot4o 
work wiU] hU Aonvin-lnw, iuil] voccIiiaLccI Uii;ir famUieft 
and tieii^hbours to thi^ numbw of two hundr^il^ Thora 
i>ii letter from JefTci-GOn to Jcnncr in XHOU, which b 
remarkftbTc ha an aUoIuto tumtt^on tji taXih At A d%U 
whoD much Iiad occurred to ah&kc faith. The Frcaid«at 

JiIc&mJ i-i leod mo, unJ t*>t wklcli I r^uni yi>u my Uicuik*. Qjl^ 
ib^ boon amoDg lh« •ulf froaTsrU iu th j fArt of tlio gbbo It 
itit ctE«acy, I tock *n «u& wut in Tcaoukmos Jiiig it to taj oowir 
irymtiih* 1 nTA^ isyefllTdf ihiaoooaaoa b^ r«it4l(>r to you naj pc^ 
tloD of tilt- triljiiU «f KnililuJo Juo to joQ from L!b« wbolo litcoua 
fawily. Mc(Uoii>o Imn Taavcr beforn pmdoci^d ouj HDflo iiupriovfr 
iDont of iach utility. Hnrvof* duc&vc^ of Ui>3 oir«uuitioQ«f Ui« 
blood WAa a I>caiit]fu] Addition t^ oar kitovrloHgo of tho 
oooDom/i but oa a iMvicv of tlic pructi^o of m«dioiao bofdn* 
ftiQ4B that opof'b, I do not do^ noy f^ixt uneliontioD wbjeb 
htit^ya cl<rJvi<d fn^iii tlinl JiHcov4iry. Yoii bavrf crMvd &«d fiA 
onUnfli^ of buQ^ma kl^liotiuiiH oiiu of lU ^tiuitut. Y^ort b tbo tOA- 
fortablo nUactioa ibut uiiiiikijid caia nmrar forgot thU yon lun 
ln#€L Katoiiiufltioiifi w\llknowb^lu*W"rTonlf thftttb* ' 
SmdipcT hAV flUJKtcJ, juid b; yci\. Iiiu b«OTi #xtirpbt«ii. 
tlio a\i*i f^TTitJit u'tilivjv for yoiir hoollli And liiippEnaw, ftsd 
bDcoB of th» ptoAtMt rvijitfct Aud ooitddorftlkm. 

That smallpox ftliouTd be ora^^d frcmi the calendar of 
huaoan oiSltciiotiG, and bo Itnown only Id hL^ory as ex- 
tlr|NittMl lij' JiTDtjtu', wi-ni \iuiL <^v|ii<ctatiaiiH ; but to 
rococuiso tliC'ir vaiJty did not liu wiiUin Jo6'(r^on'& poodi- 
bjlitloM. Ilrr lijvil Vv.^ii liicf] in ihir Ijolirf thnL tiiociilAUoD 
with anallf o\ prcvt^ritcHl emaltpox, and It camo forth li 
a coTCrllary, that as cowpox was an cqnivnlcat for sinalt- 
pox, If alt woro cowpuxiHl^thttdUt-aHp imifit hu extirmtod- 
HU txj«ctalionB, thcK'f ur*. were uot without plau^Ulity. 
Nor \rMH it prvi-jiblo fnr JrtriTMiu In thi' light "f hin tlm^ 
to nvo i\mi daiallpax ^^ui no t^pocific entity' that cculd W 
gut riJ irf jixf^ fH.- wlil&t all eUo loiualttcd unafTocivd. We 



knoiv tbftt if oven vac^iDation made an end of >ra4Upox, 
and did no h^wrm of itaolf, wc should reduce neither ill- 
niHrt oarmortHiily ^BUpponirigiioftthopcOmngi? in t^c onn- 
dilion^of oxiati>nco wcro efloctcd}. but t1j(>jl'i havv our 
t]nv slI<>Uni*iit *if diA<'fl.**im orhrr form**. Tonttack ^ttiiiII- 

rD£ fiinftUpoK, and suppose that if au]^prc:i5icd wc «liotild 
in vkjrwi&o ftdiTftnU^T^d. U mere illasiou. Zymotic 
dLiouU, to be U«iilt uith vtHrutunlly, taui^t bo dcrilt %nth 
u forcna cF a coimnon tnalaJy ; to ^t rid of one, wc nni^t 
got rid of nil ; nnd with a. grav«r sdnso of th? diffic^iltieH 
t3 bo cn<!OUKt<:rcd wc, too, believe Tvith Jefferson, tbat 
»mal1|iox may btv uxtirpalf^d, htit In eoiupany wRIj tnudi 
olfiO, wid by pmcticn tbflt has no affinity with tbe cri.^- 
tion of diK'&Ktt iiiiplie-l In viuxiiitxiinu. 

Of all p«op]4> the Kn^liah are luo^t s^bandonod to mcdi> 
aackcTj'. smid lA-iy Mniy Wortlcy Montagu; and tbt 
i»(li characteristic was roprcxlijced lund cxa^^ratcd 
m New EtijriAnd. Tbt Kn^t refliatancc to vacdn&tioct bdng 
overcome, tnere wa:* » nin upon tbo practice — 

Tlie >«)kl of Asmrican meillGAJ mou [MityM I^utodI itm tficitai lo 
LQBpanneli^ Lingrv* ; but, uufurtunaUljr, lb«lr<liiPiTnili<iii iM nat 
p&Ca witb iL Thoy ib»ECAf^cd tlw cuiillijuijt nf Dr. WutT- 
I, uidpiiJc! uti utUutiuu L-itbcr to Uio ilatocf tl^ luallvr wiUi 
«fliiohib«YUiLioutntc(1, urti>(Lc<jjroirt«n«f lliDptuluJa, Itai^punm. 
Ukettiaa, tZiai thu cupklil^ <jf poivtiM uot of tbo oejcIicoI profminu 
w*9 BlIiuTiliited, und tlm ijU[Jiii^i bi wbicb ihv/ cAcritfil liu iUi<ir 
trtiUlo WW Jibl(«^ JiJiliu^fttjvv vf UiL'ir a>Jui{;Lf ^luJ tljuij- j^i^tujctj. 
TL« fLjlIuvr<}it irf LIjli tn^ obl]kif:LcU tin oldit'iloaviM nfjiatiimU 
vhLiob bad UiMu alUTeaed by the puniUnt discborico (roua uii tikor 
cooiotinoikt otk VMfimbtlcn. Thcec tboy cot mt> ttdpa, taX tolil 
aboot Ibo ctnuitry u iujf rosnatoJ witb Ibe trte Vacoin* Vinw^ 
Serortl bmitlml patvan ireit actually kioc^^tAUJ wJtb lli* ikiif^iu, 
vbiob, lu tWYDrAl ont^S i;rijJuc(.0 irrDal ilUtfiL-bnncn iti tbc cnu- 
stitntioEi. A vT^ittil ftrrhnl fn^iu I-OQcJijn oi U&rblei>i4d >vUb jl 
Mitt^T (111 boMili wbi> na« fiuppcv^oil to Imrft Covrpox : aattUr wjli 
Ikkoik from htm, uad wu uiwl «Ttexislro1v, It wu Moon diMOTCnd 
tb*t SnuHptu tnftttor b&dbcfiii ouKiZoTci). iLnd ^AoJ duoBM fprcttd 
rapidly tfaf^mcb ibo ndsbboiathoohl. Thma Uno^ervi it U 1o^ b« 
JcttToJi vfltD Dol ccCLfiaMtovajtrftJilt lu&^k^i iiiAflmuoh &« tn<Ktioal 
iu«& w«ic Dot qoHo bloouJcaB.* 

*1kn>ii*ȣ>^r//(iiiirT-, ^dJ. i. j"-3ST. 



WhitBt aaoh liom^ disci^flitcd vaccination in one wmj. 
tboy nrrrvtti it In wiotJicr : ihoy matlc it eiL\y to c 
Its mluroa an^ ioiQrm by a^crlUn^ ihaoi to Ui6 
epuTioiis vini& Bvorything ]« ta be caincd fi>r iral 
ilio <ju<ution of vocGuuitioii 1>y takins it in whM ttftj 
beliovcra allow to bo ita UDoxwptionatlc* fortvi, »o 
hAV» no rrKini for rviuion. Rm&llpox in ArnpHni 
Eflf^laud ^ocn ittiowcd Oj^vU in^ijiTL^i^iU to ttic art oCj 
Tbodaator, and then it was settled Uifti ab It^l it ii 
tho disoMO iQiMiTf; And undi:r gc?vct of tho conv^Diont 
iicUon, It corLUnue4l to be practised where feet wore lo; 
be hsid fnr thr porformanM. 

The Attitude of tho incdicAl mind to opidcmics, aod 
Uii/ i^[ii>raii<^ of what wtr iii>w iv;fard aa the firvt olo- 
mcnt^ of mnitiry .'Jdcne<^. an; illn.'itratcd with touching' 
Mitc(!nty in b letter aJcIttJ^iKl by Dr. Wat^vrhouse. Ift' 
1S17, to the 3Ur^t>ons of th^ United Stau^ anny. 8^1 
tho Jcnnor of the New World — 

Tou siwH ni>l uuLc jum time, or dlstriLCt ymir attoriiioii \iy\ 
vuMUU|£ nl Uiv naiii>U OHUJbint of dyiauturiot or npIJamEo fmvaj 
W« l^ftTQ fh}]xi th& b1|i1i««4 aullmrltv, Uial. tLo j^rfitLlflcea *- wnlkBa] 
In i!(ir1inofA." Tliir uunajy nppn^n^Wnni^erL- Wo oj^pf^tv v«U 
€onvSiicci] Uiikt opIJjTHilc favr-rb ilnEifiiicI nut oq jui j of (tioM f^h'ihngtc 
in iho iiJT Uiut ciro poiutod out bj/ tbo thnnioiiiol^ri LnivimM4r,l 
orb5icrci[UDi4?i', TL«tHwldc*P)FrMduigmalMlie*.ns wDllMendtniltf^^ 
or \oca,\ duordt'iB. r«<rjm u (f ttivy ktosq fmm tomfi Momt mon-' 

DQAllt«» or &ltt<rjLlioLkHL; ili<< i^rirllj. vi vu ila Hiirfti,t:o^Oxht ii, on 
DDW c<LmblQjitiL>i»i iu tLd i^olIh <ii' ^niib tfluviuiii from » iImmj 
dtuatkai, Affbctlag tttti only Lbo itit wif T>r<]|it1^. but tlic waIcthwAJ 
«o HAo for oroTTUu^. £pHfcia.ica ^ooin to acetnupAhy ur ftdlovj 
« blifbied ctat« cf \-^j£ctattoji. Tbcy 9«cm aUo lo Mcoiujpuiy mf 
aVLtad&ct barvn»t ; buiwlititlicrtutho Bcn»ofc4iiaoanil«flwi[ii 
ftillj ]cii«wn. An to myAotf, Vat H«nty of cuDJfifltiixe. 

Wdlinijj^hl he bd weary! IIc< ducftnotwy ho, but neitbeci 
docfi he mako any rewr^'o id favour of vaccination ; aod,^ 
after [seventeen year*' trial of it. tho oldpbyHJcian JBHtftj 
Imve iiicliideJ it in lii» cry of IViufmr TanUatu'mt 





witb fury anton^ the Kn^tlUb in Indifl. It is always 
60. What 1% the f^^bioit at home u en inbcn^crr fnshiga 

When wo JwyJndia, we speak aaof a (Country when we 
RTi^ ili*jtling with a (■[>ntiuenl — nf not cno out innny 
peopli.'f, of mcHitti iLUJuoroii^ and toii^i.1^ various: whoio- 
ioTv, ill njii[iiiig IndiBs I wouhl hii imilirrstooii n."^ Itinitir^ 
my lymiarkH to the pordon Ji^l^rnatuJ, and to ihu poj>u- 
latiori adccE^'d by l^nglhli inllue-nce. In frt^veral part» of 
IndJA nnaillpox lat ^ndt^nilc — bogotU^n in pormanontJy tin- 
wholcMiraecon^UbJoiia oF lUc, ^od cuUivati^d and prL>p&- 
gat^d hj inociiUtion, When, therofoTP, it WM heara that 
cowpox mi;;ht he ^iiK'ititutf.-d for mnjLllpox, and thnt th^ 

null] MKfvfd I'Vrrv pur{H.JKi? at Lhu siivtn't? dWiUHi.*, Lhi'ti.' 

ATOeo ft domoJid amon^ tho Cnglis^h for thL> rirua, aliki? for 
their owa und fur []:ili\-iT hm\ Dt. T7nfli-rwooi], vrriting 
to Jonxitr from M^draj^, 2Sth Feb., 1801, obscirvcid — 

J hovo r«»d vitlt Tr«ty gra&t fvlou^v* your pnbUcAtioDS on Cow> 
poll Dzid fi»vl pArtiviilttny AoxioUK te iatnduvo andaxteDcl it id tliia 
<MulTy, aadsr tha £r(«to«t ounfidiitoi timt it n'oi;[d save lorujy 
livoi. 1 bno bitlL4rta €EQbru>«d »v*srj cppotliiuity of trioonlatiog 
with vArioIocD mitttor, but tho loss of a bcaiitilnl litllv jiLlicnl liu 
bmnlilni mo, no^t I ^onieat 1 covor no^ Ulco up a lAae«t 6[it wUli 
fMOt md ttmnbliog,' 

It WHS CAJikrr to a^k than to ohtain. Thoro w4m no 
cowpox to he hrari) of in Tmlla, and tli(< lon;^ voyage 
TOQ&d thd Cape, and the tioplc^l hent were- faliLl to tt« 
tTtnuDiMion. ItcpcAtc-1 AtUiiipt.<i wcrr made, but aII 
«nd4'd in fnilurt*- J^'imiT jiropdjtcd to plMe*^ a TiuniWr of 
picked mtn on board an Kaat ludiaman, and to have 
th^m Jiiicw^ivrly vaiH-inaii-il in Ihr poiir^i' c.if th*^ voy- 
ege, to ad to laud witli fra^h virua In Bombay or CftJcuttn ; 

• lUffCi'* £V* ^ Jryf^r. VCrT, f- Ji. 410. 



but tlw Eftit In£» OompATi^^ iWUnird i}w nri^Hmaln ,\n 
attempt was then made to rAine a aubacnptkiii for tU 
fnitpi>9c> JcRHcr flatting; his name ^ovrafoi 1.000 guineas: 
though it waHitiiTEcuUtoimagmn whoKr Lhii]XK>Ogui 
woro to como from, udIos^ out of the pockotd of 

Tht**io oOcrta were, lioworor, «up«rA«d<2ii by tho «iier^ 
and in^^t'iijity ot Dn De Carro. or Vicuna. Lord El;^ 
British Ainbji^Hirior to the Vorl^-^ hud luatL* ^i&^ii^TitAHCQ 
Nilth 00 t,'ttrn>< ivnd LaJ received virus ftora Kim with 
which his IntMit sun and other* wnrt* \*accinAt4>'1 at Cod- 
Htantinoplc^ The hcwa aprc^oJing ubroad. Lord ElMn was 
eiitreatdd to me^t the liidiaD ili>ii]&nd. hbdiTi^;; tJi« vae- 
cino overland to Bombay fcy u-ay of Baigiiad and Bh^sotl 
Kn nimh* TUTVficttl futlli? AUivniiU, aihI ihcn^on dcU-<riciinM 
to p3acu tbfl tnattor in tho band^ of De Carro; aitd for 
that p^l^po^£: iidJrc-A-tod him^sclf to Ih'? Hoa. Arthur Pag;*^ 
Jjriii).h atnhnAiiador at Viuniia, naymy^ 

I bMii> itu inuiy apLtllcfttfoiiK Tor Vftcclao Vbnu from Bmaorai Mb* 
Ea^t Ii]dk->. uid CoyloQ. that 1 beg jod will umaedlMtoly wpl^ b 
I3r. Do Conu, ilulI tvtiutBt tdm to Mad eomt hj «nvjr ooufJat. | 

Do Cano accepted tho comniigfiioTi with alucritj, B9 
ktuJ alruatiy liad aa application from Bogda^l, aiiJ, dbu- 
mieBin^ the vehicle-^ which had boon tri^ and failoil, 
nuchas bncctaof^tcvl. silver. ^Id. and ivory, and throadi 
enclosod in quilU, hi> sntiirat^ lint with virU4^ and, pJal^■ 
inc it between glawK^, in one of whir^h wju a cnvity for 
ib* ivrj^ptiun, tW thr-m IrtijfKllier, si^^itnd tin* uilgi">, and^ 
taking them to a wax chandler^ had tbem dipped until 
eiiclo^od in a Ivill of wax, ii'hich wn» pjtclccd in a box 
stutl\jd with ftUn.>da of papor. In tlilfl uianu«TvivuH wm 
amvtx^'X tliroLt^h CondtaiiVinopIc, acnv%^ the dca«rta to 
Baf:daiL when? it was n-ct^ivoil *m 'iUt March, 1S02, fltlU 
liilidd, arui woa uued " with cuiupltt*? aucce**" lliv liko 
iiiccdu WA8 rBporrf'r! fntm l!ii>i((irii, Miincitt^ imd i^imhirv. 
UoMoravirua vvoh conveyed to Bombay, arriviiig. 

* htam'm U/e ^ Jmmr^ ^nL i.f,4m, fJM.v^. L^AXft. 


\iru-t A threw vthIch' voyngv, onrly In Jnix'. Tw«ity ot 
thirty wcra inoculaW with Uio Vienna rirufl, but only 
one "took/ naiuely. Anna Dii<thHll n child al^cttib thnie 
ycftn of ft^, who woh upurat^d a]Kjt\ by Dr, H«Ieaua 
Scot'*- The prcjx'*^^ ^^ t*^^ <^<^'^ ^^^^ waichcd ^ih in^ 
tAEwo imxii^ty, ttn>l ci}TntEp^>ndcnt ^titfaction whvn the 
ayinptoi»« <Uvcli>i)i^ii According to the reco^nbyd dudcrip- 
tion. On the*'i;^br.h rlay flvp HiiMnin wi'-m vuccit^a^^tiI 
from OEjHthnH':; turn, and bud vnvt tlu T(!Joioiri;f vrhon it 
wn^ kll»^vn th»t for IniWn, was hecurifJ thu gi^nuino Vati- 
Olm Vacciot^ b'rooi Uombay " tho prtiOicuM tluitl " w« in 
<ltie cjurtR c^mvcyLHl tci Ceylon. Mjidraa, OalcultA, ^ad 
wherever EuLjli^h infidonce pt^v&iM. Do Carro was 
natanlly cinlcd with his ntjccc'^p The viriii he traiw- 
mltt^d w»H wri^hially ol^tajTi>?"i from t]»e ^loi^k of Dr, 
StkCco. oF Milan, who ho*! it cff wrac Loml«Kd cawa* 

Jrniicr wtxitn tii De Cnrro lo rtni^rjtlulatu hiui, 2SU] 
HftTch, IS03 

fiisr* tli« eni»in4^ir>ATntDt of mir j^atTfltjic^nddann, ffriut ml ray 
Mitkfuiion hv hoim in tl» pani»J of ytjur latt^rr*, I do cial tvool- 
Utft irbiin jiftn hikYD fnvooiiad mo villi one that hfift ik/TvnlMl rao 

S«£m»rd Dquhl 1m t1>v lo^L Tha mgnt T Iimo cKporitfaofd at Itml- 
K thnt FV4<ry ^ii^'mv^fiir U^ tetui Uifl VoccinQ ViniK In Iiulia lu 
pvi-rticiLiiiTj ]ia*< JLrfuTjf:iitiMt,UM»raaljt>»^« J»!Mti}vi]lojt^a;jLii1|f«, 
iltva. wltut i?Uaj>iire yun Mnrof In ikuurUig uw thai my vriibMAEv 

The Iriip^rtdd co^pox w^ diffused and reconiniienijed 
with oa'>r^y tmd with fraud. Jorui«r, writing to Dun- 
iiii^ 2ml Nfiv«inlHT, 1S04, oh.wrvtil — 

CoooO^Tit^r U QiW>t W a jtT»tificAtiaa tn vati |« ««» b^v sj*(eia- 
atioally fh«v cutui|{c vikcobc AffAin La IiuL*, I bare a»t Ton a 
M>pj «! ajk*i>ar jiitt tranieolttcd to ma firoiatbo Inik uooai. 
^Tonld bft Jtoftv^ii «-< could boait of taoh ainuig«auuita hdA t 

Here ii thi; papci which sota fovth tbo energcilc policy 
ptir«iml — 

With h tiow of olitongng IL* pnatto* of VaMiiu Inooalntion 

t B«KA*> X^^yJoHvr, vol. J. p. 4^. 



orii«r-<i«Qo««l !b Coviuiil of Bcccu hiw ft^ppoiiiUil a Sapf^riotdod- 
mvUfinoml afYMoiua ImMnilftUon ^t tha Pr««tdimc>-. uid «U^ 
U«htfd iuboTdinjita«apari&tcDd«iLUatMtiar«lof thctTitvTioviiatiaa 
of Ui« tfoim^ ; noQiDif, >t Vocffsi, Moonbodi^bod, Tatiu, B*iuni^ 
AlliJifthtd, CttWDporo, nnd I'nrrn^k&bad. Tbv<» ffn|)«riiit«QdEMlli 
ftro th» «iiii|[«oi]e of tliv «Utioii«i uid ato lo &«t ntiEtar Uw or^Uf* it 
tli« bitpArl]iUiid«nt-G«iiar«l in whalavvr nurda V^eemo imxHi^ 

Hatioiu itrDt>oo-opoivUwiEhtbABasiip«iHiitaii4exita(brttL«pafpoM 
of fArvu^iEg tiie FTfUo'nl object 

Vwin* InocnUtion Iim »]*» b*on introdiso^il with «iii;<fMa intt 
PrifiM nriVolu IkUtid, nnti it m inloiMli^l to *Tland th< jiniAllettoL 
^fn1ftCfhlh tMti i^liiar pbuKU ta th« «E%4lTaF(1 ; uid a (yinfldfni aipM- 
t&tlon Ip iinC'irlsLiixail thKt t)"^ bnncfit^ of thit vuluihlc ^hit^ovcoj 
niTi be difTiiFvil ti^rattgb^Mit AtiA^ Tt 11 ovrn in coiilvtii|i1jitiiKi It-J 
i^^trml it io China : bin ii«I.hfi*^ii<f1ifiouH dmpti^ttiiMi of ilie CWoMlf 
uilK^tt iKinJbtj luoribe kuy Attu(fi|il lo iutrodoco l>tiK iiov4<1 
it* EliilfrC«r niotiTo«^ li hua b<Mn poBtpoi^iul nnii) Ibfi npin^^n et 

Blucli iif tlil^t |MrU(Ty vriLH diie to the ManjuiA Wulltwlo/,' 
tin? Governor- GunetaJ, whose babit it w&s to oonvert ceo- ' 
Ticdcu "vrlUiout delaj into peifomiAncc. To what extent 
It WAA found piocticiitic to Aijb(itkut« raOQKQatlc^ii fori 
viirioUtiDU auioii;.' tb« natives does neb clearly app»r. 
It wiiK coriparfttively rfl^y to op«rftti^ upon tlif^M* iinuie- 
dbtely dependent upon IhciT conquerors; but it vrae • 
ditTi^TGot rantter to Ji^<iri)k tlie avoreicn of the cxt^nuJ 
nyrtadiL Supposing tlio viuinUitcrR prcft-^rro*! tbelr 
ancieut pmcticu lM<cmt;?MT It vkha luorv liK^Titivi-. a number^ 
of bhom vr<>r*> bro^ipht to Calcutta, ami inrjiiiry landt iii 
to thft amount of tlir^it gnin-i, whioli As^ictrUiin&d. thej^ 
wpm offered double pay If they would adopt vacrination- 
X1l< ot&r 'tvas readily naxptcd, and otbcr s-ArujIatoot,, 
hearing of It, vuliiritcrn>*l tbelr HerviceA on ^niilar termitl 
and wero instruct^id and t>Drollod as ofliciaT vac(?inatoTt- 
A dr<!lnriL.tion v;rs drawn up And M^minl by Iwi'dity^MJl 
of ihvuo eonv<irt4-d ^-a^io]ator8.r«comlDtndin|*^-^ccinatioa 
to tho Ea^item world. The dodnraUon v.-^*, puhliah<d m- 
the C<ilcutta Qa:etU, printed in fotir ianji^uai^ca, and- 
vrldely circulated tli rough ofit India** 

* TXi iittlmta^ JVarfitf 4/ I'ateiMiatiM. Ily Jinc^Uoon, 
don, t«l7. P. SAH. 

IXraODUCnOX to INOtA and THK bast. 3S7 

So much wiLS j^uamMc U? Oovcnmurnt ; bub other luuauia 
or per^Ltia&iOD were not n^j^lectein It wm ftt UrAtimA- 
gincd thnt pos ftrcitn the CJ>vr woulil exactly nuit people 
wln> hirlcl tint animal in ri*vt-n?«tv ; Liit. on the contrary, 
tiic fact waa convorlod by the Brahmins into an arj^- 
mnnt ngnlnHt Itjc use, thi-y iMiit^nrliiiLTH J^nd JlikII^', that 
eoirpnx wa^i imputie. To raoet tliia diflicutty. variona 
pioua Fraiida wert) &tteuipttid. lb ms proboruicJ thftl 
vaodiuttot) wba no novolLy in Indian And thftl U was 
knuwn. M.tictioned» and practised from timd iinmemoml 
B^ron. J<'nTj'?r'* hiographpr, roktw th«flo drUiU without 
ftn i mad \-cr^i on — 

A DAtiro phyii0iH& aF Ilaivilly jirit Into tlio htailanf Mt^ (ihllmv), 
vlio WM «iirgdf>ik at lliat litatlnn, HirtmA l«4iv«a mqwrt^i? ta 1>d aq 
«itn«C from a Sniiflcm wcrk on mo<tinii«, «&utl«d " Sud'Un Saq- 

Ibo t«ftt-i of Cowf, cirvAdlj pri>ti«ivo it, aaj before tOA hr«Hktnp! 
otitof Stn^Tlpox inn1(« vJth a fin* inttmiritnl n nnmlE |iiLnr*tiin> 

!\[k* Uiai iniul* by a snat) Iii ■ r<liSl4'« lirnU. urul in l^-|illl(Vl IcLi^ tliA 
ilooil u much of thfit mrLtiuru it mi^^nuivil by a ijnarfArfif a raltL 
Tliaa Uio wuio pbTrirmn randari tho olubl ioeuro ftoni Uto umptioia 
of tba SmaL^oi, 

The St&ii^f.ntwork fruiii whicli tikis pa>^s!i£;ewa4a:^BrLeil 
to be takaii vcan never forthcoming, 4Utd by compotcnt 
auiImiiUcs n-uH pruiiuiLnL:cd '" uothtn^; more tfuin a well- 
tneantd^vicafor tha reiluction i>f J^Tiorftnt pr*^jiiHiL\r8," th« 
naUvo phyj^ vr ho pxit the leaver into the hauil.t of Mr 
GUlcn&Q br>ln^ included !a the fiction. Baron condnuiH — 

la unler to utuivijcuu tLvso mli^ii |Jivj[bii«« Ui« laUi Mf. EU&i. 
of MaidiM. wbo wAJi vrvU v^'fMil ui Sun.iciil LUomttirvH EictnnElj 
cftnqaMil a ahori ^lOoju fu thut Uuguaj,'^ on Vacciaatioti. Ibo 
povtt «ni wdtlco oa oM paper, and wu.^ Mid to bavo hifea /oitnd, 
ibal th« imptcBUQU of iiU nnUuaUy uiij;iLt »uiil the vffevt iutuudcd 
kf bft pm^iicttil uu Ibo uxiuiLi ol t^u Urahuiiuii Ttrhllv IraouuE ilj« pn- 
T«DlM 1« tLirir MCroJ cunr> 

Hw lota Mr. AaJt^ttn, ^f N[ftdra». adopUd ttfl very mom »ip«< 
dkolibi order 1o ^ccoivu tbt llindtfuiialu a bcbef tliat VnccJaaticiD 
Vft* aa ocfb^fc pL-ujticu of tlicir ovu. It u iCAioclyaacfEaAn-lo 
obfttna ttiofc bail any >uthoali« reoord of Btich a K^t^^i^ cKielcil 
tiiMO Mallamvu would utrtt bavo resorUdt^ mcb ooolnvaocea W 
gatmfaro^>J<ol. ' 



Tlwsi.'" imp^wtiXH wfiv not [mosU, bill nioilirjil nn-n ; noit 
JoMuiU. but Prot^^LmU ; not Loviuitin«», but Eii;^iUbm«[n 
in lb« aervicc of iU*^ ]IoiioiiruUti East Intlio' Compuiy 
To what cxWntthmrfnMnisirorPoponitivoU not rclntrf. 
They voro probably too contoniptuouH of native itcumcci. 
For good and for evil lh« flfncloo liit^-n* lo Kngllsh ftd- 
vico ccurl«cu*lj' fcm! without <wTitrft«Hcti^^n, but pfrMtto 
in hjH liCKuitUnun] wny of lift wUli 1hi- eiiu»U)tfiil 
iD^ifT^renoe. Th&t vnccinntkni vjns an imciont pi 
ID fnciia OLti^n to he repeated in Europe afkI jiorioui^ 
bclioved, wh*jn. Joouef'ft oHttinalJty hti^uf* itupiiffw>d. tlJ 
traih came out, that old Tnclmn vAccinatioD W&.-4 a Jovioe 
UiDTt(!il to IndiAD ctTi!uiuKtiinoe£, and nover desj^^Kl for 
Weat<!n^ uccoplaoeo. 

In Mhdrnit v/iccinciLion wiw pr/irtini*(l witli miKlk 
CQCT^-. Jonnur. writin;; on 7th May, ISWS, &aid, " Woo- 
di'ifui to lolate, the iiuaiber» vaccutaUHl iii tliaL Vtt^- 
dency :□ the course of last year amount to S4:t,I7V* 
In Botnbrxy ibwari c1atti^<^ tliat smallpox unvi vxttrmtod; 
Dr. Ilo1«niu Scott reporting. 5th December, ISOti. tb&l 
"in thU inland, -^warinin? with ntaiiktnd, no io%^ froaa 
tiiiiallpox ha4 I'tL'ii Hii^i-ri-il tot Tu^v^rnl yean st[ie4> tlic In- 
triniiiction of vaccine iaociilfllior/'f It w<vs not pr>- 
tcni!i<(l i\ij\i all thi; inltaliitAriL>t rrf BoTuhny hiul Xtvcn 
voccinati'dj or ovea a coa^idorabl» portion of them; but 
the early vacclnatora appear to h^vo rc^'^aidod vaccinatMG 
a«a*ort of charm, th^^poitebtHloii of whic;h kept otr^mail* 
pox; tijat by the vaccination, say, of on&-Unth of anr 
nopiilat.ioti, thi^ unvnrrmatj-d iiirif-f'orithx vr^^ivr pnjt^y^m 
Thu fmth in the- viourioui i^flioacv of vaocinatiou vru 
not expr>.'Hsly avou't^il, but w^s implied in th*- niiiL^«roui 
roport'i of cxtir]>A£^d nmnKp^x in ciTctiiQAtiLnc(» whtrroDV 
albLiiiipL vra^ n^ode. or waa indeed poit^Ible, U> tiT^ct iiid- 
vonal vaccination. 

Confuted atkd fruntratcrl in iLn^land, UwanJenn^A 
habit to Bdgh, and turn from hi* nnffnUefijJ coimlty 
to the vftst realms of Jinropc and AMn ond Atroricn, 



Writing to Dtinninif, on 2.^rd December, IS04, li« ob- 

f or«icb«n b«art with tLo ntiooii antonSAhmoiit, timt tn icmo 

It mut, bdotd, fr2«itA ihdr ncndor whoa tliay' uo that 
totally oitcammAtixl in «omfl ol their likrgcit (^itios noU in 
EUuibd diitriot* luvuiuL thitoi. 

tlio ^ordet — Smallpox totrhtly ex Ur minuted in 
?MDe of the lir^jT^ht cUit?« iu l^Ot; Cliat wivt ui>inj-.iifu?c, 
Of M« if^(?«f, hvo y^itkn ftcquointanCD i.vith vaccination ) 
A uiuAculiJu.n Utno — vnu it not ' Jcntu-r wnnt oa— 

Jm lui Qot, 1117 frl«ndfl, vs'Tl annfUvoa toa miuh fit vphftt ita tea 
Imt*:. Lot lw CLiTitiiifef lh!( eoiTTitrj' nn bttt ft Bpaok whftn comimrnd 
with ibci vhcto tni-fiLefl i>f our pUTinl, avnr whldl. iIi^qLc (toci ! Vno- 
f^ioin liM pi-i3ryvh<]m tboit her m^TiDiico. Frotn th» pMt^ntAto l<T 
l)j« paOAAtit.* in ^vorr tJ^uniry biitthUttlie i« r^Mivvil ^ ^'inUflil 
MAdfflKm 4nnA- XVlmt i^n wlriTiriLtjTanrTHnifiirTirtTir. U flmt niiuUi Li^ 
tlw Hri;uift of \V<i3t^-U'j, Ihfr OrtTrm<ir-G*n»Tfcl ^f Italia, f'lT Ihfl 
filliimi!nHlli>n d (hn t^t^ittll^H^x in ibHt ^ymrur <^f thA j{1nlM T Con- 
Qiuiflit witli finr ^fTiinji |j«ni, what pl^ieii wi> ftppnar.^ 

Oi»tOM ^ptofitm j>m mu7n'i)f4:4> oiL What inference 
wcrth ft stiaw could JcDnor or anyone ebo draw from 
tbe inlrottiictien of vaccinntlon to India ? The niim1>er 
of the vnrioua Indttui |icoplcA itili tmknoirn; and tho 
periods and jn!'e\alt-riCo of ^nmiljiox ainoi]^ lh>.mi -, aUo 
the extent to vrhicii they praetl-M:d veuiolnLi^sn- In tho 
ahi«(>ou of Hunh fitMiLTTiilJiry iiifonimtiuii, tatltw of tljo 
triutnplia of ^'aocination in mdia wero ao much ranianc^. 

80 w oil vaccinfltian displaced v&riolntbn. it mi^bt be 
taken aa Ui^ minCiLDLian otn Ich^ evtJ for a gtcnt&t ; and 
TnxieS is accounted for in fvomt of the early record* of 
v4C<!ination wh«n it h remomboro'1 that the nisw |>rActloe 
vraa weloomod asa dolivcronoo fioin ilic ino-'invciaeacos 
aiKl Iwrror^ of the old; and thziL 1iR< diru^rt^JiLej.] practice 
WHS f roquentlv iit>andonccL without reaort U^ iU huccouor. 
A cwnaUon 01 vftrioInLiuti wha a i^cyMaLicm of tlw iriilLurc 
And difTision of aniallpox; und vaccinalion harl often 
the credit of the reduction of ^oiivtlpoji when the credit 



vroa 4lu<- U> ihe abfttcuieiiL of variolMioru Aa toth? pr> 
pagfttion of ^mallp^ix by vArioIntlyn, no one wa* more 
omphAtic thon for cxttiuplc^ 
Whort TAriolonx iDOvuUtiaQ k put ic praertiot), SniftUpox nanst 

SmftUwi vfll BOTf r Uo imbdned po Un^ oi mon uiv t» hii«d li 

If then it bo Ukcn fuconcciiod tliatvAriohUoD spcod 
xniiilltKix wlii^rRVrr priu-tiu^il, nut it lui fjur Lu uiaiL llie 
conBademtioa of tlw cou^quoDC^^ of Jta &batomont whi!A 
Milniaiing tlie i«»<ulte mF tho intrur]uctionuf vacutintiort^ 
Vot ttCAKcly ui ndvocatt; of vaoctnjLtioQ pormIt« the- Cut 
to eut«r jnU> liU tvckoiiiiu: t 

The ^raUtndo of the EnglUh in tndui to Jeiiner^liij 
not crapnratc ^rit^iont Aub^tuiitui) cxprc&fiaoo. A buh- 
•icriptlon waA Htarted. and betu'eon 1SQG and 1S12 be 
rcccivc<l rcmittartccn to the amount of £7^S3, llie «oa* 
inbutum iHdng— ■ 

fioDoa £4.000 

BouMTt ftOOO 

M«,dnii, l^BSt 

All auiualn;^ iii^lAJice (if JeiincT'e i;jcotiince ol Indlfl 
itf foiirLti in a letter to Dunning, Itth Mfircli, 1807, 
"rvhori^In hf? rucribtn h\s CngliAh luoricy from liKlia to the 
gral.lliulo of Hinloo Korneo — 

You wiJi ha lAinufd to h»r tk&t Iho <fin^ Hindoo U^iM >N 

Iml fn.*h fnmjihlr afTi>rTLK, u'liLlfl mj ytfr CIiH>>t^^iQ oaiiQtTyirt>Atfa 

Jcnncff, In retTiTTiing thantu to Dr. FIcmintff, of Calcutta) 
for tbo first reuntUiioc of cuU in l^OC, Krok occa&jOEi Co 
coDsmuniciLto Mora^r Kngli^H nc^vn;, ^Thlch U not ^rithodl 
tDtor<tit at thU Jay. He ^■rroto— 

Toaty thotnitLn tUi.^' onnntrj- Iim boon ilntulfutlr Mpiue i« Hm 
nutUr i^f Vof ciiiatiou bilLnrlo. ti^nug [iftDftphlota, fug oftbt groewtt 
xiUJ^NprvKAtatioaD and forsorlov, Iiato ItMBOprefed; ftodlLa e«ai- 

■h I.*iUr to WuithiTijft-^n. Jib Maj, ISIDI 
; lUtno'* l-i/' qfJtuif^, T-}^. it. |x 3Stf, 



iDcit] fiMipIo beoAJuo BO Irmfied, parlic?i]ljir1y vlien t<tM l?inl thrlr 
cfaililrvu, if roocJuuteLl, wonld t«hHUi8»iiiiilitijd«KOf1)u1UKULlrctwrt. 
that ft gTMt iliiUEbft 1^ lli» iiracMoEi hu iu1««q ftmong Uiuii ; and 
tliCJLC jtccLiuitU liikto boon oiroutfttcJ throufli tho coaubr^ wiblj 
pwuliarliiilmtQ. TLe oniuH quail cm liu becu i!i« ro-JuUi>JuE!Liau tjf 
VMriobub Inoculution. trlilch hu prgduovd cm flpi[ltiiiiic £iuu1Jiid\ 
tlirovitl; tEiD luirtroputu buil Uia wUol* isUuJ, tj^vutit iti l^iijnv prirU 
wLvrv ViwviiiHlir^n Loil iiruvijjtutljr Wan lo |£Hii4£»Uy lulviikU tu lu 
forbid iUiirptuAch. Tliif* nuT toc late, Luop«D«d Uivirc^n*, and 
(be J SCO tl^v pL>M«m of tli« CowpoXi The foUj of iho opponticriUita 
I liAfl coDp ic fnr .u Ui cxhlbil pi-ictaof cliildivii tliiJcri*&ai£ tmiS* 
I fonamllua fTom tiie hriiuim bviuK ij^lo Uiaicif thu bftiEu/' 

Thwo printA were, many of them, mt^ndcil for fun, 
couU Iiavt uu acn4jii» iuJluence. Tlic OecJino of 
ID vaccination Wiw *liio to ib^ e«n*rftl discovwj- 
(hftt it flid rrc'^ prcvctit Eiinallpox. tind tbiil it ijui txcittf 
other aHmenEs. "It made 9inallpox milder" was the 
ivpobgy orcn then cotoiog mto vogue, A/; for the cpi- 
clnmic iif MnnHpnx nn^ril m T.imd^m lunl tbci wholi? L*ln.nd 
by the «v;;k«l ci vocciimlioii and a i^ttuni to vuriolation, 
it waj* a cit'Atioii oF JeTinn's fnTicy, 1*!ieri:' wa** Ics*. 
MEoollpox ill London in ISOG than in 1805; hut if Qit^To 
wu not more, the hold J«aai.'nart wonla anawvr, tbere 
OTi/;^/ to hnvv iHwn, and it could ot\\y le ihrongh tb^ 
mercy of Pt:ovi<lcnce tliat thuru vran not. 

Throu^'liont tfi^ c^ntT^ry. th^ Kn^di^h In India have 
nMTDd no pains to diff u^c and enforce vaocination anioii^ 
Ine inhahitifcfiU. numiirmtft nunJiiyil tuen Itiidiii^ \t\tu:n and 
pay in the futile occLip&tion. Smallpoi: can onJy Li.^ 
ovwrcoroo hy syslcmfttic naniUtion, which >» laboriuu^ 
and difficult; and amon;:; peoples ivhose conditionB i^nd 
hahita of life freely generate ^motJC diaeaAo, vaccinatii^n 
■N OH liki^Iy U> Imt I'iU'diviT nn aiiy ot)n?r sort of incajiUfc- 
Uoiu Sir Kichai>l Teuipb etatcti the position at tbii day 
ID tl*uj»c wvnU — 

Situlltwx it m]h'4>r(Al[T ^LrAViH^Tib in IndfA, cnnyinj; ofTMni of 

tliotiAM^iU at vErllmA, ithlLlnia niiihridAJIf . In Htiiirmt t'VAty nttfV'npit 

CvavBniniDal h&> for muiy jftun avtaa ^ariJilcQt nfTcirtJi to Arroftt 




thft dUfiUJio by UAUM of Vncclmlioui wjIL f<cEiiiirkilil« ii 
•omo^UtHoU, KItfitluitorKnEnaouin tlio UiDuUfatf, batc«D«nllf 
vith inJiflcimt 4a««Hi, oclQ ofton TrrtLiDUt unr ^cTOvptiUo rtmlt. 
Tbo pnxitioc of VjKcination not b^iuf in vot^iii. lii(r«iUji|io« vmA 
U> b» luvol; nJoptaJ b^ Uio &*tiio* iu tahoy ilutttati, but Lj^ q^V 
booo pTobi1>ittii, tlidOKli ucit aIva^v p»ronE«J ndaJiUi'- The Stftto 
•T«i-prUDro undortokM or fiiwoti»^« Va^dimliotL- H.atbd>«d««f 
nativo TAcdoiitor* arc ompln^o J. and relunin an n^nilonxt of hv||f 
tiiarDb«n ofporvoiw tvd to w> aacooMfiAlly vA^niimloiL Xovortli#- 
ISM ymnUpoi Appoon ogaJD anil J^[«iA witb l^rnlU uiiUjUWtebOtt 
befer« tbo [ifr^o, uiii (TAiiuft thoxa ia rHibuUuva tba oAcae^fd 

Wo DOW coiKo to Ceylon, in which voccinatioo ww 
IipM to liavo hftil a jwrfoct triainph, *' To Swi^iru wi 
to CVirlon/' *ayj* Boron, " Dr, Jviuwjr was iu tho Kabil ol 
pomtln^ wlidi he wLahed to prove uhat lib dUcover^r 
might ftCComplUh^ or whon he lamcnltfi-L that fntu 
obaliDAcrjr oF hi.i fellovr-creaiiiTC4 Yrhicb. xvtlb d\jcb 
examples befon* them, CQUlcl induce them to nJL-ct blest- 
in£:s within their TL-ach/'t Sw«nJcii vk^ r^hall duicus^ in 
luuidirr i-lin^^iT, rdlI »f Pcjloii ! timy it\i-vi-\c Uni ft 
pottion of th-> ifilofid wAfi takon hy the British fr«n tli« 
Dutch Id 17!)5, anil Umt iii«ovi^ parUit ViiiAoxtE^mcUT 
anliei&Ithy, Suiallpcx wa^ a rn^qiicnt vul deadly ep[- 
dcDiic, but to what extent there if» do eTidcocc »vc hear- 
say nnd t<9;tamntcH Trom hi^antay. T}\<i Diit«li did not 
couccro tlieiiiFtulvEH-nith the ht^altb of Lbo n&tivcii, but 
whim thri Kngltfth IfioV ovf^r iht-'ir neltUtiwnlA in I^HOfl in 
tbo iiiidsnt of a nc-viTrc cpiitotnic. they npcuicij liovpitaU for 
smallpox aiid for uioculaLiou with Muollpox under tbe 
eup?rv*i»ioQ of Dr. C'hriatio^ He, hcnriiig thg gliul tid- 
ingn of vaccination. nv<^oK-qd la tntnirduoo tht* pracUcfi, 
and hivving In 1802 recc^ived virus frcm Dr Sco'.t, of 
iJombfty, be set to wotk with syskmolic cniifu_v an*l |>cr- 
!*vi^rana?- Sujmt»r(i'd by tin? nuthorhy of ■«?Jcti:SHivo 
OQV<-niora, ho eroded tho hospital, forhod^i vArialation. 
organisLvl .t sEnfliif viaTtrmlor>. xm] kt-pt. (it-m inupliiyvtl, 

■ JniHn iit /An\ t lift qfJtniur, \t\. L p. *W. 



nntil the gnat^r pan uf tlic po])Lilatioii iicd^r KngliKli 
intlLirncc was VAccinatccl. In tho words of iloon. 
writing ill ISlfl — 

of ta« SatAJIpox ^Kt^ liapLiily DiUrj;;aUl^ix! lu oil Lbikt port of tU« 
iaUii4 vbich ItdijueiTd to Great Diitaia," 

ThAtAiQAlIpox l&d been extcriuinopbcd b^ vaccinrttioD 
In Oylon wa> net forth by viLcctiinuin f^ jwru^^tliin^ in- 
4Jiflputo1>Jc; but there wore twoolmtrvittona to njafcc — 
fimt, that j^iutklTpox wtK often HupprcMcd U\ iha M-iise 
that for ft timo tlicrc tros no wnfttlpox iu ft ctjitain 
pOpiiUtion, anil i><|>oci^]ly Hubsemiont to r r^ovrrc- rpi- 
aotDic; And K.3^Jlt4l, that vanohttion wiu ■uf^]>rc^uL'ti 
Orani^ IhatemalliKW vvjv»*d m Oi^yhwi c^iiiici Jeally with 
cbo introdaciion of vnccin&tion, U may l>« fairlv tvld 
tb&t the cxhatt^tiou inducf^ii by tlic prrcr^iUrg c:|^iU«mk^ 
and tLe ccsntioD of varioliilioii" wvw* stiificSoht to account 
i<vthopfaeDOuacQoa ^Vhalr<^m&ilmtobc>llki<lcf LVylon. 

SiQAltpoit and Vaccinatbn Hospital. Ut snky for xlc. Ho 

Coytcovij iLo Britiih «o1ooy whoro tl-.c GoTcnuuout ooHi^ot 
iatwnvd »e»1 roovt Ti^orooBlj eniK^irb^^il tLo pra?iii>i? of Vacuinv 
tio^ fialftfi»it THHiinhtnr* winv «catt«TuJ civ<ir tlir wholo iHtanitp 
So ■netWifal mite-. llicir UhEnu-A, thftt Qp to itc U^^iaiiini; cl lUX^, 
itlia4 oA<ik Wco miil thut tl]« i>xp«riRiait<>f ciltiituLituliug Bmi^U- 

501 ti^l kooa CD«d« »aJ vnorcMoUy euncd ott in Ccyloai. In 
laljt tiflll, hovreT«r, n corora cpdenuo SsndUrci lircko oal Uicroi 
Ja IhHir tv f»(^r,it it|iiif«mii? «T4npTnul Uio ialdcd— ic 1HV3 rt Itiiv^, 
&111I m IH'MI A TMifili. Id Unto* itfliw ^iridwaicWt 1U,557 po<i^<>ai 
ir«re alUCEkeJ, of ^:tL>iu A,Q^ dioA, baln^ At Ibo r&l« of U3 p«r 
coiLi Off Ofto out of bvttJry thrvo. 

Ja •ft«U of tlioiv 4p]<IciQiDt d «oHaia naiulfiT of iuc^aImI 
pMMlia look SniibSTpnx- Tbo pfv^^orticc cf I!i4 VMomaUd to tli* 
BiipniUtffAd ravlftil. Jn 11m third *pid«iai«, r-ut of » totiU of 460 
bltAOltod, 1141 r#pr««jml4d lL«&i|olT«a m VJiOCimiUd-t 

Vae^iiution w^^ iotroduecd to Ohina from tho Kni^litth 

Loadoo. laiT. IMd^. 
t Utlirnt u« (Ar £>i^'n ^rrsr« Looduu, ISiS. F. 31<1 




facujry at CauIovi, and Sb Qeurgv -Stauoton tnoulftteij 
into Cliinwc a tract on Oowpos, and b&d it prtntod it 
Canton in ^St)-*!, Uic Imn^tor'n h&umj and Ui« for«i£U 
oriinn of th« pra«tkc Wing supprmMHl. J«Dtior, writing 
l« Dunning lOih December, 1S06, Mtd^ 

ftieoJ, vlivD (XT conMXNlMC* fint Wa* a . <^1 Hmvcb hiidtl 
rtoM [or m* KKb kb^uuttul liAfiplaHiu llftjrl befiiatolall 

The ClitritfHV li^d lli^ir own #iyst"m of vnriola&Ri 
nnnwly, tHo use of pulvcmcd ^nuulfox Kcala as iinfff; 
but some of tJirm ncwjptcd vacciiutiun, tried it, aod 
dropped it wh«a th^; roii&d it did not lu^cp o^ tlie 
dHiwue a» Krarr&ntcd, ^nifJIpox m Cliina b almoitl oi- 
HusEvely a disease of cbiMhood, and 14 litUo ilnvuleiL 
Dr. D. K. Uf^imic. mcdicAl otitcart4>tli« BritUfa EmbaMjat 
Peking in IfHGI -1^2, icajrai of tint city— 

^o« 1^20 wcomatioa (iutrwlaofd &oau GaxiIoqI 1i«» 
DTftiOlifoJ lo ft limited eiteitl muodu Uio pcipu W<4k ^povbaUj 
iAli tamy L« vucctuftUd, Al i;u« tiEu« U itm belicrred to 
proiootlon. &mAll]K»i it\yi Uaiiof boea lo coovaon immoi 
ftflvr ibi mlruductioa^ Of rocvnt foKrv. hoin^cvcrt con£d«aov 
bid 0ouaid«niUy ttitiiIobli&.t. ^wbtf lo_ ll^ £r«qiuii«7 Willi wl 
Hum m ibtlAckcd wbo hai-c I)«vu vMciaftUiL' 

PcnlawaMsotDetiwux referred to in iKe r&ving^ Uiai 
v^t on as to the tHumjjha of vaednaiioa in iha Eaat^ 
bulvrliatwaa known i^f K^r^taf The practio* ^il« iittro- 
duocd nhtrc Europoans wtra rv^ident, lot it nover 
t>ocatiiu ^^ncraL Dt, <l J. Willie ba* r^^ccDtly described 
Hur^rryjottl mcH>i-iiifi in Pt^rMa iiv extn^mt^ly niiln and 
au])erQtitiou4, atid Ibat " vtixcinalioa 14 not in favour, 
wniUt inoculatiuii, or the direct cojr.uiuntGiUon of tliu 
dijtorder, by pkcin^ tho pationt in ifit^ mifne bed with one 
aulferiujf fiom -stiiollpux ut Hit luu^it viruleot type, U the 
method pnmied.'f 

It vrtA natural cnoufli for JciuKi:, in preeence oE 
failiiffi nnd contempt in England, to appeal to success in 

+ M^rA Si^Htol Jft-^rfHTf. «k^ .VjirJl. t^K 



the Eatl, artd tu try M overwhelm hU aJv«reark<9 vritb 
ovidctice which they oauld not ovorbako ; bat ^ny one of 
juiIic'iAl temper intifit liftvv pr^^rcvivinl Uiat If vaccination 
Wfta 10 tw vindkaUd, datu ot a very different order wuuld 
hftTc to be forthaiiuiiig. Where tW number of tbo 
population in ft diKtAnt rc^un yvm unknoym, vchtrt^ t\u\ 
orainary pnjvalcuct uf aiiiaUpox among thu people was 
undr^Hrtf'd. when^ the <>\rHent of nrtifieiHJ vunulauou woa 
unapMStSL-d, and the <^xitt<jnco and intensity of related 
form* of Ayuntiic disi^ase wen* unilcHuribL^I, vrliat con- 
elusion could be* drawn ilm to tin- efficacy of vaocinfltion 
that a iiimi iif ^tiw^co wM bouiid to respect? Why 
should cert&in knowledge in EDQlnnd he Hyrniiidercd Tor 
OMcrtion from abroad. 



VACciyATJo.v woM occcpiDd iiift A. r^^'clntior.and dirtiu^cd 
nA & n:l[gi4>ri. &U'\ woa aliriont everywhere rr*i!L-iv*?d ^WHy, 
Wo Lavo tn bpai" ia mind, howovor, that tbe wav had 
been made straight fur it by the prootict; of in(x'ijlntb>n 
vrith smAllpox; which pi-aoticL\ after a Btrii;;;:]^ pro 
lon^^ over loany yair*, had bccouio an e^tabHsbL-J |;iart 
of medical art, and wju only )imil«d in ita aj)plieati(^n by 
the irKx»nvcni<^nce and riaka that attended it Tbe pro- 
miMi (if thi- priniitivp Micfitiatfirs wjlh, tlirtt the security 
which rcoull^ Iroui Lnoculution Yritb nmaJlpox wivi t^i he 
had from inoculation with cowpox, vnilt absolulu cer*< 
tAinty, abatolutv safety, and nhiioluto pcrmaneDCo* Thd 
ors^m^nt waa, t^hat Mnee no cnit; (^>u^l luiva ^luallpojc 
twice (Lovfcvor ^ticht the attack), and oa cowijox was u 
mild form of Hma]l|x>x. it .iutHc»xi to bo inoculated ^^Jtli 
oowpox to h& sj^fe frjin siiiallp»x throug;h life; and if 
only the intitction of cowpox were iiia<le univ^raal, 
Huwlpox wituld U? tTxtiqmtnil Sneli vrnn lh*i plaiisibla 
dootnnoi aopkiiaitl« that it had only to ha abvtod to 

iht- JiujowTty (iL8 mucli. porhape. lor <loiiv«rftnco t 
mocuU^OQ witli «[niillpox a.^ fronn sjn&lliiox itnrlf) cliat 
it vrv fufjsonni^d a sacroti duty lo ditfuau m b«nofiU ov«r 
th& ^vhoIc earth. OroaUrr good on easier terms it ira* 
clitFcJilt to iiua^ncT. With a nci'Aidi of a noti<Ud on« of 
th.i wor--t j)CDftUi«M uitocljcd to ovcr-crowdiDg. W> fiUh, 
&D(I t<j ill-living, might be nvniHoH find thjnn nway wiUa 
for ^voFp 

Hov pl^uuit are suoli sajzarel Hoii 

Th^ f3rat«owi>ax inifiiioii&ric« w«r« Dr. U&nhall mA 
Dr. VVallicr. £100 vaa tt<&ae<I outof tho AtimimTty. ind 
J^IOi) oLtt of t}u> War Orticfl toward th<'ir i-5;p(*iM*?H, njinj 
plftC'jJ on bc^nl thr l^ndr/ntiun, tUey prowMod, oa Ul 
July, liSOO, to the MeditmianeaTi. At QtljraltAT. Mitiaro^ 
and Maluvj thej \iiccin&tc<t otjtdicn taid ttjuLor«, fifti 
Opcrattiij^ uit oqihnnx uiul fftiimllingH tu ^ivu tltt* j^jlUut 
ftlloivs corjra;^ Th«ii WalkoT aooompanied Sir Halpb 
A-b^cri^riiKir- to H^pt. from wticncc, afb<:r & vaitt^ jl 
mlvvnliiT^, ltc» ruturuud to Lonrlon to neriro as { fo pflJl 

}0»tlc, And vex Jcnncr f(^r tho Tcniftiftdcr oF hiA Mf& 
iball [ir<]ccrdpd tu Sicily nnd Napl*.**. In Palf^nuc^ 
in tbo prooLKlin;; year, 1799, thoro Imd bcon an opideibk. 
in ivhidi, ii. nuA haicI, ^,000 hnd prinhrd, anil<hall 
appeared oil tho^cnciL'i a belated mi^^cn^^or of italvation. 
At N^plt-^i hv liud ;l coidial recL-pttou from the wretched 
Fi-rdiimnd IV. nnd hinwrctcWl court, who, uitU gi^ncral 
indifrctcnoc or cinnily lo what was ijood, wora Ktxdy io 
ahow them*.?lvo3 pr^ii^n^ tovrard cowjujx, Mar^^iolT 
vrent throii^ti the cii«tomary pcTfornuincca of tho variulow 
ti^l £.n<] iho iTxpcuurr* of thi> vju!(;Iiia(eil lo infection ; and 
without further ado t%t\ hospital wa^ op^ac^d, aaJ aU whv 
vcmjM t>c f^vi*!! from MiiJiTlpox wc:rc eiitrettted to haMuD 
and roadvo thc> n^\r iuotruUtion. 

It ma aiA uuii»LuiJ [wroto UanhftU io Joaovl (o mo ta lb> 

Uuuujcb iixc itrrM* bj ft fdicst «nn7in£ & crvH, toouag to t]te 
bo«^bui to bo iDOonlMod. B/ frueU poiioUr mcuu, Um pniMb* 


mot witli Qc ojipr^itiiiu ; tutd tbo Aonuuod p«i>plo oxprMWl tU«ai' 
BOlvaa nj oorliua tUftt tt vm * bkcnLo^ font Omu tloaroOt Ihoogb 
diBoavarod bj odo borolic nail pmctisod by Aoolbor. 

When Mdmhall w&q at Olbraltfir, Luri] Keith uaoec? 

tlip ff>lloWing iiii'!i])oniniiiiTti tn tUo: Jli'rt-^ 

H,M. St^ip FntJ^irtij/nnt, 

Any jioHIon, Moiuea, or nauiaoA la tho Plool who mnv oat hh-n 
h^d tbo Snullpox, and vith to OfioU tlui droAdfitl DUJjtJj. auj, 
bj u»pli«»iiaE) ta Dr. Monholl, «n h»xvi tbo fioj; tUup. bo moou- 
1m9u with tlie Cowpox, wldoh, witlioul ptin or illnvsi, orroquLricg 
p»jti«^Iar AUi or *Ut« of bi>dy, or luavtu^ any taittkti, ol£»otuik% 
#ioludi^i4 all poMlbibty of th« pntiont ovor bolag kfTtfOt^d vitli tbo 

Bj ccnamumd «if tbo Yjgo-AilMiiral, Piuur Bxavkil 

Td Uio TOtiiMtfflivA CaptAian of tbo FUtit. 

I may oWrvc, In peuvsinef, tbjit Uiuro wan Vxiih dc\tn 
lU iiitnuludiig vaceiiiatlou to tb-a Bntibh iiiivj'. Sir 
OUbert Blano was ur^nt, Karl Spenc^, fint LorJ of 
tbo Admimltjr, ftcquiixrcrt, atjil Dr. Trotter, phvVician to 
tike fle«t, «nthuAlflstic. So oar^y as 9tb D^uf^mb^r, ISOQ, 
Tn>t4er was prophcspng^ 

Tho Jftmciion luDcuIfttigti wIU bo (lotorro^ reoor^oil u oau 
of tLe icrvktosl blvHJuc^ to tlie caty ot Qrcal Britiuu thut ovr^ 
WM) fiUvidod to it. 

Sirirtlli"ix wjun ouit uf tJjc jxats of tbe ayrvici*. Tnittrr, 
vritin;,' i">th Febniarj'i ISOl, said — 

WiiliiA tbo poLt aoTo& ^oor* tboi« baro boon moro tlma a 
buttflr«l ii3it4noc^« in wbioli tlio loomon bftvo bftm infc^tod ; 
twontir kwviay ooourrvd In llu but c&x monUw in t)w CUB;iiict 

ITitac cutbroakfl vrcrci iin'oriably rcfcrtod to an ori^n 
external to bbe ahip ; as If ajiywbcro fTiiiaTlpnx cau U\ hRv& 
hod a hlotv conp>niaL breed ixij^-placo tbon th<f crow of a 
inan-uf-wai ! As Dr Johiwcin obaervcd. "Wbcn you 
look liowrn from tho quartor-dflcl: to llni ^pae^-i Violow, you 
sec the utioc?it extremity i>f Siim&n roiAcrv; nuch crowcl* 
lug, Bueb Alih, siicb atencb I"* Iiicit«<l by ihe eathtial- 

■ B««w«Q (Crok«r'ft Ed.) toL tu, p. 107, 



Mtk TmiU^, thn mvdksal ofBeers of ihe Fle«t HibaerAed 
fbr a ^d Dicdal, ukI prcKoatod it to Jctinrr. Oa lU 
ob«sn*, A]ioLlo w«)t rpprnu^nlnl latnxlocuig « vfiong vi- 
iMo gecovc n 4 fvon otiwpox to BnUnnift, nrho, ia reim. 
«3CUiw)nl kHvIoctoitd, on vrbkli wuiiucnbecl JESnntt: 
ftbove W0IV ttM wonJii. ^/^i miuiU tttlta re/tf /#ii; tail 
Indm- ^ iklft* 1^1. On Um) n^Tcr^ wu ad 4ixiiaT 
awl ov«c H Gtfwy^ TVrfi'u A<^. ui<l unrler it ^pmcvr 
J>tB0^ TbDSAU via pro9eDl«d to Jemici in Febrauj, 


0> worth Dotii^ ftfrwh. JciUMr'n Inquiry 

m tho aoiamer of 1796 ; And tlmn wc we 

Iteoo yoftn h» pnAcnption for Q>% mt- 

tflennuiatiDii of akdaUdox wilh luloptod m a 

pnliHc Hf^rxice vhtpro ooBtinate conservAtln 

^- -Atftic t'liupcr ; and an aAtcTttoii that only tiia* 

^*» Bein_^;^eJ wUbout bisdtatiun lu vtrntM*d nnil 

1 vaooination ha<i aaairc*rvd to tbo daim maik 

h«to wbcrcirith it wm Acknowled^ would 

; UT^uHtUiablr, aiid vboUy unlikv tho «tT«ggb 

L lias GoiDuionly to jwaa throcigh In oHor to 

%a|itvtitacy in thti mtvUc^ and practice of mu- 

-1 &iU^m\it» to inociilato with covpox in FnaeB 
M*ifj^ luUlo. Dr. WoodTille went ovor to Para in \fM 
la Aiin lu pnctace iht mtthod of operation. Itr^ had • 
-MIT- tr<x<plion, nnd tW Quaker vns ov<^Twhelmed villi 
^ 4xu1-craiit aLU'ntiouii to vrltich Ik vt-a.^ »iibicGtc<l* In 
*t V^^nititi.y Ue van ^oscribftd oh ' a leanK-d man, anl* 
«^ud vith gcncrotu zoal, and worthy oF gratiUKlo and 
^r^:" vho had iiiuculatisl ux tliouiand chtMn^n witlt 
«h«nat1c 8uocees; and that cowwx aa a provi>ative ol 
^^|iox could only be spoken of as sococuiiiig nuncv- 
\ Itouftd was opened as a vacdoe station, ant) ni«B, 

wMWrn,an<lcIiiIdn]Dinockc>i thitherto roccire tho beniga 
tki^J B^nil Hfr'lotiu jiTijItfLliiTii f txini a droadf a1 mabdy, 

\\ r.iii itK nt-'^uiiatioiitifor tbo poce of Ainieitt worcia 

-. u^s. IS02. aj^ mltlrr^ waa prmcnW nitJi iniidb 

' < *hv< Mar^uU Conivallift oj tho Uodical Con- 



mittC6 of the Sorome, cUimiuij; Wotlterhood u-hli tli« 
pliyakmna of Eogluid, eutogum^ Jcmier. <]enouQaii^ his 
dvtntcton9,i;tigtnJ%tiAing variolAtors iia Ai?ttii^ ntithc-r from 
the love of truth nor for the i^lory <*t thutr profetiaioa, 
but, froto avarioo and hatred nf iiii[irovi>in^r»t ; vhiUt, aa 
tho TGMilt oF nittncToun i^xpcnrm^rt^s, ^* the dlHo^worv ttind^ 
in EngUiid bad hvvn f.Ut]i{>ed niUi Ujt? aval af In^Mlhiilij 

At fint, TftcciDaUon in Pmicc wu left to \'ohuitary 
ttflbft, &nd made little progreu in facd of a atrvniioa^ 
r«auUnco developed by 4lanDod v«.riolatoT«; btita^cveru 
«ni«llpox epld^rnie In 1802 Sneitud tJie Oovt>raitkoiit to 
action. A modioaf G*>mini?8ion vnu Appcinlod to iavcsti- 
f^[\tv and n>pOTt, aitd 1:1 1^04 it waji dotcnnin^d in njiiu'c 
no cftVrt to oxteiid v&^iiiatloa oi-'er tho irhol^ of Franc*. 
A CcDtrol Committix for Vaccination vria coiuititutcd, 
and ftpp^l'L Juid comiraudH were addr<*vHed to tho der^ 
and oniciaU cf all orden to havo thoio under thuir 
aatbikrity and mfliience imvidRte'l wifh cowpox. Soiin* 
pra5f4>cta were content to ro:;oinmcnd and warn, but otiit-rt 
lulopted mor^ vigorous nioaflures, Kuch R8 i1i« ^xcIii^Joti of 
tbo tinraccinawd from bcIiooIr, fnjm ompliyoifini, frnni 
charitioa— in shL>rb, anticipating much Jv^i^laticni tliAL ha^ 
como into fiyeca, or that Eunatios wUh to brin^ into force. 
Ncvcrthdci^. the pro^c» mode did notnatUfy Napoloon. 
and w^Dfj tlifll until vaccination was evoryu'htT^ p^d 
for l>y th-i State, it-i performance must rt-niain irr^gtjUr 
am! pt-ifuiicttiry. a inruiifi-stcj wa.^ ifwued Ui thr nfTi^ct that 
his Uaj^ty iho Emp£*rof and Kin^ ba<l Jvarnod troiin tho 
reports of tlic f?rnirAl tA<minitl4'e that tin* pre^trvAtioa 
awi incrcasd of bU va^ douiinjoofl v^vd ImnKKiiatcly rv- 
liitefl to nyj^tctnaiic and universal vaccinabiori ; whrrvfuro. 
hU Majc44ty. wishing to giv» a signal mark of hi» paturnal 
aoticitii^U^ for hia ^lijccte, ba^l ^^rontcd to hU ExosUuncy 
tlie MiTiUu^r of thr- Intj^rior, an nnniixl H|>f<^ia1 credit., 
<lc0tined to provide for the expenuus lUH^ixviry for ox- 
toiiilln^ tlie new practice, and fov forrain^ euiiLrn* of MUf 
of vaccine rina in Ivcnty-four of tha chi-f citior* of the 
Empire— 'these, then, inclading BnuacK Floronc«, Panna 

400 VAtriKATIOX. 

and Tario. An^ his Mftjofity hiul b!w, out of UU ^ 

emnktioa in proptgftting vAodnitUon, vo thai linf i«cpuf)Et 
of tftnallpax niigbt be coaapkicly b&iu»bod from hU tem- 

It KvotUd be idle to Apecolftte aa to boiir mttcK Acriooi 
fnith Uy within t>ii>! appoirent rest for vacrinmtion; for. 
Hi Profciaor Scclcjr ubMrvc*, " N^po!-.- >: 1 to tttrt 

foritoopimoii. tlt<Hig|] lieailoptvOt wit!. ! .utifidAl 

TsbMaooc^. ev*Tj faAhioiubl* opimon in cum." 

Viglti Ins, T iIbiv n&j, MOHiliiiig pi(|uanl. W hU t 

fi^Aiiu In oppofilfi;^ hi« odioti* contempt for fiunmn Ufe fo 
prvscTipUrm for Its pr«s»rvaUon. Jcnriprftv^hrd hituMlf 
of the Eupofor'fl hiatrionw instinct in noticitmi; the re- 
loiMB of Knglifth tnivdIuTM ili^ljunftt in Ptrd(<j-- Tn o«i«<f 
tboM ocosioiw vc owo tb« aKt«0at uiec^otc of the brrcs* 
of Napoleon's refu^ by th« iDterpcr^Ltoii of J(imm>Iiui«, 
vbo exdaiiMcl, "J^nncTE" The Emporor pRosod wlA 
Mi)d» " Jcnner I ftb, vro an deny r^oUimj; to thai in4«4* 
II Is sod to r«]at«, tho favour wm i>o1 rodprocfttid. 
\YhcD JcitQcr, at the MjggCJkticn of Boron CorTtnt^ 
■pjioalf^l to tb^ BrltUli OovemiDNit tot hhniUr inddt 
gesitD to ft E^Venohmmn. he had to r^^j-^nri thni tlvnv 
ma tw charm \n bU intcrTiriitloci aiooTtg Iiih o:tmktiy< 

Tfiat v«ccinat«on ^bould b«vo a wctcom? in ^pain vis 
not BUTpTMUic, &f tvr iti reception In Naples. Tb>^ ccue 
was onim^, and diffused thiougL Uie loireat mt«Jfi- 
mncea. Cowpox wa>; iiitrniliicvvl U> Madrid with tbt* 
oerUficatooErTa&cetiodcTthatof En;:laiid; artd.npibci/ 
the diHtractloDs of tbe time. 0Kcit';i1 morh al-wntJun 
Mr. All<n, s^crotary to Lord Holland, irriting to Jc*nnor 
froia Ma*lrid in ISOa. olwervcd— 

Than ia bo Komlry lilicly io tvttdvt looro boncEfit hvu joar 
Uboua Ibaa &»in; tor, on tlio •no hoai, Orn aurt&li^ uacaig 
«h£Ur«B from tbo Sm&U^i hov atvaji bvns i'n7 gwl i ao^ «fi 
tli« odiar hasdi ilia ii»^iilaUoa for th* Covp^i Iihb b*«a i »iriia d 
vriili Ilia Mma asthvciatn htva ai ia tlu nd of fioroft ; thityli I 


401 f 

I ftlb «i)nj Uf add thftt tbe ioocolfttion of tfio ipuxiiyia aaxt haa pKivcd 

B Iklttt lo nuuij olaililnra ett SovUI«< who Ubr« fisJIon viflliuiJi Vi lb« 

tinuiUpog 4ft^ lh>j h»tl boon proB^nnMJ JooTipg fr&m Ibi^l iIjhvom.* 

Tlicrc wurc philono;>hbii:isd<H:toii! in UoUiid who did 
not m'l' why i'(>wik>x »ihonld ponwu it Kin^tlar ftflcacy, 
anrl induccil thn Kin^« in 18D4> to orduT ihat ah tlic 

with trnatp'jx. They 'iH not, pkjrhapii, know that Jfinn^r 
ba^ iiioc^ilnlcd hLi hqil wilh ?ivrincpox, &Tui Ui&t t-hr child ^^H 
otuliTrwent the variolous x^t on mvot&I occiLsiom wiUi ^^| 
impunity. ^^B 
Th^ ;^'reat ovent id oormeclJon with Spain wa^ titf ■ 
expedition of Dr. FmnciH Xavior Balmia, phy^icioa to bis 1 
CaUioIic yaji^^y. EIo obtAioE^fl a conctasioEi to introduix 1 
vaodoaUoti to ihn colonida in Aiuericsi cind Asia, and to 1 
defray oxpett^w by freely ti&din^ in inrrc1it,ndiM4 He ^^« 
Aftile^.f from Comnnj^ 30ih NovenibeT, 1803. wltb twentj- ^^H 
two cMlJreo for the propa^ttioD of virus, Tht Cormry ^^M 

tli« party divid;.HJ, Don Fraiitia Salwii prooooding lo ^^B 
Pom and Chiti, ubiUt EtaltniN atUndnl to Culia and 1 
Mi.-xico, cro«ain^ tho Pacifio to tho Pbilippinw with 1 
tHL-niv^ix cbildrMi to mainfaiifi tlk« atiooMaioo of tbc ^^fl 
virun, ami proc9«ding from tSoncc to Macao and Canton. ^^M 

Crftder, 6alm» re-appeaned in Mwind with great ^-int, ■ 
and kinxA the Kinj;'* hnnd on 7Ui S^ftembur, 1S06. ^^1 
PliUaziUiriipy ntui businMs were MicoenauiUy combined, ^^M 
for M Uoore, writinf- in 1817, obi>?ri-e9i — ^^H 

NfVftj ffarM rnn w«n acibly «p«til bj thU *m«U««1 aaa ia ^^H 
l^llia<aVaMmiiGirdU rooml lb» ^U; aad ft b u aiUiknt 1 
pIVMor* to Uvn tliAl by iiadia^ 4anf Ua ctMiwtuvintioft, Iw ■ 
AoqiuMdaAMiyfcirtiia** H*iiow«ifco7»at M«4fidtb*intinctian 1 
li» aaa nxdttd. and pttrooMM lb* Maiioa of V^jcmatioii tkr^a^ B 
tbo P«BiwaJ«.f ^^m 

Uh(v dctb' was abj ifariiiu CvVp*( t Uui k VM «Bljr "ipubu ' ^^^| 
t TV J7iiMirf or rariiaiir'ii. Bf /«»• Uo<n. Loodav, lf|& ^^M 



The t*x|H-ditkm of Bolmia n&Uimlly i^xciU^ touch 4t 

t«iitioD, And ltd prc^^rem and resulu were {k«crib«d in 

Unrifl of ioflstcd rhetoric, Thuij, w« rcouJ in Bvod'* Lift 

nfJtnntv — 

Tlio corji1u<)torv of Ut« vKiwtitiun ««r« tfvt^r>wA«rv vcZe<jnu4 
with tlir itttn^^i vitthmiastit. !t v>» to i* eqioctod iLat Uw 

RooQ A^iitooiftU thft ^xlun of tint iaii«iL>ii. II U, i»«vertbat*ii . 
^tifjiDg b> know t^it 1iu> uiLfuerooi UotIm vludi ooeopVJ 
unmoQso tmct of ooriutr^T t^ctwooQ Ibo United SUlo* ttdj 
BfAi^lAh oolcbisB iiJJ rp^civpd Uio preoioai Acid wilh <A# 
rc4Jifl^4r. Thoy nc^uirtd th« art of TMciaaUajra umI wxoi 
fcnnod Iho of)«r»tioii witb p^at dfxtaritj. 

ThtiB Dot only tKv Spanish AmcricAaH were brooghi 
iitide<r til? iloiuiDion of cowpoir, but the rndiatm^ yea* uU 
the Indiftn*; and not tcluctuitly, but joyfully, and 
Ijecaiiie trx}]i;rU tij th<^ jimrlici^ nf Urn nU! Bam » con- 
tinued — 

afFFOttdiloff tli« MfdUJ. h» wft£ mot by tb« Vkcroy, thn Anb- 
biuiopi ana all tha nvll uid BDCitutiBsliriil ■alhonbni. Tlio < 
WM ovIelmU^J witb rrlifr^* romp ucd nrrttaaniM ; and 
■hart tinitf rucm UiAti fifty iI^oumuiI p»r*Aik« wnv vj 
SlmilftT honciiini avjdteil 1}]i> mpiidltloD CAruu^Aonf i/f u\ 
eovrtff. Ai Qolto II1C7 acre vrcctod vitb buundliu« Jry «ol 
fntivily. Sucli njircttiiauii wall Utoiiud Uieis. TLtt yna\ 
Coloiubm. iLt tiiJuuB moj-o e^i^vuioJl/, Iijtviaf been nfUs »< 
by tba homil lovkii*™ of tiiQ&Ilpox, iricnrilBd it ma tbo mevt 
siHutioa wbiul) IloavQu cooJd MtuI iliom. Od tl« £r>l ap] 
ia ft tillAire. a iia&la mIeoI ftrery benrt ; «fteb foiiul j ^nq 
isolated horol, to wbjch tboas ^ho ^cfo mpposcd L> bu Lai 
were banubad. TA<T«|Witboiittfii<«nmwitboiUTeca<»d)', axA- 
a vary inmiffidect nQPPly of food, the? wen eaqmvod to tbo i 
lifttlaiiH of a v«vy rariabi* oliaaat^i aad l«lt I* iMr fate. It 
M^ tirhoU ^nrrraH<<nM jyTi^fwH. Uoder Viocaov Tolodo tb« pofi*- 
latioo or tbo tiftlivfl Indumn heid aoQotiDtod («7,MOgOO0; but altb* 
tim« of tbe Balmii expedition, ibo tuaiabor wno ctipfiOMd t^ b* 
r«duODd (o oad-fifUi- that it l,5O0/»00.^ 

Indian and miviLge sitntiftics in ccnncctioa with small- 
pox uu] vaocm&Uoii arc iiiiially little clstn than Qxwcuea 

• Kaoa I Xi/r ij/Jtrrj^er, vol. jJ. [f- 30-2: 




tbe Jiff, 

»ik1 hu 
iraa with 

own oxpeHc 
<1UA<;Uint at 
Lhftt JuiDor 
Dr. Sacco, 
vAcciitfttion \n V 

a« c*rly ii< Ksol 
ti<in Ui the Ci 
writra Mooro, " __ 
from rvxry pulpit; 

Profoasor amiJ bis 
70,000 p*.'r*>n3,wwl _ 
Ja other words, Ubo 
Lmgviiiilw'il iciiinllpiix 
B«roQ enlor;^ the 
hi» omUuai* in ths , 
IpJOOjOOO por«ona: and 
from TriwW^. Stb Jiuiix 

Diuintc v^lI ^oar> I rmif 

daerctU (doputoieiila ci 1 
popnUI»>a of G»000>000 lo 
lo bout of; AQil I tUlt^r 
oMAiM of promoling Wds. 
duca of Uio Miao populaiion 

I with Jenncr. And it 
i wUli him ill iho 

L bonjo grease ; and, 

M, Sacco Mft ttp a 

■■i-».', opm^atcil with 

1 freely in Tiouiia 

^JLCdtiatvd ivom 

JlBt June, ISOS, 

'iL.f« •rarrvhera; yvt 

: V tLe English 

' ' "rmany ; and 


!^]ll^' of Pni^NJft 

■u Hcrlin, and 

-1- limmglit 

Fron tJwT 

■ :dl PnASJiia 

.ivail, cow- 

!^jwov«r. ia 

H fiT to llie 

I ijTi^' i^rcat 

. 1 : .i^sHjr 
. February. 



Uonni'^ TOuOOO u a cnniiUo attinb»« whatever uuj be 
thoo^ of lt4 tieulocB o(>«v^ikn ; bat Sacco « flOO^ 
bgrKu owD)is«diii«i^tT«ar?i! AK wvlt! wh«D 
l»c. ia Um ftibaloQi, It'U tiuneeesAiy to wMto 
8tr«acth in Ibe &erw^DMk)Q (rf Um gmtcr from 
in fiSc^MMid. NtmrdMloM, Ukii^ Shtd'a Ivttnft^^ 
hftvo U obMTVe that tfa« TMclofttion of 1,300,0W aaml 
6J)0OJ)0O fnia souUpoc. Tlut IUl> mw freod bos 
■nftllpox U trtiit, utfl tb« excc^tioa of thr pc^kcbo^ 
wliMb«T racdjttled or unvaecunted, w«a prok>ii|*»d om 
luftrlr thirt7 yom. Tb* d&Mj^fMonDO* of Uw ^^finMi 
had, DOWCTcr, tel in before vftcoiftaiioa wu b««>i] of, bttt 
Ibe satvidnm wma el&bncd for Satto, lUtbou^li it ex- 
tfm^yf to millioo* of Itftliuu who oved nothUi^ to (^ 
ne«r propbjUctia As ^reftdf obo«n-ed. frocu soo» cuu» 
midfliiikod, tiM are* and inMiutT off aKiiJI]x>x vv* iiiraallf 
duoiobbinff towanl 4bt doM of last oentufy, aod Uui bl 
Bpito of tbe stlmulm tpp^M to the disoasa by variolovs 
inodilatioiu Jt hut bave been ao atimQLatcd a^ to baTt 
bfwn vTiirknl nat — 'ffircnl, Jw it vrcrr, ta rxliausiiun, afttf' 
tba babit ot Diucrh cb(*. i^ooil mad bad, wb«Q dcrolopifd lo 
tli« cxirrrRittj' of ex^^Dcr. 

As a ffiand ^-accinaior Dr. Do Carro^ of Vtenna. «u 
a»roehr les» dbtinfuiabed tbao Sacoo. lie ira« a Svi« 
from Geneva, who fttd otudinl and grkJtiBU-d at Fdllk- 
boricbi and aettt^d in Vieiroa. He ptrfiJOD^i tbe 
vard nation on tb^ Continent, Id 17!Kft. witb 
zijiis'i.'Vi^ on a coupk of threadn from Dr^ Pcianic>n : aaj 
in lSti2 he -lucereded bi timiinuiilUiu[ thv tiiHt t;9t*ciira 
viraA to Iixlia. I>o Oarro ccoductwl hw opvmtMiu iritli 
great irncr>^' tavl Ltd. and in 1803 be iiiduoc?d the 
Austrian Gov^mii)ent to issue an ordinance oonfcrrbig 
on vacdnaUon Imperial Hanrtion and rccocn 
ConeurreoUjr witli thLn tciivily, smallpox waa m 
and poaf hoc wm oonvcrt>^I into propter hoc^ De 
wait CTtfdibsd with t)ii* nttiiirtion off Minallpux In W 
but aa no mord than a portion of tbe «itUaD8 bad 
vaceinatocl, Vienna tbit^ supplied another itatanoe of 
vicartCQji influence of the Jemicriati rkc. 


Sncco AnH l)e Cnrro coiT(?9pfin<le<l vriih Jenm^r, and it 
is worth noting; that both coiicurtcd with him in the 
opinion UiaL cuwpoK onjf^nail«J iii lionugrt^Aa^ ; anii, 
furtKor, UiAt harJoj^oneo wiuj 08 good a^inst soaallpos 

fiiock of viniB Jorived from hcn-so^rease, operated with 
it, and suppKcd D(^ Catto, who u«cd it «m frcclj in ^'icnnji 
tliatv as he wUd, lio could not tell tlio vAccinatod from 
the Ci^irinalccJ. Wnbing: to Jctulgm>ii Slat June, 1803, 
Th C*rro ob*crveiI^* 

71)0 mcuiA of mnklnii x^ur iliKuvvrr were vTcrjwbera ; yvf 
iMliadj boforo jrou hiJ biio Idopt iJeu of ^(^ muicuIat cuuiwoUou 

The favour aliown for vaecinjation hy tho Enfflbh 
Oouit foc^litatf^ LU adujition throu<;hout QQTijmny , nn<l 
j«t U might Ijw sttid thtj cnuci* went of iUelf, uorapuUuig 
patronaf;^ and t?xftftin;L; advocacy, Tho Kin^ of Prua^ia 
op^ncH a Royal Inoculation In^titTiti* m Herlin, nnd 
tmctt and mcdaJn, spcocbcsi An<J nrTmon^i, were brought 
into rei|rriMtioii Lu reLy>miiii?[Hl tht* new r\iv. Pruiii tlit< 
furore cTr«u>d, mmiv wore lod to bcli«vo that all JVumia 
WAT* \nr<-inaUMl. iinJ lu-s fiiimllixix o^'.i*rr1 tt pn^vitil, cnw- 
pox had the credit To vaccinal-^ a natioD, however, is 
lAT from castty Accomplished, and wh«?n wo refer to tho 
oflidal a<!GountA, we discover thai, notwithstanding groat 
ado^ th^ numlwra operated upon oonslHutcd lc»s tJian a 
tiliw nf the firopliv Jininrr ritrn fi rrpurt of Prifi'-^strt" 
Avelin, of [ieriiii, in a lutt<*r lo Moorci. loth February, 
1812,8:1 auttictity for these ^lalistlcA — 

fkt uaniTen^Tf of tho mvtntidn of tLe Co'rpoi InoffaUtioa. or 
Ike Jeutitirifia Fc*>ti WA^ crUlxnilcd v»iy »olcmn]y At Botlni na 
14th Mi^y^ J}rpaUuaccona1>s>tapp«a>a Ih&lttior* -ntrv isoca- 

InldUl 0,772 

leoa iT,o5a 

l«08 fiOjXW 

IdOl 10:i.8fi0 

ia06 41AU 

JLt tbo*« ti»tf tiM fOfaUlioa wv about 9.748.000, Prom 1800 

* Bkoq^i Lift qfJtmufr, v«L it. p. 4I£. 



to 1610 i«tnod1hi] horriliU vnrund lh« Jlmiuriti^n of ttio yuBUl^ijp] 
to 4^!},CRirit Iho iooooUtttL v«r« 100^^9- Dr litma^ alAM Wt 
tlio K>)j>at Inatitntc in Bwha UoauIfttaJ ll.GOA. TUo t^Ul, M* 
offidaLiy lioi vokutAnly toixt to tho UcTemmout. mmounlod ti> 
4(i3|TiL> TikaoiDat«il. but ovrtaiolr cci«-l]air vrta not olTirtkllji' BMb< 
tioa«Lt It mny o«rtaial,v t>v nt loMt 600,(m)0, ^r <^\vn c:ioa.i>^J.' 

Suppo^im^ A million hful hc-cn viiceiiuitod in PniA'.in ici 
tTi*j cijurstf of Umi yt«iri, Ji^t me 4*k ouce mon\ bow tuutj 
thi^y havo (fti'^rj tno romAinin^ iiiUKnii« from Ainmllpoxf 
Yet, witli knowlcd^ of lli««e tigures, Uoor«, the l>Er«ioc 
of the National Vftcdne S^blhhm^t in T^n^lon, dil 
oot hcsHnto to ^Titc— 

Ttio Kiog of IViinin djmiTtail hU oLUilrvD to h* tra«oiOftl«di1 

■JiiaU»[iAdori«r4t]]iit VufloinitiE^n ^li^mM hMlEiim*i!ihUlj-*mj~ 
iu Ihn Attoj" ; fiiu! thfl tiflw pritfliwf *fcneotint*«d nn fttrthvr 
Oiiltl«L By whlcb. n-nd by tlw toUl nban^Ioumotit rrf Vi 
luooulntiotL throughout EJonuinv. tlw Kmallpot npully dool 
ui<L m rt livjr y»iini wnt c<it)o^iit«d ia jomo of riji^ UrttwM 
from wlioi^ jDartiuim infi^oibuu 4lbe(u«« ajc t.-\{MUil iritb 
ilifliniiltv, lluia iWhri in Viti(inii» itvJiimi fijll foMv huiiilmt 
hml nrinimUy hi^^^n iImImvikI hy thn Smnllpr^T, Ihit mni 
diiTiLiiiuhott TAplilly aftPT ihfi Efiti^itlnnltoD nf Uia Vftvd[)i>, Ami l^' 
yanfv abtotiifj^ly fcdut^il.t 

RuR>iia, of califs, followoij mut in Cf>wpox inociiUUoiL 
At the coToujition of AlrxAHilor in Mwioow in ISOl a 
founclUng wju upi-riiLfsl on, chri-itafiod VAcrinolT* pen- 
sion^ for life*. flnJ dispat<;!io»l to St PflUwbiirg to tmre 
ms n »icniri*n of virus fur n(hi?r fcnincUiHgn. Thai foUiiTtd 
ImpomL decrees pfdeQribiDjvvaociDatii^Ei,nti4 1>, Crlohtoti 
WAA diiocbed to orgnnbc iv mcdicol r*tAtf for tlic pcrform- 
uiGQ Oif tilt; rltiy In vaelt provlnci-^ of the Empire. 1q l&ll 
& uluise vttA is:Mio<{ cij unhanding &I1 Ki]--«s]ftri3 to bo vso- 
cinjttj^d within iTiivn j'l'^rt A* :nea?trmiig thi* jiowl* 
btlitioA of di,vipotitim in ttucli a tnattor. we k^m from Dr. 
Cric!iU)ntlintWwc<-TilH04ai]d 1812 there wertT I. aaVW 
vncdimtionM performed ia RutaiA — & similar niimber to 
that which Sa«o pvofeaaed Ift have accoTiipIi«hed in 
Norih^rn Itfily in tne samo t3m«. It w&s e^tiiautof^ in 
Hu^ia that of every actcd chtHrcii totu, one p^ruhct] 



of ttiBillpox, and thtfnsforo Crichton ftrgutrd th« Itvm of 
174^14 bftfi (up to ItfIS) been itAvod by vftocin&lloiL 
Tho cnlculatii^n i)liiMtrat«s iho fixilit/ w!t1i which tho 
early iraccinatont do^aivod t1t«ni!io1ves— tir^t, u to thd 
certainty of tUeIr prophylactic p second, an to itAvtc^noua 
^IBcaey ; and, thiH, in lUKUining that a rediicUnu in 
snullpox re]:rrc»cntod tt rt-ducbtiin in mi^rtality. 

h\mTi Oiehton, *oo, we teari that there were antU 
viicoim^ in Ku»jo in those clayri — 

Uiat ilU tiU 3iitJ«Btii b* tuoLqaI^iI wlthSo tlim? y[!)4rj, wo Gad llmti 
powerful x^ tii* U^Mly ia^ tLU c^uQcit bo exocuted. Thoro id a 
pon-MT p^oaLbx Uun ecTonigQty, aamcly, tho cooHii^oo or nliKioiia 
OpS&ioiu of moai itn.i ia ono or twci of tLo disUhat gO'ToniinoDU 
mro «xUt* ft pooulJar nlijnoa* ntd bolaxiKiiig to tbo Gro«k Chunb. 
vlw ottoom it ft dAuinnblo chuuc to «iie!icun^ lli« propofpiUou <a 
taxj ditOMC, or lo uaptov any cTootorv, or to n^oUov ^ny modidflo* 
iuid*r tbo vuitatioiii of tiod> Rcuioq hcLt been diu]i1o}^i1 U3 viud 

with tbeoo poor ptoplo; tUoy bavo boon thtvalcccd witL suv«r^ 
buniidiiaoEiU in CO00 iboy mauio rafimctoryi but all tg do pnrpoid* 
Voci may ir*U imogiao that oo pmLishmoat bu bii«n rf«orUJ Ic, 
tfaovfih tUMQloiwIt OAfl th« GoTommant Iida oom* lo Ika visa 
•OMittJon «r knriad tlm diffpvto lo iixa^^ 

To ^mpldtd thid Tapid aurvoy of the ditTuaioQ of vac- 
cination throughout t.urope, thoro remain Swcdun with 
FlDland, and Denmark wilh IccloJid ; Lut tui tbo cai*v of 
Sv«deQ b flpedally interacting and iiuitrijctiv« from tho 
fiilnccM and proci^ion of it« vital vtatiHticv, eouplod with 
tbd claun made by vucciiiator& that Swedi^n udi^nla 
irrcfutAW* evidence of the fffiriiry nf tb^'ir pr*wicriprbin, 
1 Tctfcrvc it for a special cliapUT. TItcrc i'^ nothing 
pTiM^anter than lii]t.ln]j^ tlie ritrvm^lioldA uf uut^'s unti^AiD* 
isto, capturing, and occnp>im; tbtrm. 





jEKKSli waa in iho habit of pointiaj* to Sweden and 
Ceylon aa pmiifj^ of wimt raccmntum tu^ht acconj^tiMK 
We havtf Roon how badly Ceylon answer^ to bU rofcr- 
cncc; Eui<l £ now proceed to itiqiifre ^rhothcr Svrodtfi 
stervLHl hi* puqjoftc any better. 
Tho decLoo of :jinaflpox in godic commuDitic^, orikia- 

e\mnv:ou*W u'itli lIlr liitrmitK-Lion nf vim^iniiLiiiti. might 
r oderibt^d to tho oe^ftUon of uiocnlaifon with ^niaDpus 
— vtrtufilly tliti cultiirv of ih&L diMiaMi* ; but iii SvL^lifii 
Ijltlo hfid to bo uncounted ft^r in Uint wa^'. S[»ito of 
tttrong n^ommendationA, varioUttoD waa ru>^Iy practised, 
and tievor becanio popul&r Tho vcryyt^ar lH%t ^acclniL- 
iion wnA intrcducrd. Dr, Ac^lc.ii!!!. cf Knlmcr, -itatcd in an 
otliciid r^purtp, dated .SOtli MAreh, t»01. "th^t it i« tm- 
poffiiblo to convinco the lowor chffiiM of tho advantaf^ d 
iii')f*[diit)on. Dr. Oolliamlrr and T liavp hni! itAnm>tiii(?od 
to thi^ p^^opl^ from tho piilpU, Xhjit we \Tt>r^ rt.-Ady to 
give our service*, gratis Jti inoculating tbdrcMMrcnn but 
not a imgle person applied." And sueh uudoublt^diy ww 
tbo 8tat4^ of tbin^f throughout tbo kingdom. 

SwriW but ^i^ntiiry weim ^jrr]y afTlicC/^ with KoialTpox. 
and, comiiderina Hk- K-putc of variolatjon in other landa* 
it is Miq>ri>i1nL' bow iW ruopl^ rcfrninctl from itj^ vatmted 

SrotffCtion. It h tboti^t draadful that in Loiidon ono 
uath ill teo **bould Lave hvtu due to tbl* diacue, bul in 
Sweden th« ratio Ktoul it> high ilk (irio in sovcn. Tn give 
.■wRic idta <*f the e^ctent of tb« miHohiff at ii» hi^hrr^t and 
Lta loWDJt. ht liH look at eighl^'on yi^nrs in tb+» Uiui' half 
of the century — 


175A 1.7n£),iad 40,-IC7 lOM^ 

1T« l*70,aT-2 G5.baO I0v34l 

17W 1.0-10.011 ui.ieo iiM^ 

170$ S,IXM},TOO M.'Jfil 10.060 

1769 jyDlClST M,liyi lCl.3:fi 

1778 1,073,107 lO&am 13.180 

17TJ lL0!0^i7 40.1MO l,3Tti 

me 1041,189 i£.C0<2 1.A03 

177T SI,05T,U7 61,094; %0i8 

ITTB U,«TU,300 ftri,tRi8 lU.COT 

ITHI :i.l92.giU 61^13 l.iSt 

iTM Mta.t£f8 tia.TUU U.i68 

1T9S !l,lflG,l00 55,961 CTt 

ITOT S.]OajfGS 5];M« l.TTl 

1T9S 3.911.048 5UQ68 l.«V9 

JTB7 S^a2.Nl4 fifi^BB IJ«a 

1T9S U.&U.VSa 58JJGU l.£^T 

i60O -J.M7.V08 7»,f39 12.UUU 

In tbe8« fi;-L]rcft tfc- aq^ how wide w^ero the v&rifttions 
in eii:iiLl]po.\ tiioiltJil.y i^nctr lo thiJ iabroJuction of vacci- 
natiou ; un^ aIjio hvw iniii^lTivnt wah Et« Inlluenc^i OD tho 
mortality, ujudi ariiallpox i^ot Tu.iamg iho dooth- 
■p wF lilllo liiiialipoj: lowering it 

Among the incihrn of morUlity iii ^wotkn wens 
£«Lrcity &iil1 fatn]tif<- At tfiis 'lay, wheii tliu ^ud^ri of the 
4!orth ftio drawn togothor. wo arc apt to forget tWiitrti^glo, 
tlie aiiatrj", aniJ lliu sjcrknirw* tliat jirr^vailtjU wlieu a defi- 
cient hiu^out in one couotry, or parts of tho hamo country, 
could not W mftdc good ftdm tho sufficiency of otlicn*. 
Population in Northern Europe did Utile more than 
roaintfkin cxi.'Htciice throoyh Bfvcral ccniuiics a^ain^t the 
Hi-ventj' of NiittiK', with fosjil KcutiLund hriit, tun] rtiiineal 
and hhcltEM' inadei [iiate. Of thti latter fifty years of Jaet 
c<jntyry, at hvif-t iitU:i-ii wi-n? year* of clciwtJi in Sweden, 
an<I conwcjnentU' of inereaded mortality. 

The chief £uncrcr» from defidenb and unsuitable food 
are t)i« young, thuir KiiBciing lubvjnff form iu vjirioua uiU 
mentfi, and atuor^;: them timalTpox. fhavv repeated Jy had 
in miini fmt hnw smallpox w Pspt^rmWy nn ntltrtion of 
childhood, and how in Seotlimd, lor irjutai^ce, it uacd to 
hv aloiutt exclusively oinfiiial kr thu >ouiig, like luea^loa 



and w l i W piDg-eopgh. TIk like ^s^ tm? of SwAJrn ; fat 
M Um ^HLliu from »aial^p<>K from 1774 to 17U!i — 

Q-lt fm otat. vwrv umtvr otit yosir nf uc« : 
fi'SO « bHivMSi vimmhI Uow; 

SI'TT •■ m llvM»a4fi*«; 

Sr74 » . flTDADdloB; 

ftt0telor&s^ pot oeni being tnetoehildreiL Or, (o pot 
nu ^ i^us ^ 11,780 

ITM k m . fl95 «, 

1798 ,. tan ^ UBI7 ^ 

r, vhiJit I have no ^nth to mimmiad the 
wmH umlfjMKXj of tlie inorta£tj of thr jottng. I hai 

- lUaa tnM iu conMqiunew <u« b3r tic aK«iH~ao 
to the State a» wLeii tb« beads of fafniti«A toA 
^m-inn^rs ftr? fiUidcen (Ityn ; &iicE thai it u a grew 
^ LtiOD to COQDUV Uu bulitj of HC^pox vUh 
of nrn iJnm in ImUltt. Agiln, we liJive to rteolkel 
tov outay of tbc jom^ ^ £>m snkdlpox, so to 
^Miflifff 1y, from iiwtt«tttion ui^ mftlptarticp. Tbu 
Attrijr r«co«ik^ in a Bojmi L*ilcr uwioJ frcnn ^tock- 
fcolKi in 17G3, Tecomcoeo^ns ^lUii^Uiion, in wliidi Ihc 
Vii<li<a1 Honrd wu (tirvctod "to iiMtnict tha ootoniQa 
toopid liow chiklren shocild be lraU«d wiieii iatft-na^ 
Bom ttttunl scaallpoO &sjnffriiii^ tbe eo^ot iwcnu 
'bMausu mcitiy moro childrea dio f rom want of cox^ Utta 
fcuoi thf; dUeanc** Tbe &B«rtioa niAy be tjUtcii as indiv 
pQtnblo ; and, betng trtie, tt Htands for tbe tact tliat tbe 
ti>ovlAlity froin aiullpox mizht Kn\ie been Urj^ely n- 
durifd if p&rents bad bkd the knowledj^i^ uid tho tnMti* 
lo nur^i! their ol&pring Uircu;^h tbwr Ulocss, Th^yi 
Wh of h]t)»J1[H»x luaa of igitomjil i%t>d ilvU*ciiw 
whUnt iindor BUiUpox. 

I Havc dm to ooMrro tbat noiAlIpox in Sn-i^tro wu 
itr.irlilv (Icellnlng toward the doee of tbo onnUirr, nod 
th«tH iho decline contimted into tbe pfiegccit cimluir. 
'IViKEiig thff 74Mini In ilv^adt--* fr^m 1740 to 184tti. and 
ing thft Avcta^, wo have tbrte reealta — 



Jtr.niKl rb*th 




Iiiiu.ha (rum 




































2,444 JW6 



















1840 -£8 










With tlicso (lotaiU b^oFd us. we Ato in a poaiticn ia 
apcr^-'i^iHtt.- tlio ulium matlo for vucuutioD, that it t^xtcr- 
^^tanatcd 8ia&]lpox in Sw^^u- 

^Br YjUH'imUjFHi l4';;iiii In W rnnctWd in Bwrvt^iin in tlitf 
I year 1!M)1, It vnvt m lint vicwod with didlnist by t^me 
I o£ the 1v&dt^^ mi'iital auLhuritiea, but i^v/ su rapidly in 
I favour, that uio m^dir^ boiird in IS03 v«ntiirod to nuko 
I proposals fur iU ^ncml introiluciicjn. By RoyAl Li^Ucra 
I iu Ifi0+ ftiid ISfW mefwure?i wero decreed for the en- 
" ocHinif^^nttnt of Vaccinrttton ; ODd id tbo almAiuc^ for 
I80ll, infcjri nation and advicfl vram Inaertdd coDcernihg 
" th« now frod c$rtikiii mcana for tho prev^mtion iind ex- 
tirpAlum gf Btsallpnx." N<;vfTth^lrw^ tlic practice mavits 
WAV bill slowly into ih» contidenco of tli« commoo people, 
Mjd not until 1H]2 diil (i comniittco of the Diet go ao f^r 
as to rtiOuir>iner»l iIa r^utiijniT.iury ailctntifiii. Tlic prliit'iplo 
of oompLiIsion woa affirmed by the Dit't in Ibl j. leading 
lo fi R^iyal TliiTfv iif f!tb Murcli, IfilH, whrT*d>y Vju-citia- 
tiou waa mad« oblij;;&tory uudcr ponotty of tiii'e aad im- 

Subtkcqu&otly, the law itiu modified, but nov^^^^«1lttycd, 
WhiM til© ril*^ iros oblii:atory, it was oQcnd ipraiuitouily, 
and public viu-cinAtnrx, ii^iinlly pjimb rUTkn Anil niifJ* 
wivctt, ve^rt appoinlo*! tbnjvjchoat tho Jand^uad tttimulutcd 
to cx«rtioa bj 8ppciAl rt'wanls. Vai^i!] nation waa niadeft 
condition oC odiutMion to tdiool, and waa placed by tbu 
dei^ oa & lev«l witli baptioui and ccnitriaaLiou. Wliere- 



forci, in count of time, tt han cuinc to p4tt that 8w«des 
lsd«fittibecl «s* tbe l:T«t vftccinflt«4i eontry in the world' 

dcvgy in roedicttl pradl^t- UiA^ly conUibaU-0. Thtj 
wcff^noisLowtoptfoctveftfroeSliiieof tMUiDOss laric- 
dnaUon. ArdiboMiDp Linilbtora, oirHHi^ otlirrx, w«m «x* 
treoMly Eoalom in prorootin;: tbo prmcttM in lib dio«e««. 
aDd from & corTo«pomlFtk&3 between tho Oonbiaturj uE 
Upaftln Mid the Mi^dicnl Bci4rd, it appcans tKal Um eon- 
petilioD belwetn the pb>'akuui8 and tike paiMmft wv 
iwvarc. Tlitt Consifitory cmnpfunMl that tho rowmrda for 
vaccinalion encrf^y ucre more lil^^raUy l^cstowH on 
medical men llum oq tbe deserving ct«r^\ Rnd tjial k 
wikj^ imfair to tiu»t on tbo e1crg3' taking out a lieQDse to 
vaccinal, eudinjc vitJi tbe reproacli tHat the i&ijtliApft of 
tttme no^cal men bad ko alarmfHl tb^ poople in cortaia 
dntrida. that vcrj fcv vcr« willing bo avail thmiftclwa 
of tlie wonderful nroph^Iaetic. The Board replied, that 
they w«« aware that mistakca had occurred niro4ii:h Uie 
nao of vpiinoiiK eimpux, nx pnn'pd hy thr ont^rpAk nf 
«fnallp<tx aft^nrardb ; but, at the aamo tiiij<\ nbat better 
A^^V rould bo devuwd on mcompeU'nt iiracUticnera tliaa 
a Dtodical IiGdua ? Tbo vight of tbe etewv to vaccinate 
waa not coDt«at«d.bntdnly tiiat they ^lould poeaeAs hoim 
raoognU«d <|un1if1cAtion. tIk^ (^xtv^nt of thc^ ocd«i«ta«ltaa] 
cperntioiLi m cowpox a^TpUiTH from the rvturn of 

Arrfibiwhiiprie of Un«jila, whicb Kh>-iw^i1 tbat from 1 

if* the end nf lUlt) tt^cru wcr^f I^'I.SJK permnn vaocinatCtt 
<J vrlium 7,025 weri? iiiocuUtrtI by clerj^y. £0,000 by 
dinrch oHficors, and 6;273 1:^ m^Jical m^n and oth«rft. It 
WA« by Uitt i:Icr;^y and llie doctors that tlif* project of 
compuUioD TCAA fmtiAted. In a letter from tbc H«dleal 
Board lo the Kin^ in 1^10, comptiLint was niadf* that 
"Uu* pub]ie ill Swpdtin lUs nut in aJl plae4» man^fi^t the 
eare and Kcal \* hlch mif^bt bo expected from aenaiUe and 
t^ndor |)iin'iit% in njiplyin^ Tir, or allovittijf ta be applied, 
tbe predoiu mcaiu uf nA.tvation provided for their 
clilldnin's ^pood looks and fiilnro health." In 1814. the 
aama Board wroto that " ft«reral of the BuUopw wbo tako 



lhodoopo«t interest in iho ftprca^i of vftcdnntion, have cx- 

EreMfidilieiTcoiivkUoi] IhntcrrtAinui^l-cLcviMril ptMialUtftt 
avo b^como «s Bt>C03aary a^ roj^rds the ip^norant tn&ssea 
OA encoQra^mcnto aro u^cfiir'; iwd x^ k^o ah 181£. tbo 
Foard had to tuvtify a^^rut ih*> "hIu^UIitimh aiid in- 
dit^crcDCO prevalent ftiuon^ the Jcm C]iir;ji»t'?ne<i cIiw^g^h 

Oiini|>tjl-<iitTi wra-H, tlinri-t'urr, ntuii^tnl in ISI^I to tjvrr- 
come tliQ mt^rtiA of tht> low^r ord«ri, the niasa uf tho 
people vho At alJ timea }'ielt] UicUr^otcrop of »mallpDX. 
"Smallpox was cxtoni^itiat«d Lu Sxrediro bv vacdna- 
tiob." ia a common aayin^^ Moore« in bia llifiyry of 
VaaaituMtion^ publUh<*(l iti 1S!7h aft*r J*fc»cnljujg Un- 
varioua mcaaurt* taken, oUcrvod — 

II tn t p part l aom to add, ilicvt by nu^h n AAO^rinvnoa orTiran-^nft 
•xmUoiu, SmedlpoT niu ^ruckly mpprattod in, Swodoa, 

Er6 proc^Inx' to ijujulrv wliL^th^v &foallpi>x waa thuA 
flupprttiRod, I woLild call Attention to tho hands by which 
vo.ccinaticn Wit admmi-it«rcd in Sweden, Tt in the 
custom at this day to d«fwibd Tn'7r!i nation eA a ddlt^ate 
operation, and to attnt^tc mibocqu^nt nn^allpnx to Aonie 
irrrgutarity or dtftct In its iwrFontutrn-i? ; and J'el ht-ro 
wa aro ssk^i to contemplate a whoio nation delivered 
from muvllpox. the vaccinntoti^ licin^' riiii-th- primtfi, 
elarka, and midwivoa What docs it incanf la U that 
any MTt of vacdnatioB u good when Binidlpox does not 
follow, and that any «ott bi bad when smallpox do4« 
follow? If ?7ii»llpvx had nat ot^M.-d out of the iand. 
would it r^Bn Iuivp ItP^n ijud, *' Wluc wonder, eonnidi^r- 
tne the diaraeter of th« vaeeinators"? 

To tbe aasetiion that Hnia1l[>ox in Sw«fl«n wa^ ext^fruil- 
oatcd by vaccination* tho annwor ih an nnqualiHed con- 
tradtctjgn. It in daiK tm^; U is demountrably uutrvic. 
Smallpox was d«:lining in Sw^d^n Vforo vacei&atk>n 
was he«id of, and the m\ coniinn^ irrciqxctirc of iU 
lEiEaeaoe^ Look at the fibres. Her« we have tlie r^ 
turna of eniaUpox mortality id Sweden during tho la^t 
8ixl»'4<n ytrnxn uf the pant, and the first Hixteeii yvmm of 
thocarrentocDiary.ap to thotiow wli«n vaooinatioa waa 
inado compulsory— 
























iscD iioea 
















Tetel »,9M 

Tbu ire«e* (h* pcoMSS of saMdcnc*, wiUi iLltj> nuUow 
from yt^ to VMtr, with tbo reduction i^ tvo thirds^ frca 
06;t8ftmtliefonnvrto2S;^6mU]^ Ult<-rst'rimir rt^n. 

It will be aud, of ooane, that vAccinf^tion wiu intro- 
duced into Swoikn in It^l. True, hui ihv introditctioa 
of TftccioftUoQ ^WL orki3 tJunfr, mad its diB^uBkon over Ui» 
nfttion ADoiber. It w&s a airctioD cf the people leaM 
likely to bft fttr<«t^ with tmidlpox wUu ivdcoin^d 
pmctiaed TmcdnaUon ; uid however eoergcltc and 
oemTnl they tni^i be in U-^<ir pronKitJon c? Lhir luiw 
tbeir eflbrt^ wcro Lmitod to Uiousuid« mnion^ tuilUoni^ 
A]1 thi? white Hiu^ill^x was dtn^liuuig, and they Urok \ht 
deelW for cncoar«gctncnt. tind b^ui to en- out, "Seel 
aoe wliat wo uu iIoiil^ :" Tli^; cuttctiuent oi^ oompolMcj 
and gtuUiitooa vacciD&tioQ in 181G n-u ao open confoesicd 
that the lover cUuea remained to be d«aJi with, that b 
io-flttj;, the vary people among whain amallpox had ita 
BliODghold. There arc tribes whoso pri««tn profcn to 
hritiff rain, and drive awav MokntxM with Uii^Ir i^udianl- 
menU ; bot if Bfaowcra haJ buj^un to desoead, and the mck 
to reoovcT, ere tbcir onvUtiinoo was invckocl. it woukl be 



hanl to convincL* ovcii Iht t-rL^duli^uii that th*? Jtwiry*! 
relief wus Uut to tbcir nubsci^uont mat-ic. lint it ia 
pnwisdy ii^ tliT ^jilftfiiutrt' magic <ff tlu* Vftccinntors thftt 
w« ATti aikcO to l]ultcv(3 ^^lieii told that vacoimtioii drove 
amallpox out of Sw^dci^. It woa going out bcforo vaccU 
nAUoQ wA« ctkWtd in, and kept ffanf^ out all blie aatno 
when th« vaccinators plied IbtireDcboiilDienid. Happily, 
patti^nt Xfttnre holds liwr way iitiprnvukftd liy liuman 
<|uackoric«i. Nob even to oonfut« iui[>Lititora duva sha 
TV'Vfjtst? for ail luslmit hm- iuipaitial ojiorabionA. 

But, i0th<fugb d«iLth« From smallpox full ott^vo rapidly, 
tber^ wut no cmrcnpotident iiuprovtiiuenb in tliQ public 
h^th. Smallpox was merely replaced by other forms 
of dinc>LS«. ThiUp tbc death-rate cd Sweden per I,000 for 
Mv^nty y*?ar*, stauda ba follows — 

mo— mS .... 37 70 178^^-1798 ,... 26611 

17J»— iT«5 .... 27-38 nse— ifioe ..-. a(H8 

ITft^— irm ... S9S3 I 1£C«— iai6 w.. 27 09 

m*-i7»8 ,. ao-53 I 

MoTt'over. piniallpHX mortality, vfluUt rapidly ikcroa.^- 
ing l>i?foie the eiiacimcnt of compiilsoiy vacciDfltion, has 

since twcn slowly irLcn;asiiig. Tbua — 


Awnv* ftnnoBl 

X^n <f1*r 

AvrrncB ■nnmil 


AdaU|#ii HOfi^Utj, 


pliiaJ1]»a iiiorWIlLj. 


.... 6.480 




. , '4.017 

3686- I^fi 

.... *77 


-, £,008 

Jb:c— 1675 

..,. i.oai 

^V« tbcreforo htc that wbilo Jcnner and hl^ Friciidu 
wprfl honstiniv r>f ibi?irftcliieveni9ntsio Sweden. Ou^y )»ftd 
to account Kt thi.' fall in ^mallncx before th^Jr iuttrvtn- 
Uon. &nd for ]tn c<;nlini^.'d decline t-ru timr int^rvontion 
wo* operative ^ and, mcroovor, to anawor tlio question. 
What ia tUp iirctil of nalvittion frmii smallpox if dt-nktb 
emnft from otner causes f It l*, hcw^vtr. to bo otecrvcd 
thatsacb largo coni^idcratiorv^ were out^Idf^ ihn ,>«:j>ptt of 
Jenner a InloIUgeiice. Then itu* niuallpoix. and ^iv -utt4 
TOccinatJOti, Aw invonUon, tho infalliblo preventive of 
Imllpax, and lip Kaw notlnng bnynncl. MU Holf-Jovu was 
IJ^plicatcd ill th« defoncc of vaccination:, and auy tttory 



whibtonj-tliingtoiUitisCTvdil wb« r^tentod m a p^iwiu] 
kA^ai, or dttMmnoed mm wilfu! and dUhotSe f&lMilioocL Aft' 
for fetoUatlca, be bad do cApKily. Daron aoja, ** Ndtferj 
Dr J<-rtnf^rtt pn'riomodncition luir hu bnbiU gaTehitaft 
rulUh for tu\j of the 1>nnchett of ]>ut« acknm ; and hk\ 
aeofud to havea p^e^iliar horrorof ant)iTn<^ti«Al qm 
and wiu ofUn jocuUr ooi ihm defect iii bb fiatnra**^ 
Thlei jDaliititjr tu calculat^^ ^w» far to aocotint fur ihti- 
absurdity of many of hU fitatoawnte eonoenuoi; Ibe. 
inirnculoii^i^ffiscUuf vacdnaUon tunong|>opuUU»n?t whrit, 
only two or thr^ per cent had beeci operated vuoii] 
whn. tbrivfore, fttti^it have vicAriottHlr ddiv<irM Hi 
naiuJ^rr from »mall|»oi. To an intellwt tlmn tieti 
tho ialroduction of vaccjnatioti to Sw^>?n waa tho 
imtion fif th<^ Sn-iMlis; Ow cWllii^ iif Hnw1!|Mix wi Its,' 
Kuppro-rffion ; and ita BUp|>r««tsion was the oonaoqucnco of 
vm:citiation. But the excuse tli^t b avaiUblo for Ji-fmer 
doo>f not nt^iTve tboM who cannot plead hiN congoniul d«- 
fcct. ftTid firfi Aa^aS«d to repeal bia pnpoot^rotift 

SnMillpox k«pt dpcTtnlriL; in Sweden unttl the 
(1 Sll -2(r when tbc Annual avera^o of dcciUus per mil 
fell to 212^ The vaTiAticin> in Oie inortAlIty in single 
yoam ard remarkable. Hero arc thirteen jroar^ wbcu m 
ilcffUrh^ Kcre tinilcr a buddred — 









On the other haiid, bona ar« dg^toen yeoiv wbofi tha 
dealha were over a thoua&nd — 

t92& .. 
leaa ,. 

1B30 .. 
1H6U .. 

.. i,2ia 


... a;J88 

.- M45 



.. 1,019 


.■■ 1*380 

.. i3)a 


. , lv*7« 

.. 1.981 


... 1,«M 

.. 1^5 


- I.tl7 



.. I-OCl 

-. 4,008 

* lkm'4 Lifk «fJ^*mtr, tO. ii, p. tax 



Tho d<*lh Tftt(> fTOtn i^timilnox, vrhich f*3! to 212 pnr 
tDillioii in I»41':i0, rem* Uj :stJ2 nvr iiulHuti iii ISjl-ilO. to 
»C7 permillioD in lS<;i-70, ana, owir;; to the «pE<tf>niic 
of IS73'7*. the worst in Sweden dncc ISOl. tho last 
dtyurlc-, 1871-SO, will y^liibil a liijjlier avtfriijx*'- 

In presence cf these >trttistiC5, it la fair to repeat the 
injjiiir)', " WJiy w;v* Mimllpox Ji^^liriing iHjforo wiceiruitimi 
W&4 introilucu'J : and whv h&a fitiiallpo^ rijvivcd &nd 10' 
crcfiscil in Hho bcf^t vacciimtL-*] comttiy in Europe'?" 

Agaiu, too, I miiflt call atu*nti'>ri ufriHU to tlie f&ctof 
tbe irrolev^jit mHocncc of amallpox upon the Dalional 
mortn-Jity. Mr P, A- Siljcyiirom has ^xM\%hni\ n flii^^nm 
of tbe conriL' of mortality in Swctluu from 1774 to I»78. 
with the pjut sLna]lpf>\ ha-i pluji:'! in iUiii jHovUlJty, from 
wLtch it iH mamfoivt (to a\\ whu cbuo»o to uao thoir own 
eyea) that Cht action L>r sijiiillpos: aa a deilru^tir of Ufu 
haA huiQn wiMly rxn^c-rat«d.* Bid y<Ar« of HOiallpox 
*Tc net ycttft of a high rlcatli-ratc, nor aro ycftt? i^'tth 
little sTQHllpox yean of a low Joath-rate. When small- 
pox is prevalent it appears to replace other forma ef die- 
aane, and when riot prisvalmit^ to ht? n^jiliu^i^l Ijy fliH?af*H 
of groftt^r fatality. Wherefores, aiguo« Mr, Silje&ttbm — 

Of vliAl u;« iH tt Ifi Lho pnbTii] that 4 Mnnllpr Tinrnbr^r of oitiioim 
di« utmuaLy fnmi Hr»All[ioi leopiwRi'Tig Chnt Ihis result U Imiujclit 
abnul b; Vv^ritiiilSon), if jk;i Hi]ud1y htxge □iimlwr. nwArtliHlAHH, 
dltt Arom<k[licir i^j^cinpriiL ? W^ c^rni tJBG no riPTli^r aJVAi^Uwa In It 
than limrs Wmilil to in n batilo, if annd nf tlin mim foil bnfiirr tho 
(Ltt of UiH AfLilltry. ijLit 1.11 ihc more clUd from the firr of llia ltii«. 
1\> Uifl iadi\iJuul it tiidiy j>uiDibly Itj morn luzreoi^lilu lu die uf auy 
<iLli(Tr diHmve thmi k^iu!tl]|iui. ituil iL titii^liT., thtEvfurt! . to bq uUvwad 
lo 4*|irjriJQa Vr i»av(i limiHHlf, tlLiirLf};!! VmnMiiHtuLii* at nay nUmr 
lAwfnl uuMUiA, from ad OTvatunhty whit-h bo fii»r>i: biiL thli cuouot 
poiAibly, in ilnll, Ifc rv^mrdvJ im tliv buHiiJiKi i>f tti^r !:4CAk, 

SwodcD is a largo country, and ita di80EUr<^ muAt bo 
avt{j«ct to many hxnl vnnatiou:*; Imt Sbi>ckhi>1m, r«prc> 
seaitin^ a corupaol population, cxhlhita mnoh the samd 
phenomena. la aomo yeara of last century the dby wta 

Sedccy fuf ilw AUjlitiuu of Cuntpiilmry Tucuuutioii. 




oxt;niruL^if;d ^nTiallpox atuoiv? the gnvikcdiuitcil nint* 
tenih^^ Wher^ tV<re is a dtspcmitioD to believe, atLjthu^ 
inft>- pvi5 for crcdibJo. 

SubHL-4|uifUtly Ui 1861 timro wss fiUlu smalltxit b 
Ccp«nhA(;«n, and from 1^ U to J ^3 not it <le<iUi f ron tb» 
diMM vjui rcconl<?cl ; but in l^4AtnAllpox mkppcAnd^ 
and in 18S& there wore 434 deaths in the city; vhtntt 
bc^n to he ju1mit<«d th^t ritccioAttOB did not prwcot 
EtDiajIpux. &qO that revaudiiallan m acenmmry for ooto< 
pUto proioctioQ ; \>ai> if roaoiaite. how w&^ tl>c mtr«eulou 
GxtiodJon of the cIIkcam; hy th« priunLry vArdnation i/ 
lev thftD % t«DUi of the popaUtlon in the ita^riy yvara uf 
the ccnturjr to bo ftccotmtcf fot T 

H^^rc wo have the record of Copoidiagui nmoJIpox foe 
aevtaty-five ycwe. 1801-75— 








.. 69* . 

IID . 


!*ai-uo - 

... I«» 

,.- Ifi 


Tbu8 tho number of deaibs in the five ^etie. 1871-75t 
wn tiriarlj- i^iiial to the deaths ui the pfceerling thirty 
Ife&re, 1^4I-70; wMUt at the ftaioe time the more or ki^ 
8ma]lpox had no apparent inilueiice in x&isiu^ or lower- 
ing tW gi^HL^ful mortality. 

Iceland, aa a dcpofKleDc^ of Bentoarlc, ie ofteo cttod ai 
evidence for tho v!rtu« of voccriiution. Speakinj^ In the 
HouKo of CoTiiuaonM recently, Hr.T. W. Erana proclaimed 
" VaiM;hjaUon Iia8 extdngiuok^d smallpo^i id lerkod! 
Thero has not b««n a caae in the inland for thii^ yean** 
Coiild Ati^ht hn more condiuive? and the JWaeitioa b 
re-assi^rted wiUi triumph ■ yet, wii'Jer eic&ml nation, we 
shall 90C l>ic 5tat<:Ricnt and the inforcnoo vanUh tike 

Fin^t, the absence of imaDpox tcom Iceland for mHc» 
of ytioji wan nolhing unootunion. Icciland'A history i« 
ain;,^!arly oopiottfl and aocarat^; and from SehleUncr'i 
iutand ft\fm. tht poiiU cf view of Mfdicai Science^ 



CopoaKa»gcD» I$ff), wc hiivc thi: following li-nt of ttmalU 
pox epWemiM ilurSng Ave lumdreil j'^ar* — 

1*47 — A greftt enid«mic. 

1 400— TorrlbU cjiiJ^mio— 9000 

1511 — A gre&t e^dMoiio. 
laaft— DIrtci. 

lodO — h kind of varfolrnv dte- 

1300 — Si]iAJt]vix r>pii1ei]iio. 

lOm-lT— DiltiliyiiJijnifUtiol]. 

I68d— DUto, 
1055— Ditto. 
1070-1— Variulijdd iui4 SmoU- 

ctvtH Lniuglit ill l>iild] 

ITfii-^i— A mtli) Bptdnmic, 
llftfi — A miiill opidoiDitJ — 78 

17l^_Kpi,l„ri»0— 1S3T dilitljH. 
17H7' — tipidiiinicb — 118 Ot:jitbA< 

brougl^t to T(viaud| 
bet ptev«cWJ fpjia 
sproAdlotf }ty vUict 

Froiii this list ifc will hp seen tlmt- for rrnturiiw Iceland 
hwi hftd long UrinA of immucuLy from emaUpox, Thiu — 





1347 %o 1880 ,. 

.. S9 5«an, 

1C71 to 1707 


ISSO ,. 1180 .. 

>. 50 ,. 

1700 ,, 174S 

.... B3 „ 

i4»o „ irai .. 

-. ei ,, 

17B7 n ISSS 

,... yi „ 

Idll ., LG5G .. 

.. 4* ,. 

InAflmucb tlmn ha vAcdn&tioii cunlil liAve DoLhing to 
do with the yoam of jnimnniiy in former timw. ou ^hat 
ground of reason can voiccinoticn be act forUi i^ tlio 
a»i«o of imniunity at thU dhj T Schlebner observo»~ 

Umai, M)d huL ftlviTv fcson brought ic culbflr by I'l^och. F^nk^li-ih* 
Dat«}i. nr IHnish «lup«. in Mitiy umot it ftcqaonlly riin*td a 
lomMa tiuirtilitv, u in 1T07, wh»n l*,000 nui of a pfl(Uil»li-rn of 
aO^lOO parii^Ad; tind fca i4tK|, wliao tKUOtra »id to buv* ih*^- Tn 
Utcr yaui lUi TkiUo^ hu LliinlTiUli«(1 in fi>ri#0f/vn.--- l>/ Cfitf 
■nfroffttrJifm o/ Vaecitiation, In ITHfl-^-?, iU iMt otmck in tho 
•ICht««ftlli cvDtmy* only Ul!3 |wnoiii iliail. 

Vuryeood; but in 1785-87. vai-vmiiLlun am uiikiKJwn; 
nnrl M did epltlomiCM of 1742 and 1702 ixre rccotdtrd by 
Schlcijincr aa " ftiuftil " and " mild " rci^pccUvcly, wliile ao 
wlytt.*t liSO onif? iM divcribefl an "a Kind of varioloon 



dis¥£.»e/ it iwt'viilont Urn t vaccination cwikt Iiavooslilll* 
to do with mftkin^ " ^mftllpox mil<li.^r " mi with the \oq^ 
tenofi ot iuimuiijty nlildi Icolani ha^ t^ijuycd 

In an Appeal by Mr Williatr MorrU on Whnlf of rb» 
lGi:latiiic:r.^, ihTrntrnctl Vk'ith fainini^ m IK!*2 bt i>l!n«rrod'^ 

Lutl^t iha SJontlav, wlu?h bjta not baan m IcDbn^l I-jt UnrtjT'^ 
Jts-tf, nnd v-hidi (bliiiig ou a paopto not mitd tn it. if n d«i4^ ftiU 
not dlnvLnl ditonKo. bn« nttulcil Roykjnvik. uh4r« Ijmlf ibopMfl* 
an lUwn nttli :t. »ul1 mnrjj- biLVii ilu>t1« f»n4 tt U now > pr wwl ui g 
of«T t^«i UlaMl 

Ueunfe^ dbnenb fiuni Icel&nd for Uilrtj-stx ytius! 
Suppoflin^ thE'i'e woro sottio doHgo &g«iTUt taoul«s conv- 
nponrim^- to vA.ccmatiQn a^init ninaJlp>x, wo<iId not the 
ttXe(L][rtLi)fi 111 L'Vcrry year ttp to Llie thirty->iLxtli hava 
bocn nJK!rib^i"l lo iti cfiiwtcy f 

Dr Gjirtli WilkiriSEni u'^aU^s Lliat in 18Cfi wbcta vgUxh)- 
mj; on the Lavrrock, wboro tlie Althicg wft» hold. Or. 
Z^altalia, McdicAl Iiupector of Icoluid, bold hiin — 

Whvn, in IIHIO Ah1>-, Chnttianit; woh lirri iiitrotluevd i»ti> IcoUul. 
tliO triiutliitft |>jlH,v ill Uiii AlLlim^ or«dit«t th< wnttb of Ukflir j|«to 
witb A n^tlfQEib arii]klLoKi tfljjeli broke oat on a noighboiLnnif fura- 
SociTi, tho grant laolaniUo biitonAD, boiug p'Mvnt, Mk«J, '*W^t 
Ibtn VM il that nmdo tb« fi^dft Wigiy vhva th« oldor tftra irt« ro 
fire*" It dvjir]^- WR« nrit OhrittliftnitT tboD- U* OM-rifvl tlt« lUf 
Vij^hfimt tli« iiiHla by il]i4 oommfin-MiiM i^omlion. nml l^ttittt&aitf 
b«rniiia tito Uw Of tho land. 

boiuAWhftt t^im^iql witk thii hutof7 U tho olum cttdv £>r lb* 
«xtirpalioii oTSmollpox hy Vact3ia%iiQn in iMluid. It u a nm of 
tfftfr /jp*i t^rirlirg In* windbiig of jiw* fior. and, <r /orftf/ri^ «f 

Whilst thLi-t the* IcciEA.nrtic Viiccination Bulvbic U bnnl. 
it rt'iiiaina to b& oWrved that if vacdnation had a&vtd 
tlio loclojidcM froTn snia.lf|)ox lb could only have b«ca 
vjonri<in»!y — ai in sto iitniiy iinUncuH of niiniJar ^IvaUcoi; 
for during the firnt half of tho proaent century uo mow 
than 17,072 vacf^iii^tKniM vrrri! irtTi^tx^l In a itopiilaiion 
of l>ptw<*cQ fifty uiid iixty thouEtoad la th> flux of birtJi 
anil tli.'fLlh. Tliff ^aci^iuatiunflaru thujt recorded — 

\'a/Kknal\m Tmt**g Pkrt IQ. ]?g. 14. Lomton, |(L*«. 



tdM-lb .,,TAua3iui<fMii— lau 


T&tal, .... 17.072* 

Tlicrr IS tniirli of tlic liko oHrc of "Wt* in fftToiir t>f 
vaccinauon '' cura'nt concomio^' oth*>r European popii- 
Ifttiooa, which onl^ ptes muster because ih^y arc rarely 
Kuhjfictvd to cHticiHm ; l>«cai>cci vne^rinutiun h vimsidvred 
w}th ii btioi^ invoDtioD i\iti,t to aiiocftioD its cn;dcntiala 
Wwiclkod; nnd he^AU^e it iu hola t1iL.t if even soini^ of 
tho cbinu moik for it ftro touched with fublc, yat tbelr 
eflVcl on the popular mind ia ao dearly for good in 
EDsspiring coR^nonoc unit ovgrwholmin;^ rx:cnjilonal mU- 
hnpti, that it ift iiiexpt\li«nt to be over-iicmpulotw. Bui. 
hrtwever inatmirtivp ani wholesome may 1>& the evpo^TiiM 
cf [»ueh (igphUttcation-';. it l^ nt^ccfiwry tc KAtnun ovir- 
»Utji. arid far Llur nunuindtTr of tii^ SiurjF vra oLaII kuep 
to EnjfliBh t!;Tound. 

FioiD the preceding details we seo how f^r vAccina.tion 
iu Sw<^!&n. Denm&irk and loeUnd fell short of the elaiina 
QOadv for it by Jcnnor and hia aijcccav^r^ Jccn«r, it is 
tm«^ dic^l in 1S2II, Jjefon; thi; morn jironrmmNid rL»futati«JU* 
cf hU aaacrtit^nd had been (.evolved, but. && said, it is 
qitc«tionablc whotli<:r hn ever rcjiliJ^ed th^tt iht? nnnira of 
oountriw vtood for mllUoni of m«D, womao &nd cliildren 
whooe vaccination could only bo overtaken by organised 
oxcrtion in the proct'sift oi yi^nru, Hik various t>oa-^LH, 
therefore, of vftccmat<jd ottUons and oitcrnjiiiatijd ^mall- 
prt\ an* to )»* tnkrTi ju prnofH of deff^liv** ftnthinptjoal 
capacity ard of tlmt jici^ttLitie imagiaatiou which rtina 
wiUi puoaibiliiy and tuaUcr-uf-fact. 

l\f Ifmu€ Q'TcramOM, 1*71. T. iH, 





To eoramici^ the stalUtios of tbe lar^r Ki^li^li towm ll 
order to dct^Tminc whctbcr voccination b&s hftd uiy 
tofliivaicv o» till! al4iU4]ii-rii of Aniallpux, wimlfl inniire 
us in ducuBsioQ interminaMv. For our iiuuiecUate 

5ijrpr4H< ll m&y c^iifUcv to ki^IitcC three exitniplos : ^v^ 
[E^vcLffTLE-ox-TYXiv. fts 9M llisUD« o( ft couttuon Ktooj; 
2nJ, NoKwtai, us on itutuico of A »ni&nrxa cpldenuo; 
artJ Srvl, Glam^w, v ui iuttuiee of wmAUpox dixpLmd 
ftod rcpkc«i a» tt ^Unr of mortality. 


Wo ofton hcftT of "tho utiituitkn of th4 Anti-Vaoaa- 
ftton;" to wliidi the nummATj miHwer b tKai Anti<Vao- 
dnatore hav^ no «tatifttJc6. Their slAti&tka m thn 
statistiot of the VftcdiMitoni, in which thry provide ikt 
mftterUl for tlieir own ooTuItrriinailan ; which t4 jircTlmUjr 
tli« i«aeon why the so-c&lkd etatistioa of the ^\iiti- 
Vncdfintom nrc mj intvnavly di^Ukcd, Jk%-o]<liTi1, awl 

The Newcastle Dt^xrcn^ary in td77 completed ice 
hundnnlth y^iir, having f'<>en fwrnd^ In 1777, nnd Dr- 
filonteith prepOTcd a coDci*< hiatorj of the imtit^itioiv 
whirh u'lu piili]i)chi*i) in I87fih_vi>tdrrnr thr rnrnmitt**^* 
Thti report is »poci&Uy valuable tut & record of the com- 
piiative irciiionce of cIiHL'a«e in a large inda&trial [topuln- 
tion, wht^rcT if unywlictv, sTDftllpox mi^ht be «xpccl<?d to 
tAiavi jtadf in fivwxv form* in 1781 thi^ ^>upuJjiUoii of 
NewcAAtle wiu r^Atimfttpd at 23,000 ; in 1^21 it TiAd n^eEi 
to ^1,7!^! , ill 1»6I to ^7JS^ ; uid in IK7I to ]!2S,4i^; and 
throagh all those yflflfv and changes, the Di^pecdaiy 

rnat<4 by or Jcr I'l tilt.' CocnaiittMi.. X««Cwl1oirp« Tyiw, ItTB^ 

^K^VCAfilXi: fUlAttlHtX : A OUUMOX SWR\, 43S 

c^alinucd !n acUvo optrraUon, ih^ poroentofe <if Uio 
pnlienU to the popiiUlion being iDaintauivd vriUi nsriiark* 
Able mutoruiiiy. It U needlcM to ftdd that ih<* majority 
of Uic patkciLa have b«ii from toe ranks c»F the poor, 

AmonL' wh^ra Hii^jillpox has aXmy* iU clit^f Hcnt. As 

num ojul Uio paapirr. The fiUtf of dislrou in wLicIi tlivto pDO|>Lfi 
^OQlinTuJlj 1ir9 ib koowu to few. Tbo palitut, yfUnu rinjifU Iv 
IL* doctor, h uauUt foaixd IjiDir ia " foiirtv. tiitucei, &ud durt, 
aoi thv tr«AtEiont of l]i« om* L» ncJciiftkaa u> dbcuoutftncca wtxy 
napropitloEu to iucccm. Medici itdWco And modJcine ato not Ui« 
oiuj tUn^ uocdod. Good t^ol, Wftrmtb. oiid jodicTumu nnnuit; 
art Lmpantirelf tvqnlrDJi and oro t«li]omif ev^ir bHuuiibl^, 

Before t»mlD^ U> the Dkpea^ry*ft racor*J of a century 
of stnaJlpoXi it mar bo well to obscrvo Uiat Variglaticin 
waH j>nu:tlN4*<1 in NrwciL^tlif with vn'Mi asxlduity, and 
that the DUponsuiy took a lead in the buftin«as, tho 
aui^^tiH Ittouulttiui^ any caiu who applied. Ur UoDtcitb 

^j Iho j«»r 1777 tti« ainnMAtt la iftTonr of VukJaiion had to 
bi tnoiBpbad over tb* habili ftsd p*tjadf<«« of tho pfoJo*rion tha; 
thoro u DO ift<Uac« iHotkniod in cor ivposiB of acy tnodicU man 
in K«wcftMlo Ofpoco^ it. It u al->nifi n^kca af bi one ci tho hast 
Mlabli«l)qd fuU of uodical Mimo*. Wtlb Ibo graonl poUto tb« 
«aa« WW diStrtaU Tlioir vrtjudimt van ao tUamg a« ovtr, asd 
tliof othlbittoil ft aocvor of VuiobUoa whA »<«ld HtUfj ih« m-M 
ardent Anli-Vuotfiator. To oomW llMMproJodieiM tvicjui aniuit 
w«ra tnod^^armcM ficaa tbo pctfic, pauotu oilMttalk^ti ta tti« 
□ow^iaFOR. «i«. Tha hi md ooort wfinrtn g aag i piMt ytm^tUA 
of a pwmiUry nwud to puvoU who tbeaU allow tbalr olilldiiia 
10 ODdovgo th* of>«nlion< Tl;* ram oflflroi vw ba. for vno «bilil» 
7t. for tvo^ Hi- 0eV ihfH, Aiiil lih. Cor fiaer, aa^l upwardi. llwma- 
««■« of tbb «CMdMttl wu r*iB&rluU«L Panni* «aiBa AoeUtstf la 
with thtflr ehddrta In mat nambow, Itaapud bf tba rrantrdi, 
lho7 M^JMtMl tbc4r Utuo Mai tA m ouaStoa vtileh. irnlf cMt 
BmtEn»Mit* h»d crf«4lj altorod, Our babwtd to ba baHMJvaa ud 
~ tn 111* Kitivnv, umI m tw ar la«pC»tirin of ProvUflrnea. 
mon thM« tufim jiaMnitaaiJ failli««prriDgOf 17B6; and 
^au ih«nttit«r» imlll IflQI, iliUrM w«r« imvted oa ■! Ih* 
attboracaof vf*>naf«v aaanm- ImlSOl tfunbad 
iMfta in all S.3Gfl optralvd oym. 



As Koon w VacdnAilon came into voffue, VvlolaUon 
wiM flonounoed as thd d^ief cau^ of tiio oxiatfitice of 
ifBiallpiM. It WAn 9«]t) tli&t nitat w>li rlonn U> avert the 
difwase from ihi> individual did'iiB<.'-j it asionx ^^i^ okiilti- 
tado. Vaccinfitora loDg inAin(aiii«>d that they cc^ 
easily vxtvnuiuktc unalTpox, it only VaHoIaton woqM 
tvfrain frou keepiD;; it aJivo. Variolation mduolty 
cctw^\, «/i(l van formallr pmhihitjsl in IH40, and hy amt 
hv VnQcination wau umdo com^ «Wry. ^ifvcrlbcli^ Ui« 
conSdtijit prophecy of tho VacuQatora rcmoifia uiifulSllcd. 
for ftrnAllp4>x i« not cxtormin^Lt^Kl 

Tlie change ttvm Variolatioii to Vaccination at the 
K^wco^ld DlapCQSaty vtLs imm^diatJ^, Dr. Mon 


It in OTHiU^H^tA In It^ CO(hI tBDvc iul3 aullublBmoMit of thm 
ptj^tary »xiihar\^ht that the; at on^r bbolJftbDd ICMmlKl^drti tt 
Kmnllpnt, knil KulKtitTittf d VaootDatioa in ill nUad. In laci. Ik> 
flint ynor, l^lA cbilitnu wero raooioalvtl^ TI10 lUiDuaJ Bomlcr 
mpllly T<L\Ko uiJtil it rcnrluxl its rubiijnttni w ISIS, wL«n t^i 
wtcY vnc^iiiiiltiiL flftur wbiuL t]jc imuklftn mb rnpldiv i1i<cIiu«L 

For thU d<H;linr? vojioiu Tca^omi vrtrv a^^-^tf^K^d. •ttcti 
Aa tlio incrc-n8<« oT the private practical of vaccination* and 
tho cjinpcqition to undcrvaluo evary txtncfit, liowover 
f^Tiiatn ihnt lA purify deenio^ynat^'. It \» for|^lc^u that 
Vaccirjiiion fell otf'as it* illusory ciiaraclrr bc«une mcff 
and mon^ naniFcfitp and an tho promintvt mado on ill 
behalf weiv, one and all, iniliflpiiiftliiy bplied. Wboi 
Ji^nntr died in IS2-'t, he pft.-itt^d away taiiUl inrliHVrcnoc, 
if mit nnitriiipt. His huhLli? luu] LumL Thr fiimre for 
vacoinatdon w]tneft>4ed in the pra^^nt gan«rAtJon is by 
tirt mennH a conlinuAtion of the origiiml Furrnr, Thai 
pass(?d away. Our furore Is a revival, dadn^' from tbe 
pupiilatity of ftAtiitaiy r^forin^ to the back of whidi a 
nnw gfn'Trttirm of nuidical nutri contrived to sttacti 
Tiwci nation ! 

fn lh^« hnndroH yrars, 1777 to IftTT, Oiv DUpp 
ha«i to <U!al with 2,1iltE caacn of anallpoxH of tvltich 4 
teniitnated fatally, which aa to y^araaiid luortaliCy attiy 
bft thus c1flf»ifio(J — 


leoB ., ie*T 
iMaa . IA77 





Th(? pmgn-'KstVfl mlxirlinn in mortnlity U, of coime, 
asunbcd to vEicctnuliiin liJivin^ made the dbcoso milder; 
Lhoiij>[ti thv tr\\fui't infuTiJLH un tliaL*'t1iH uiurtAlilv from 
aauLllpox rvochwl iU Jiig!ic«t point— 33-3 por cent in tho 
five ytant from 180S to lU07," die verj tinio vrlicti 
fnthusiaun in favour of the Jerui«rian rito w&s &i its 
acme, W^. ou th(? olher liAnd, would Attribute tho 
lower mortality^ fti did Dr. Andrew Coiubt', to bt^itor 
oiotii;.? of trcatujcnt* i^vcii aocloct being pivfcrablo to 
mtii'-li of ihu oM'f.'u]mijit<l rt?gijiifiji f<>riiuiftll|H^x. Cur* 
sidvrinj; tUu t^pir«^ Dr. Modntcith ob«ervQS— 

Of SmnPpijx I do«iro Id sjxifik ^tli dnTauuipdctiiin, for in 'Scv- 
MkBtlo Anci VucQiiialcn too tcioeitlLftt nrnpftcL Fii(\imt b4wovcr>. 
u* itnbb^tm tkin^, tuid tii«ir import u not oAdly oj^pUioed owajr. 
Uk» Iho TUt lanjotitj of modinJ m«n( E hav« Always Srtnly bo- 
liovod in tbo iTOD^ r«*uttA of VoooLnfrtJoD- \Vit1iaut aJuiitlinif lltat 
naj fulh hu Mon Ahakco ly eaaxiiUriutt tliuo KlAtiiiboi, 1 mxiit 
eoofoM tlut 1 baYo bocn a good d*iJ lUaftppol&tod vith tbocti, 1 
bad oifw«lod to ^d Uuj tdmblo diiocLMt ngnJiu-lv dodmaliDg tbo 
poimUHoa Qvtry jcuj uutii tlia itpoeh oS JonAor ■ diooovary, und 
»ft«rwanU duuiniKljin^, rKpuUy uid ft«bJiJ]rk aluioct to noUiin^' 
lluu figoor** do not vamutt ua ia taking ao cft^ijiuAa u iri^w of 

WhdM, Uiopgtero, *rc obEorvo contLdDr&hIo improvomoxcl in tb» 
figqrpa, I lun of opiaico thnl tl^o^' Icavo ua io Uui dUomnta— -dthar 
UiaI tbnv now tmu n ^^nml^' »xa^a«rAiad imptCBV^n of Ibv pn- 
Tftlanc* uid fAENlilj' of 9nnA|J]ifriin^4in4rtiia«B, or*ko tijal tVtj 
had b»giin ta dBOTVfLBA lonij u«f<iT«i thA 6i9,cc\4rf of Vn<oeinKUon, 
Um b«i«d«ljLl affocCfl of wblch ranst, tharofi^rii, bava buva at latAt 
■vUrud by otbsr cAHUi. 

Here wd bsvd an honourable oonf^^ion from out tho 
Ixmdf of profcMionial prrnidici^, nnd iv rcUictAol exposure 
of tho legend of a world di-citniLttd by smallpox, and 
cezbsing lo be d^cinint^jd aft^:^ the advoDi oi Ji-oneri 
TIkiiTn isi mttlilngMiigidEirm tin; NrwciiKtli? i^vMnnev thtit 



bu awakoned duUtuI Id tho uimd of L>r, Montcith. 8i»i- 
Jfcr «vii!enco U found ■wh<'rrv*'r tucix nr* avaiUlUe. Thr 
tcffond to the coiilmry Kaa Woomt? odtablJfihcl, like iiui>>- 
■Crtficr lugdjiU* bj dint of repetition. iid til tlJo^«: wln> v«i' 
tLim to qncutioTi it aro n^ci^rdoO with HiiupHoD And dislikf^ 
The Itoporb uf tie NewE^asUe Dispou^oay UlvkAtnl«» 
ttroth^^r truth, nAm'>ly, that tho fth^tem^nt or cv&utMn 
<3f smallpox U l>y no*im:niti eijiiiviiU'iit to a rc<iuctioa4f 
dentil: tnatevil conditions of life r*mRii^iifi;niirh)uigtd,4 
f^ll in nmtLlhiax is compcuMtod for by a rit^u in aomfi oog* 
tmU: form (jf^xyiuot1cdIaeA£«. Tlius Dr. Monl^ith roiRU'la; 

tt Ia gonenllj tM bj Ui« opDon^ntt of Vbcciniticm Il:ml Ikt! 

bii ulloirwl tint oiir fteure* ipn>1irib^>- ntirrllsbl« ii> i;(<ct*ra] lUa^ 
XiTo «miA HtimiOi^ 1fi^)i» vti|>iKi»iLELiri. Tbe iffO])£»rtiuu uf ciH* 
•uf SoarliLtiin In th* Ata yAJu«, in3T-B2 tm 4^3 per cool. It lu» 
uevor ttiuplicd thsl hl^h Hmit ninpiv; httt tha twroantajie liu* auwf' 
lUl«u brlow ^ in iht- itir-i ihirty-^vc yot.t^ Mortntily Iima also {&*! 
cretPtid loan alwmin^nstflot Aton«timii lolowu MS imrMOt, 
U bw bmouiiled to IT psr cuut in tliv liut ixto ^ezAn. t>c»;!ntiiu 
u DOW \iy fu tljfl lucitfl taXnX diavii» uu iLin liHti villi lli« *'^i<i|4kc^ 

Of SGorltitiiia, the J^bpeimry record stands tbus — 




irn Uf jyoa 

„. S££ 


«a . 


1808 „ inin 

.» 7ec 


80 . 


Wis ,. i&A-i 

„, iMi> 


]££ , 


i^a „ lerr 

».. 3.a^y 


CC7 . 


Of McaaJ«ft it is aaid. "the diHoaso biLs «om«what! 
incrcnMiMj in iiaiiif*er», whilst the proportion of ilvAthn to 
4!ase« hatt not varied imich,' Thiu thu record fctaoda — 



IT77 tn laOS 



in ... 8-a 

lbw» .. lWi7 



^ ... 0*0 

1828 „ 185*i 



»8 ... «v-s 

laflS „ J8T7 

., *,687 


m ... 4-s 





Of Whooping L'-oii^Ii it iw olis^srvori — 

Tlio 'loatlinLto iu icwtaar yeam l]T;otaal«d wiJel}*. Al pr^aoat i( 

^Rv i>f tijo oratory- Thttra i* * c^tiirtton tmpr«Afilon tliikt \\'hoopiDg 
C^tiicli ix li diu^tu* c>f Uliia ilATig^T anri n*) {inportAn^K, but thiJ (ol- 
lofvlug tfih\<t «hawH Uial of I0.IO ^'oani it bu boon moifi fatitl than 
bc&aUpox or MaubcL 




l«r too 

iTTT t^i lari'* , 


.. 32 . 


1603 .. 1^7 - 


., 29 


i«s9 » lass . 


.. iia 

. 150 

Uaa „ 1877 . 

. 1,710 

-, ^i . 

., 140 

^.034 dod lao 

Smallpox, SciLrlAlma Meiwlc--?, and Whooping Coug-h 
nuty Th* re^iLrioiI AACGnvt^rtiUiifurmrKif infantile xvmot-ic 
diflc&4c. Conditions of cxiijtcnco remaining cquaJ* one 
nifcy In* thp sulffilihiti^ of IIji? otlirr, tHiunUiuing th<^n'by 
n comuian Ueath rate- Diairhai^a U Bomt-timo-s \\\atx'i\ in 
thti saiuE c&tt^ry ; and, like civAipel&t. it ]> Lu n Ur^ 
oxtcnt A c»jn34Qqii«nco of vocdnbtic^n. It vhontd n^^vor be 
forgottca tlmt vacciuatiou iiiducoa a couHlltulioiial dij<- 
turbatico or fpVAr^ which lIlrfM in rtffptrf] to Nattire as a 
pri>piti&tiAn for wmollpox : with which propitiftlion. say 
the VA4^ctnaUm» Naturo im satibfird, ami wilhliuM-H Uid 
intliction cf «roaIlpox- Voccinalion, iw an illno^ how- 
rvpr, In fnajueiitly attended witli dmrrliivn, and the 
iDQreaM of that 8fl*?i?tt<»ri, pnH passu, witli tin? iricrim^ 
DFinf&ntvACcinationJ-<« marked Thus stands tho rucord 
of Diarrhu^a — 



17TT tfi IS03 
1808 .^ lAH 
laSfl .. 1893 
IMS ., 1877 




Dr, Mtinlrttli idwerves — 

Tlio rocirlaJitj ticm Dinrrlurn u aufcutaoatck jiUadiljp Sdctma' 

00 r«oc>pl— ^., 11-1, Tbo ma^tnity of tbo d<ftl|u toku placid 
*jii0Die tnfuiU; utd tb« diicdio lA pTdtftio^ ia moat «hq8 by lite 



iir>nrMi«e nr coibU w p m w of inoUi^n in ci*iax tbam footl vAi^A h 
jKft ]^t f'lr thiMii. I^Tit vfij UiSa K^idiilcl hn th^ (Mi*f> fjov aay inert 
tlijji Jt u'Uft l««tily or iLtt\y^\in bj^t. 1 cftnnol QnJvrHUnJ- Ab 
ImmoMii DoanunptJDii at ftkoLolio »UmulBDU In Ulnr lim^d bu 
1>D»a raggiortoil to mo on mn ciplAobtiim. 

Any expUinAUon is WirlcMini; that will pi>^serve vac- 
cination from rcprooaU, yvl wb&l lai^tUoal in&n w ignonnt 
of thd fact that diArrlitt^ \a oue of cho coiitfiKinQdL 
aotjQ^ncas nf \accintili<)n } N&tiir<T tTiUM cndi^^vourinf! U 
throw offtlie cfft^cta of tlv vims infiucd iiit** the blool 

Tnkitijf, then , thr*^ fi\v .li<aejwi*q m the or<ler of ihek 
laortnlitj, they Tun^ju thiM— 


In thi^ fioiitvG nf m cciitnrr thi* NVnrcaAtle I>iB{>frikiftrr 
luiil <k«1twith a total of S5ft<i37 c&Hft,of which tK> laoc^ 
than 2JiMi wi^rit of AntnTlpox, or fittcnit T in 'JO. Tlio 
total itL^thH (lurii^ the crtitury nr^ro 14/>M8, of which no 
mow than 428 were Oce to »mall|Kix- ^t a1>oaf. J iit aS; 
vhiUt from KcnrlatmA the)' wore I in IS, from diarrbtca 
1 ID 30, and froin whocpinir-covij^i 1 in 35. It lu&y iw 
sold, iL^ rocoTcl of the Di^q^t^uirr doo4 not aeoount f{ir 
th^ popniatioii of Nowcrfth;, 'JVno ; but it accounts f Jr 
tli« louer Htrata of tlir? {Kj]Mi!alioii, aiul, thi?n?foret for ut 
oxcosaivo f-ropcirti^n of nmall|>oK^ Thf* complete atatlMios 
of thn city woulil exhibit nnJillpox ax a Atill lights 
afEictlon. And, we repeat, there la nothmj; ein^Ur 
aliout the record of the Ncv-cafttle DUpansary. I: ri a 
common istory. WlitfTn-vtr wc get out of the re;jion of 
roiiiiinc^, and trortd the ^ounrl of matter-of-fact, it \^ to 
d'\nf*vi\T ihAt thi? wildfT horrnrH and mvAge^ of ^mallpor 
liaw bcoa oritfiniUty ovclved from Itnagination, and are 
perpetuated in ignoraace fropi k^raay. 






Cmm. SAA 





DatUiA, Sa 





Cmss. 1,890 





riMftiim, nr 





CfMH, anfi 





n*ftii^K, 90 













1 Cum. IHfi 









raa koewicu EnDKutc-^isifi 




I uiVE T^peateJly cautioned mj reaJer* Agaliwt ihft 

twintury VTJLc tin- inriLMin? nf RnglUli .MitaDpux. Tt was 
rot ao. Smallpox wo.^ unJomie in I»ii'loa» whon^os it 
occarrcd iuh nii ocs^-si^fEinl qn^K'nnic in L^tlicr E^n^lJHh 
tovniA, ftru) wiLt almoHt unkiivwu in many rural dintrictfi. 
Mi>reover. tb-; diffeaau n'aa not allo^ToJ to cite out. but 
wiw ililtijently ctilriv'Jito"! wirl ■litTosisI by varinlftiion. 
Aa vocdnnti-^n wft,i intr<nlu(rut], tbo practice tii variolation 
corre^poniltnlly oense'l, ami wiUi its (n>'*^at-ir>T> thprp was 
jihn,t?mont r>f imrillpox, wliioh nbaUmont wjli unw^r- 
Uiblvn.^ribc'l*!! vnrntmt.miL Hriw nuii^bof tliT?-Hiri»ll- 
poK of ioht CLfntury wf^ i.Uie to v-ariol action it is impo^ible 
todctonainG; uor woulil it bcWo to Accept tbo aa4crtion« 
of tho early ailvocnttf of vaoduatioQ on tlio point, i 
af>I>r-b«nfl that if AniAlIpox were domethiD]; doairablft 
which rvprynnr wn* 3rit.£'nt tm cn-lcbinij, it would to diV 
covfr^l that it cou]*l flut bo universally crxu£.'ht, (Uid that 
iU propa^ttMii hmX ilrfhiiUr litniUH and it ih not irh|»j-i>' 
E>abm thAt amon^ Lnn.kinrm tbo limit of prQpn;^ation 
ivi» doiely ajtprtiaiiheil. so thit-t nearly all whu wiirif sllv 
««ptib]o ootitrftct^d tho ^lifloasc. What, how* vsr^ I wish 
to enforce K that thn docHnc in the prevalence of .'tmalU 
pOTC in ftOfne plao»>s coinoidentiy with tbe introduction of 
TaccJnation ■w'a-* Inri^^-Iy <iiic tij the (iL.-tcontinuanw of 
»matlpox i^uIUjii^. £.tilI Uiat dir* siijmrtwiion of that euTtum 
would have givx?n tho Hfunc ro^mL Nor let it bo for- 
gotten thai an ahiuAt worJiI-wldtr fall in umallpox had 
Mt Ln tov^ard the c*lo«« of but oentury, wliicli the vncx^in- 
atont attribdbed to their prophylftxy in the mnatoouth. 
Ulmculouft dETecU are fre<|Ui-ntlv a^siurted ivhi>ro mtv- 
&eu[o\i» causes would be diaowaeJ. 

Th«t \-ita] litatiKtic* of laxt cnntiiry am, to a graat BX* 



tMht, UiounKhKta of tiJim ei mod caqj«qlvn»an3 

but if ftYMi w< had tt» cqrfoct acrtalitw gg 

Ui« chM nBl» of BB|MhAkn.— «iid a* York; 

>lonrkK fliWir. QmOT. Buh, Briml, 

da* ta flViMittr tfnariffiflna of Ql« bom vbi 
DMhiction off Am 

mdt 1830; M.I 
uai riici i lco c& of urbaa snialfpoiX 

wntifoi bv Jnbn Cro^ m Mnt^njm 

ijlorwich contaiucj «i populatinc of 
tAf wM Mseounted MUtibrioaa, Kod i 
Iduwil CroQS wti(«a tHot ' ia IdOS, 

^ ..-f^n^ M to eixctte iiotuv AttcQUaQ." Tbe 
TWDtMl Eeil to an attf-iii[(t to Entrolwo- nKctm* 
aHtioKvw held in tho UaUdbaJJ. 16Ui Jnly, 
^■■oert BfteitfttrBB for iHe extrnniaatjoa of tfi 
aaii iiiiliifiuni wre ptaseJ to diveatingi Ib< 
wtib ^wJIfwrr, u]<J ' tj nMtnto immfrAk 
" iBcriiMtifwi of dw InhafdUntrt uf Um dtjr 
^ ' Tbin ootbnak of smoltpox and T«fr 
to have tmlaided log«tur, for Cevm 

lifta* vvarvrtwo, tSmUpas was 

to Lflt^im. XcMlcaL nSBL 



1h— tw h flii i l w lwu i T Of rt wipTriiiltow 

TaiAatinn, Ail »• dntht ft«« 8b&^ mt* l»* 
oord0d ift lb* ISIk of UvtatitT Wt«Msi 1S»T Ri»i tb* «aA ^ im. 

flfto*; tlM mortftlttf bMttf ecmfln^d to «a taudl a inuMbfr li^ IM 
Mriy *Dd cdladiriTO «4oftooa ol VMwnAtiaii Wbm ik» ikiunT «•• 
MhwCjAt hkal. Frocn Uu jMr of 1813. iX vk%y W Mil, Ut*ra 
WM BO SnMJIrox in XorwieU a&tit lb* rte* of tti* «|4linii« «hUli 
I ^iropoKdi 1o daicribd. Nat ft d«kl£i frQEn tliB riiMft*« vtm (ll^^<'4■i1 
for fciEir j>t»n, inJ^dit lh# inly evui tbat««mato myknovtotU'^H 
dnnng tba timo Bjwmfifl. vu tbft Mn^nt of ft MUbmtfld {mUtio 
cLomctDr. iil]j>, btinj^ Mixod with SmftllpOXt Vft«dMftla«il Iti Nnr* 
vicb, bi;t ^iB wbDia, «t fftr u I tjaM ]«Rra, tlio ootiUjctuQ iJbi 
Dot »itrm(J, 

r *h:iil pmHT.nlly tt-fiTt fn iKu numli'.^r of voof^infttloiui 
cfiecio'J in Norwich, and tf> their inrt'ioncc fn Arru4l1ti|{ 
Ujtox. Whftt 1 would now <]mw Jiltontion to in, iKu 
raUvc taritj of smallpox In Norwich In thtwi 
Ymto two, UiKc, and four oI&jmoiJ wilhoui a 
rfngh* il4*ftth fnim tho dUvMv? How t\om K\ich n fact 
aoconl with tho comnaon -place ol vnccirmtort, that {.H^for^ 
th«*ad%'eiktof J«aDeT tli« poopld of Kfi;^'l»nil wev« <lecimat- 
od with n&all'pox, anJ tbnt 40/KX> pcriiiHod uuintlly? 
Vbea we pn» loc ei^ikooe for tli«ae «xtnw>r<liiianr «tato- 
mentis, v# mthtr ^t no uikw^, or w« (JJAcover that ltii» 
morbdity of ft h«fl Tear ''^f I^^ndfjn ntnaJltxjih han tiWD 
uuIUnlMlijI^pupolaiUonof Ih-rnit^l R;n;C<lo<»*<^ 
jiMbEg a» <Mlfl»wlii^f totol of lOjOOQ Tiaiayi 0«r 
repl^ K Ami tboK k »a vnmxt wliai«v«T for thv fna- 
«ff LBBfc< «orUljtf into iittkiial noitaliiy; 

1W iiMSMT i«ml v^Mfty «U«, «v4a b tW 
lfttC«ft<iii«^ivdkw yprwkfc. y<MTi ptmt d wrtbootftdj 



ailvane^l, tlie fntHllj- arvl ilangtr at tlw? new inocnlntioa 
bacftma more And moro apparoit It bosAn to bo kni>inT 
tbab it not only faUcd t4> avt^rt Aianllpox.Iiut it frr-iviviitlj 
induced aenoua U1n«^, pennaoeal Injury, anil Kn^i>tliDM 
d^ftbh. It ia Co bo rcrn-^mberod that tne s/mptoim of 
vafwifintlon wcr© walchai nt Ihc outset of the praci 
with k<:tn attemion. aD<l that the (^enc^ml vi 
«>ipi*4^rulty £jf rM(>Uir?r^. wns ilistinr^blj^ iulvrr«i* ho it* 
leBancfu. That micU 'wub lJjt» common jiKlf^cnt^ 
nk&iiif««t fvi'tm the rftpiii (Icdino of t)>i? early fiirure m ii 
favour, anJ iLt contain |>tuout nugl«ct by thci itiiig^ of 
people unlil Tuviv^d an-i «nforoDd by k^Ulatioti. 
tho ciU^i^nH of XoTwich would not bo voocinai^d. it 
lioti^rmlncd to try tlic tf[*ici of bribery, und **ir^*^ 
Ili^Uy in M12 inJiic^l th" court of {^'iiardtait^ to owf 
rfjwanl tjf 2a, tJd, to every person '*who nhouM bnns I 
irHrLilinaLfl fnnn n flUTr;tvMi of Iwving niru- HiiltKfiiRtanlj 
through the cowpox," Tho i-o^ulta of tlih bribcij 
set forth AS follows by Croat- 
All rvGeIr<^ tlie ahujiI in 18LS 49 r«c«iveil the hcvi^nl tn 

4T ., „ \HU 64 « 

11 ,. ., l»lfl 1403 - 

340 ., ,. leia 

The larj^r numbers in ]8I3, *]^. anil 'Itl weru due 
panic and prc*.<iirc; but tho fi^iitos tnny bo Uk<?n for 
^aph]<^ ruprt^iTriLrtliou of tin? (listrust with which 
oinfttion was r«;*ardod af t^r aBipl« exporiono<\ Of coui 
inwiy were racciiiatcd whi> <iH not ctnim tho 
half-crown; and at tho end uf IMT1 U wa^ calctil&l 
10,000 in Norwich had sulfniittod to the Jcnnerii 
frnm th«' duU? of ib* iiiiru^Iuctluri at (he beginning of 
ccntuty. Tbua con^idoiaMy Icaa than a fourth of 
inhabilanLs wens what l^ cnllyd "protected/' 

Wo now cocuo to thu narratlvu of tliat f^roat ontl 
of amallpox, which, sa3^8 Cfo»t4, doatroy^d mon* livrv k 
tcM timo in Norwich than any npidomio tiU\<;f\ tht> Plaj«ii^^ 
It b almOHt Hupttriluous to dt^tc that thr ili.'^ram did not 
nriginatn ^n Norwich: it. n^wr apppfirn to i:iriginato ani 
wooro: it wn4 imported. A giri travelling witJi 





parents from YtyrU oAn^ht iha infe^rtion m tmnMt aI ■ 
mmrkot-towTW s^nl a^ soL>n c&s sbo amvoJ in Norvf ith wnh 
laid uj) witli Uio di^CjiA^ 

Ui4 ^artiMt cnju4 (if brisallpDi Uiol wam amo by miy m4«llf^ai iii*ii 
wcfD tnH»d to tkia ■■njno^ I have fccon iittlo t« ajccrtttiu tbo 
diS«r«iil foiaillea hy vljich tiio duoA^ vtn4 knpt up duHnf.' th« 
rtaaaiador of that your, but it ontani^bil to vory fnw. and prcA'td 
ft1»] ia ooJy Iwo ibtUncKx- A clru;:}:ixl irK>i7nIn1u[l Umn diUUi^U 
la JutUAr^-, ISIV, thut h«l|[iri^ id & tiimll di^jTuo to ^utva^l tb» 
ODDtagitic, fthkli tii0 B«i4<m of Uu yoor wm «ftlot:UL«d t^ ko«f> 
wkbitt nftOQW boondft 8dU no Ai«Tm ^ru oxoiloj ; n liogla modi' 
m1 mas only wna ao<|iipint4ii vitb tho Ji»iu«; tnd Uib cawstt of 
Smailnx wwn tt> r»w uit;l lit* lulMr «i3d of Poliroary u to bo 
«0*R«l^ notioid. At Llibi lifooi, hov«v«r, Ih* diittiUA fiilvidaJ 
fn»n oDo of OUT grattimtt nhnTily achoolt to lU <jnnrr»ra of tha oitf. 
, , . CorapftfftMvflJjf iloTm»nt dnring tlio trtntor w tlm toucm 
booMtao imldflr it bunt upon ui ■uddanlj And utioxpoetoJI^, 4^nii- 
tinnmi; iIh work of dpviwtntion for thrp* nr fdut mntilh" uitb iiti- 
i1imm:4hin|T fiir/- TIih foUjiwirtj^ Ittt of hiirinU tnWr fn«rn ihi* 
BiTU <if 7kfort*]rtj vill ici^-« » vofTjrinutly nwunle ido& of tha 
iulvftiio«» uul tl^iolina at iho dlsiMAJte^ 









Jjin»Afj\ - 


■ H 









Hiiu^cU. ' 



















Aibiraiti • 




Ce1ob«r, - 















B80 613^ lUAlA 

tt'^^l iiirirtAlity oncitritid la Juno vrb«n '13 worn bttrioil fram 
^ n Iti tni\.i vvrnk- Tim miitil ileoUritfon <jf the diwiiv» from 
porioil UobvJoutfront tbo ftbo^o U\)1e; slid it wiu kh ii^nily 
ntincH ot tti« ond of tiio ymr. tiint T rould nr>l find a vnrlciiJtM 
faliBUt trom whom it.i]n>r uould bu ptnnirod for ui import*nl oi- 
parimont. .Va iTfubnWj uiio jt* wi uf all whowftTO ftflbtttud by Uio 
opjjeiuii; irKcd of it, I \un iui.n iriL--Td ii h uvC fnr tiom t^lD truth ki 
BHtuil tlal <:t\i^alltia]>]y ov^i ^(JOI^ LmhiMujdA, ^rs Ihittuuuth put 
of thv nLu]vpupTUi:kt!^ilof Ngrn^o!i, luid SjajkllpL^K ta tLo >«ttr ItilV. 

the coAC ofainnt ti» at itn wonL; and as thw dreftilfal 
Norwich epjJp[rLia is cit^^I a£ evidence of what ia poftubl* 
in tho ikbficnoo of vncdnAtion, and a& soiniithin^ thil 
opporentA cif vAcomjttion hIiohM regftrJ &» conauKiTo 
fl^iut them, thoro is cttiisA to giv^ it spocial att^di* 
tic;n; And the more no &.*« the Iciuling factfl art well 
ftscerlalti^d. I^lrst, hon^evtr. 1 woiild reiiiark that 1 liive 
no dcairc to minimi.^c the hotrow of smallpox: it is A 
ItnitliMniiiT, and, luH^iiiw^ [mivmLildc. ji dUt^n-diLttltlr dw- 
easG: but neither lot as mAximtso iU horrors, tut trj, M 

Five hundred and thirty died in Norwich of auaUpox 
in IdlO of dDOO auppo^ed to have had tba dutafle^the 
dcAthtt beting, tm nomnionfv nitiinatj^d, ono in fivo 01* on 
in ^x o£ thoau afTectc-^L tliti dcfttli^ From all dtseoMB it 
Nurwir-h in lSl!>wiirrt i:i?i2— « mnrti^Titv nf :») pvrrlOOO; 
ft hi^li rfkU\ hut by no mcann uncommon in urltan popula* 
Uuji?^ fnw f nmi flnmllpjx. I have next to obw?rve (hat IT 
5000 had amalEpo?^, tliero w&ro 37,000 who escaped , and to 
&^k, Hnw ilid tixr.y t^navpp? Ov whul iiti^iuj?! v^'vrv: Uicj 
prot@cU<d ? It may he replied l^at a fourth of them wen 
^-accinntcd; hut how docs thftt account for th<? in^munitj 
of 30.O0() iiiivJi(TtTin,t(.-dr T1i£> 10000 va«>rinalloiw n- 
pntcd ti> havD been otfectod in Norwich from th« bo^bl- 
iiing (ff Urn iNiitiiry Wi-n^ tbr wnrlc of ucnrly iyvvnij 
Y<jajs, and the infijor t>art of thcui in 1>^U' must hAT« 
Won rcpc^iL'otcd by anullfr practically otit of the rangn 
oE Infection, protected not by vaccination, bat by tbair 

"Protected Vy their yviir«! What do yon int«n ?^«j* 
daiinA A Tcailflr 

Prtci^pfy what T fi&y — tliat in thi? Norwich epidoTDic. 
fts inrarioloua opidcmiMgcni?rnl!y. a<!filt« an> compara- 
tively M*uinr, aiiif thti youii;:, and especially infantfi, art 
tho victims. In Norwich, in ISJ9, ^cArcftly a bread- 
winner, or a father or mother wna bid in the grave alaia 
tv Kiitallf ox. 
'"It is incredible:" 



It b inci^ible dmplv t«caus« the f&ct^ of §mnlIpox 
art vtttihicnt\y overlooked. Here U proof t»f tlit In- 
credible in a [lUiFf^mt'rit ean-fully iirt'^rcO by Cross ol 
Uio ogefi of tbo 630 who diad iu the Norwich opidomic — 

Agnil frmif tWA to fotsr y^Ar«, - 

„ fnnr tA fcli yftftrt. • 

., rix In (sifhi years, • 

„ dffiil tc leu jvnni. • 

VI ten to fifti<«]i jxtnnt, 

„ flftwBti lo twenty ypiiW. 

„ lw«uty til Ujiiiy >«ftnt, 

,. thirty to fully ytiAnkt 



It will be wd, lu n matter of cournc. th^ If blicae 
children bad been VLLccinated tbey would not bftve 
porifthcd; bill tbc onMhcr la tbat at ^ia day the chief 
niortHJIty tjf AinnlljKix ii^ »iil<iu^ (.lir^ viurirmUd ymui^, in 
,^di^ Ufl vbfjio virtue of th<< riti^ luay U< euppoH^i to 
'tfHSl^Mll iiii*I i.'')icient Ctov< wan jin ertbu^^iM-^tic vac- 
cinator, but h« albw'rt, with du«j t-AeuKes, that Uio vbccId- 
aU'^ QiinoE-ity coiiullut^'l & certam i|Liotn to the aick nnd 
the dead, nnd timt Ihi? Ul rcputJt of vaccimition enured 
many in their tcrn>T to ii^oort t<i variolfttloD, and thus to 
iiictir und difTliiiA th^ misehtef of wliidi thi?y *toc>d in 
dread. Some old women and a dniggist were, ho baj>, 
leepuuubk- for fuur or Cva liuudiini at diu?«" trKationa of 
HmaJIpox dioing^ tli« epj^inie, -* each of which b<;camo a 
oenLro of conla^on.* 

Age^ I said, eomtUut«d the cbi^f prot^tion from 
tfUHkOpox, btit good bouM^ and ^ood faro forinc«i another 
Mat! of defeiic*^ " The elFpcti of llje Norwjcti e[iideiiuc 
iRoro oonfln^d (j/rawr£ ^jc/uf I'lvJ^ " says Crofts, "fa C^ tvry 
laVJimt oriicm */f lltf jinifUrJ* Mi>ri«ivi?r, he (ilaerrc* — 

^fankM WAA often Afcgrnvftlvl. and nkL>.i!ft lo *■»*">* lu VMit 
Jtor*. by tbo ami loEaJkioiu Utatme&t. Tbo pn^ndtoad 
and UiMt if;iii»rant bcuR tM ptinotpa] paQarvrK tbe jjrrKnpliontf 
«f old vonoflik wvr« mora lat«D»i to iLan tti« adiica vf loodioal 
mcD* A pruTtico icpl u]> by tndilAOii Aiaons lli« pxir of tlM cMj 



fcir tihovt A ttrttxiry wri raviT«d, in t%Ata at nit rpinftnunts««, m 

*'At tha or»mQ]«Tio«m<fnt, to tcttbr ol>Jeo( Wcrni i Ut^ Am u>l 
Rupj)ly it pUutifully wir)i KulTr.^a athI hranAjl-^ i..]"- ,.-,r ii)e ttrv^ 

with dnnndj. mid *toii thfl l*(l-**ni-[fllnt nlnin Lh ^ ■ . t.> pn^TMt 
JL breulh of *lr. Tci rIIow an fflinngo cif IinoH fcr un nr man iip;, 
uuTil iJ^G enipiicni IiaA lariicil: and tortgu^ tlwbulvy-nptccilo 
H ft costive «(ftU of Ujo l>[)wdB diifmg Uie wbo^ contM of Ikv 

Ajfvrn\nUi]. TLm iiUl tiiLn>nt IfiiinipluTil not h iltxln iit h&viH, 
oppoftuxiity (if ihff^n^ Uioir ddll after it lim! benii w los|< uai 
eiAcJ i liar WW it of^vc cvjr, nraong tlur Ovlacloil perioiu in irbcm 
^imljDA UiJA ftiHicUuD ouourrvd, to pontia<U or tompvl Uicin l» 
^opt n 4]fTvreiit pUu uf UvatmcQi 

voecinntion htiA hoi-ti follov.*dd \>y unqiJLt^tionabW mimU- 
-pay.. In one instoncc, a girl of d<?%xn yc^n of «^« 
corrt^ctl^' vaccinfttoJ iu botlj flrnt*^ porishod of iDnll^iunC 
aniallpcx, wliilat her \inv(icciiiftl»Ml brolhwr. «x _vcar* ci 
Agv» rucovorod from a furvcrr ntlitck. Hvvh i^xws in 1^19 
wcro tre&Ud na exc«pli'>nQl, l>uL tlicy bavt* l<>n;cpamd 
into tlr cak-^or^ of iiiatti:-r-of'i?ourse,niKlc«aM4l CooxcSt* 
ob£crvntit>» or utirpriHO, 

Such wau iht memorable liorwich epideoiItL Hov* 
ovcr<lr?iidfij],it WARin no wisw extraoniinarily dr««dfsl 
If iho vnti rAfnc:(l for a ein^Ie yoar. it iroilU 
}>^ rediicv^i in ftiibaejiiiiinl. yr>arH. and the averngt taio Ifr 
covcrc:ci thnt nconlcd wiUi tlic comnioD obctiit^acc of Uie 
ci>mitmuHy t<i l.hi? la.'ws uf health. In Nat-um coa* 
Boquortccs are oqiial^and nny t^mporaiy nlM^nation is ia 
Uif; JuTig run couipt^n-sntr-Li for. If vnccinntion couM tia^ 
kept siiialtpox froiu Nor^viclj. the citiz^ma wott!d ht.xt 
bad in aooe othur furm the ntcOAUic cf diacoae llint |h3- 
blhi4<d tv {In*!r w«y fit Hfi', 

VVu mi;;lvt< uion^ovon iiic|aire, whether to «Mapc IS 
epidMnir, «invrrr lU hh;tt nf ISIU, it wmdd !iftVt> been 
economical to put 4U,00[J ii^t^pli^ throu^^U the pamjiinnd 
pcrila of vaccina fevei; Why fihould a luiivenia) alQI^- 
tioD b<f mciirn^d to avi-vt a puiUal ont: t — an aJfliotJOt 



C4>itGii«<l to thr; yuun^ of thi; lower ortWr^. The vnccinn- 
tion of Norwicb from L5U1 to 1^1!} would Iiav€ co^t far 
morv nckncM And dcAlh thnn <Iid tbo smallpox of the 
Hftnie ytaiiK. In nliurl, if VAc^nnuLion Wl ronfiTn-d l^iu 
immuQity claiinc?i) for it, the pnc'.* <ri iht wilvFitiuu wunl'.] 


Hn. Wait'ii u^usMciiT'-^ujinaw, ISIIL 

ADl>nEfi3tNCS the JiniiBc of Cotnmona in 157S, }^ir Thomod 
CSLAinlHrm Eiuid, " Yinj I'jii^iiuL »h<iw tlinl Vtu/i'iiiatifm hits 
Kjiiueotl (lo^iihrt. or fsavtd & &iri;;]<j ltf<,\ Ttittc may hv na 
Smallpox, but 1]>c di»appv.a[&ijce of SuiaLll^rox ia bv ul> 
mcAiu ei|iilva]<:ni tu u rvducLluu of uiortuUty." SLlVti 
were jtAlvnialied and incicduloua ; but wiiurMitly. TUe^ 
fAcC 11 iticontcsitftblfl ; and I>r. Vtob^t Wfttt of OlfL*;;ow 
\tA'l the !iij;^nid diatinctlon of detecting imd netting; it 
liinh in tWjvarlSlS.* 

Wfttt wa^ writing a treatise on Chinoough, otl^crwiao 
Wbi»|nDj{ Coo^li, ami in ihe coum- of liin \Mjrt iiiadfl u 
c&refiil tXftrumatUin of lUo rogi«t^rii of doatli In Oiarf<;fow 
to OACcrUiLn how far it vtOA ti'iic " tljat tho di^^^V'"' wiw 
tnor« falal soiiif* yeAr*i than otJier*; tliat K waa more 
dan^T0U4 at n particular ago ; iviid that the fcnialc «cx 
■ufl'mtid more from it tlian tht) luale;" and, fnJtn tlie ovjt- 
ttti of hL» invvsti^tion* " icaj^ struck with tht iEninensQ 
DiJinlcnf cnirled olf jcJiilj- bjr thi; ft[nall["ox-" Hi: might 
well 1>e Atnick ; for Glaa^w was a rar« ploct; for Small- 

* An ft^4iy ii\rn ifir UfiAlttr JkffrtnUl^ qf t/u f'rinripnt IhtfOmi ^ 
CaiUmi, Qtut iAp num^t'T* u-ho hnty tiy.i nnitrr Tth J t*xf* af Ajf in 

LrctortT ©ti tJiC Thi»rr mwl on tho Prmtic* <>f MaJidno iarijtff'OW. 

^1 440 VACCINATtCW. ^^ 

^^H pox, OR nppcfirs from Uic following atat^aicnt OOtnpilod ■ 
^^^^ from WiiltB TabiM— ■ 

^^^^B DKLi^fft IV GuHciow TOft T«v TwAnt. tTBS-1T99. | 

Vtm- tkm. JVfv^ 

^^^^B I7t« ISfi 06 153 

4Tt» 719 Itlf 

^^^^1 17M 125 

ir?X »77 10MB 

^^^^H iTSfi U» JU 

570 741 1553 

^^^^M ITSB US 3 in 

700 fUl ias3 

^^^H 179T Ill) %A 

7411 inm iwt 

^^^^H 17B8 aao 

77U 1059 ItlflS 

^^^^H iTSa sou 211 4A 

7W it)5#i ivaa ^ 

^^^^H iToib aati ad i7t 


^^^^1 ,...» OOT 117 

[|»4 IMT St4^^H 

^^^H 1799 fiH 58 08 

064 00ft JL^^^l 

^^^^^ ToUl, ... aUA £11 8fii 

72aa 0019 irifflff^^ 

^H The fluc<!«ediB2 ttii y<aarft, lidS-ISOS, reri«At much the 1 
^^M sacoe tote, mtI>,lto^evv;r, a diminution of mortaliij ifil 
^^1 an iiL^n^viing j>apuTiLtion, and n. iWrnuw in smallpuxfl 

^^K^^ with en incrcftfio in incBtf IcA arid u-hoopiD^'^^^i!^ ' ihufr^J 

^^^^ft Djc^tiik di Quaoow ron Tts Tba». 1T>S-UI09^ J^^I 

^^^^ ma ».... 889 Hi 907 112(1 m^^l 

^■^ 1794 .,..« 285 7 fil 5G8 759 HC^^I 

^B 1795 403 4a 180 7IS1 IfHS IJO^^H 

^H ITDO ITT d% GO &a2 T9T IM^H 

^^^^ LT9T >».^ a5i 5 TO AdG JJ»1 l^f^^H 

^^^^B mS ,..,.. 909 OB , OU HH liSO^^H 

^^^H tTOD 870 48 Ofi < TBS 1105 Iddfl^H 

^^^H lAih) :I57 31 27 TU l^Sl^^H 

^^^B 1J^>1 !i45 » lfi5 4LH TGC i^^^^H 

^^^^ 1802 1» iCd 00 . 5«t 0^ ITT^^H 

^H Total. .M aaOi 808 014 C3TT ?050 IG^oi^^l 

^^1 Oon^dcdng these H^to-'i said Watt — ^^| 

^^H I tvmiLfkod tbnt tJi« Jonllu by Siu&Up^ WOTO chi*tij in lOfl^^^^ 

^^H lioiitfo tbo doDlIi« tiQiicr two or llir*« y«ii» of w bon * ^^^70^1 
^^H pr«]ici>rtiot] to th» vhoU doathA in tb> <^ity- T^ug ui AV«ra£t «^ 

^^H MVdral yoATVp 1 fiMind that mcint tliac liaJl tli« LunuLti «pi>cjcA ilwJ B 
^^H biiToro Lbcy vtit loa jvoafu ot »gO. an*! that c>£ Ibu fatilf iuor4 thm & ■ 

^^H thinl dtml of IliD 8rujiltp«i ; lo tliol nnuLy tv fift^ p^rt of mli litMlM 

^^M war* burn ».\tv* pnHthtil 'iiy tlii* diviulful maladj. fl 



Watt rnr^nt of connc thr human npccicx sa exhibited 
In GU^gow, of wliocu \i\<iTv tiknit half ined before ttie age 
of ton« and a fifth o£ Bmallpox. What was truG for a 
time of 01jL>^iivr MiiJiU[K^x WAA iiot cvcD ttUQ ot Rcllri' 
bur-'li, iituch iu^A of the whole earth. 

\anolatioQ wm pinctj^cd in QIaa^ow^. but to wlat 
^xttDt appcAT^ to be unknown. Certain, howev<!t, it la 
thatan^allpox wa^ as litllo dreaded 03 arc other caiamitios 
jussjnmlril c^euiiiimil mid uiiiivpuiablr, TEidri'iliimuy wi-n^ 
not UQvriltinj; to fluhjijct their offapriui; to tho dlaea^o at 
seosoDs HUpposcul to be favourable an tbu principle of 
"gottJn^ a bad job over." Then, trto, the mow of the 
population wOA dbpoacd aa if by design for tho genera- 
tion of fi'brihr lulnic-nt*. Tall huildlngx forming narrnw 
lautta. vf/ndtt. or closes U^uod liko bo ntoiiy r^^iiU or 
flsNiire^ from the lending thorooghfarwi Thi?w bnildings 
troTo divided into flata packed with humanity from 
LaBement to aUU". Air juid light wt-n- Iriialwi na nupj^r- 
fl«ities, Water there wan none> savo what wiw brotit^ht 
from wrM*; and niidiit^Hf" roCMVcrd tbo -ilfiiw and refuse 
often shot from (h* window*. Life In a ulasffow wynd 
ID former daynis indcscri i>oblc, yea almost inconc^ivablft; 
yet in Hucb wymU iti